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tv   BBC World News America  PBS  April 24, 2015 2:30pm-3:01pm PDT

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>> this is "bbc world news." >> funding of this presentation is made possible by the freeman foundation newman's own foundation, giving all profits from newman's own to charity and pursuing the common good, kovler foundation, and mufg. >> build a solid foundation and you can connect communities and commerce for centuries. that's the strength behind good banking relationships too, which is why at mufg we believe financial partnerships should endure the test of time.
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with time comes change. what matters in the end is that you are strong enough to support it. mufg, we build relationships that build the world. >> and now, bbc world news america. anchor: this is bbc world news america. i'm katty kay. the conflict in libya drives many to go across the mediterranean. reporter: for many libyans, it is the neglect here that is partly responsible for european debt -- the dead washing up on european shores. katty: it was one of the bloodiest battles of the first world war. today, they gather to mark the hundred years since
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anniversary. ♪ ["space oddyssey'} ♪ katty: commander chris hatfield is here to discuss his own space odyssey. welcome to our viewers on public television. british and german ships are preparing to sail towards libya as part of the stepped-up response to the migrant crisis unfolding in the mediterranean. they are making for the waters off the coast but the problem starts in libya itself, where violence is driving the migrants to try to escape. reporter: four years on and the scars from the battle with moammar gadhafi still show. the country fractured
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with two rival governments and the hope is in ruins. back in 2011, the coordinated airstrikes from this nato camp. he says libya has been forgotten. >> europe abandoned libya. now they are raising their voice, saying they are causing a big threat to europe. the reason for this is because you have -- reporter: these weapons are museum pieces, but the way of the gun still rules here. city against city, tribe against tribe. western interference was not welcome. for many libyans, it is your's neglect that is partly responsible for the dead washing up on european shores. government collapse allowed
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people to be smuggled by people smugglers. this for -- before the islamic state drag the world's attention away from here. it is far from the mediterranean where you will find the roots of libya's crisis. libya's border with the rest of africa is open. we joined one of the few patrols . it runs only part-time. >> we have few resources. what is done comes from us, volunteers. there is no government here in europe is not helping. we need more help. reporter: libya's warning is that for as long as its borders are unsecured, europe's will be, too. anchor: for more on the
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situation, i spoke a short time ago with chris, the associate director of international policy at the rand corporation. i want to pick up on the idea that there is instability in libya that will flow into europe? chris: i think it is inevitable. the biggest interest that our european allies have in libya right now really is in the migrations that we have been seeing over the course of the last couple of weeks. there is a humanitarian aspect of that. there is the migration aspect. there is also the worry that eventually some kind of a radical islamist group could use that as a gateway into europe. anchor: we have two rival governments, one in tripoli, one in the tripoli -- one in the east of the country. what is the prospect of stability in libya? chris: i'm afraid they are not good. that is the sad truth. there is a you and peace
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negotiation going on right now. i think all of us hope -- a u.n. peace negotiation on right now and i think all of us hope that we can go on that and bring some modicum of stability to the country. the prospects of that peace agreement are not all that high. katty: what worries you more, the divided government or the rise of the islamists? chris: they are closely linked. i think it is the divided government that allows space in which i sold -- in which isil can capture more than one town in libya right now. it would be good if we could fix the civil war presented by the government first and then start to do with the terrorists who were there. katty: you have written about the prospect of libya being the middle east's next syria. chris: it is sad. it could become the next molly on the mediterranean. that is something that -- the next somalia on the
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mediterranean. that is something that we have not seen yet. we got to be focusing on it right now. things could be getting worse. katty: what could the west and the united states be doing, and do you agree with the charge that there has been too much western neglect since the overthrow of qaddafi? chris: i'm afraid i do. i think the initial intervention worked well. qaddafi was gone. nato worked effectively. the difficulty was that in the months following the intervention, because it was so successful, people thought everything was fine and it was not quite the will that was necessary to invest in libya post-conflict. now the options are much different. it would be much more difficult to deploy stabilization forces in the absence of a peace agreement. if you did get a peace agreement, stabilization force would be my top choice.
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another option would be full-scale intervention. quite costly. the other is containment. that will be problematic. katty: thank you for coming in. it was one of the first world war's bloodiest campaigns when more than 100 30,000 people were killed and nine months of fighting. -- more than 130,000 people were killed and nine months of fighting. people from australia landed on the gallipoli peninsula in turkey. they were met with disastrous to fee. prince charles was among those who mark the anniversary. reporter: an officer wrote in his diary, a beautiful morning and not a breath of wind. two companies were towed into the shore. they were slaughtered like rats in a trap. for a bloody months, men fought and died here. >> it was alive with bullets. >> we live like animals. we were skin and bones.
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i was one of five at the end of six months that lasted, out of 1100 men in my battalion. ♪ reporter: 131,000 men die gallipoli, from indian villages to the furthest borders of the ottoman empire, from the islands of the south pacific to lancaster middletown's. >> they were shot in helpless batches while they waited. we could not even use their rifles in retaliation since ascendancy had clocked to our action. reporter: time has made wrecking asian of mutual sacrifice possible. british royals join the president of turkey and ireland. australians and new zealanders whose identities were powerfully shaped by what happened here. from the hms bulwark, a signal for a minute's silence.
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time to reflect on those who serve. like ronnie fade, a 15-year-old naval cadet. >> above all, don't worry. i'm mostly happy and would not be anywhere else for the world. take care of yourself, dear. reporter: the day after he wrote that ronnie was killed. >> it is just to think that he is reassuring about his family. he would be worried about himself but he is thinking of others. reporter: andrew horne was an army doctor. in newly independent island, his sacrifice was about. would he feel proud? >> he would not be able to believe that he was getting recognition at last. they all were so quiet when they came home. reporter: it was a battle which the allies launched hoping to quickly and the war. it turned into a disaster. the words of a war protest read
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by a prince was seen battle. >> tomorrow we must stagger up the hill to many trench -- to man a trench and live among the like. it may be that we shall never swim again, never be clean and comfort to the site. reporter: the story of gallipoli means different things to different nations, but 100 years on what is palpable here is a profound respect for all who died in this place. the sacrifice of gallipoli belongs to many countries. its lessons blog to us all. katty: remembering the tens of thousands who were killed there. the french president francois hollande has called for the killings of armenians by turks a century ago to be recognized as genocide. he and vladimir putin joined
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them in the cattle. 1.5 million people were massacred when they were roundup in the first world war. the idea is rejected by turkey. police in italy have detained nine suspected islamist militants from afghanistan and pakistan in a major anti-terrorist organization. they were suspected of carrying out a bomb attack in pakistan that killed more than 100 people. the group had also been planning to attack the vatican in 2010. has the american dream becomes simply a myth? yes, says economist joseph stiglitz. in his new book, he argues that america has more economic inequality than any advance country on earth. because of that, the u.s. is no longer the land of opportunity. what should be done? thank you for coming in, professor. compare inequality in this country to inequality in
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european countries. >> the u.s. has greater inequality in income than any of the other advanced countries including the countries of europe. i think what a lot of people find so surprising is that it has among the lowest level of equality of opportunity. katty: this is the land of a opportunity and the american dream. >> right. the chances of a young american are more dependent on income and education of his parents than in almost any of the other countries. there are two other countries at the bottom of the pack but we are very far down and almost at the bottom. katty: what is so interesting in comparing europe and america is the social response to this, that there is an feeling in america that the rich should pay for the inequality rather the year. >> i go todavos, which is a
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gathering of the -- katty: the superrich. >> there was a report of a bus of about 80 people at about half the world's wealth. of that 80 people, a large fraction were there at that time. what is so interesting is that they surveyed people. european businessmen identified inequality as a risk to the global economy. i don't have a sense that in the united states there is that sense although it is growing rapidly. what is interesting to me is that while i've have been talking about the issue for several years, this is the first time that inequality appears to be rising into a key issue in the campaign for 2016. both republicans and democrats are talking about it.
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katty: you talk about the roots of inequality. we know that middle-class wages in america have been stagnant for decades. when do you think the tipping point occurred? when was it? >> around 1980. basically, the united states tried an experiment at that one. it was an experiment that a lot of economists like me thought would not work, but the experiment was if we lower the tax rate to the very top, we stripped away the regulations we would incentivize the economy more. yes, we would end up with more inequality, but the size of the economic divide would be so much greater that even the middle even the people at the bottom, would be better off. now we have had 1/3 of a century of that experiment and it has been a failure. growth has been lower than it was in the decades after world war ii and equality has --
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inequality has grown to such an extent that income in the middle is today lower than it was a quarter century ago. for the quarter of a century the typical american has seen stagnation. katty: we will see this on the campaign trails. thank you. you're watching bbc world news america. still to come, getting a request at some of the oldest art ever found hidden deep in southern france. we go inside a cave few have ever seen. trials of a malaria vaccine have reached final clinical stages for a first time, suggesting it may offer partial protection to young children. data from the trial shows the drug protected about 1/3 of the children vaccinated. malaria kills over 500,000 people year in africa. getting a vaccine even this far is a scientific milestone. reporter: scientists have been
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developing a malaria vaccine for more than 20 years and now promising signs that they are reaching a milestone. pharmaceutical juggernaut glaxosmithkline has spent hundreds of millions of dollars on what is likely to be the world's first shot for the mosquito-spread disease. the trial showed the vaccine protected about 1/3 of children tested, results that scientists are not all happy with. >> the results are disappointing. we had high expectations from the vaccine, so the level of protection provided is lower than we expected. reporter: malaria kills half a million people a year. even if the results are disappointing to some, there is no doubt that scientists have come a long way in fighting this clever parasite. >> even with the effect of the
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vaccine is a percentage of those, 30%, if you convert that into the number of malaria cases saved, it becomes a significant contribution to the control of malaria. reporter: health effects of the vaccine are unclear but if the european medicine agency is satisfied, it could be made available in october. katty: as we reported last night, today marks 25 years since the hubble telescope launched into orbit, which gives us a good excuse to look back at some of the incredible pictures it captured. it is not the only eye up in the sky. among its countless other duties, astronauts aboard the international space station are task with sharing the view.
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it is a job that commander chris hatfield to great joy in posting on social media. he is the author of "the astronaut's guide to life on earth. go we are -- in space, you say the favorite thing you did was take photograph. cmdr. hadfield: things happen too fast. if you rely on your relation to -- your memory to, it is gone. if you rely on memory, is gone mike that. hopefully after you and you realize you have 30 or 40 years to look for all those pictures and see what you saw. it is not just the magnificence of what you were looking at, it is also the rarity of it and the
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desire to capture it somehow so that it is not lost. katty: not the same as the pictures from hubble, but i've seen the pictures in your previous book and they are magnificent. you put many out on social media and it became a phenomenon. i was surprised in this book it was not nasa that set you up with a social media strategy, it is your son. cmdr. hadfield: social media is fairly new. it is both poorly understood and poorly used almost universally but it has tremendous potential as a means of communication. it is a two way communication with the world, which no one has figured out what to do with it yet. katty: they told you to go up and communicate? cmdr. hadfield: it was interesting to look at what i'm doing through the eyes of my kids. how come you're not telling anyone about what you're doing? it is in the newspapers. they do not read the newspapers. if you want to use social media you should always ask someone
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after eight. if you're 25, ask a 12-year-old because they are using it anymore revolutionary wave in your. katty: i asked my nine-year-old. we would be missing an opportunity if we didn't talk about space odyssey. ♪ cmdr. hadfield: it was a crown sourced -- crown sourced idea. it was not my idea. i had never played a bowie to do my life. my brother and i had written a christmas care from space so i slapped and ipad on the wall and i played it in one take. my son put it out on sound cloud or whatever. as soon as people on the web heard that that was a musician on the space station recording suddenly there was this undercurrent of demand. you have to do a cover of major
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tom, which is "space oddity." katty: you talked about the problems of your body coming back from space. one day for every in space. cmdr. hadfield: you get three to one try to grow your skeleton back. i was in the space for the better of six months and it was the better part of a year for my skeleton to grow back to the density before. there was not an astronaut in the world that would not make that trade-off. it is a tremendous chance to try to understand the rest of everything. katty: thanks for coming in. cmdr. hadfield: nice to talk with you. katty: a man who loves what he does. to a marvel that is right here on earth. in southern france, a cave contains some of the most remarkable cave paintings ever found. actual cave is close to the public to protect the drawings. a replica has opened and rebecca
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morel has been able to compare the two. rebecca: on a journey to one of the most important prehistoric sites ever discovered. it is hidden deep within these limestone cliffs. until recently, the last people to set place in this place were paleolithic ancestors. >> it was shut for tens of thousands of years. this place was discovered by cavers in 1994. it was open to the public immediately. very few people have ever been allowed in. it is absolutely spectacular. on top of its natural beauty, the cave's most breathtaking feature is its art. hundreds of images and on the wall, most of them animals.
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they are surprisingly for sophisticated. these were painted 35,000 years ago by early humans. it is some of the oldest art ever found her to -- found. opening it to the public or destroy it. >> we risk contamination. the climate would be disturbed so much that we could have alteration of the painting. we don't want to take this risk. rebecca: now the french authorities have found a way to preserve and promote the cave. they built another one. the stadium-sized replica costs 55 million euros. it reproduces some of the cave's most important features to scale. it is usually impressive -- hugely impressive, this collaboration. the walls aren't made from rock. they are made from concrete and resin. 3-d scans were used to create a digital map of the cave and
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sculptors and artists brought the natural features to life. photos of the ancient art was projected onto the fake rock. it took months. >> you see the art and the environment, the darkness, you have fresh air and humidity. it is an important part of the feeling we had in front of the original. rebecca: back in the original cave, and it is full of the echoes of history. with so few privileged to experience this, the hope is the replica will bring a glimpse of the past to the wider world. katty: very beautiful. i have been lucky enough to see those cave paintings in southern france. if you get a chance, do go. they are remarkable.
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that brings the program to a close. you can find more news on our website. i am katty kay. thanks so much for watching. have a great weekend. >> make sense of international news at >> funding of this presentation is made possible by the freeman foundation newman's own foundation giving all profits from newman's own to charity and pursuing the common good, kovler foundation, and mufg. >> they say the oldest trees bear the sweetest fruit. at mufg, we have believed in nurturing banking relationships
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for centuries, because strong financial partnerships are best cultivated for the years to come, giving your company the resources and stability to thrive. mufg -- we build relationships that build the world. >> "bbc world news" was presented by kcet los angeles.
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captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc >> woodruff: the cruel reality of war fought with drones. debate intensifies over the cia mission that killed two western hostages in pakistan. good evening, i'm judy woodruff. also ahead, a somber day for armenia and its people who remember the massacre of millions. a memory of a "monstrous crime" that cannot be forgotten. big data solutions to fight malaria, from satellites to on- the-ground reports, targeting treatment and mapping areas where people are most at risk. >> you actually when a case


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