tv PBS News Hour PBS May 6, 2015 6:00pm-7:01pm PDT
captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc >> ifill: coping with a historic drought. california mandates major cutbacks to reduce water use. good evening, i'm gwen ifill. >> woodruff: and i'm judy woodruff. also ahead this wednesday: a big hit for one of pro football's star quarterbacks. the n.f.l. finds tom brady likely knew of "inappropriate activities" to give the new england patriots an edge. >> ifill: plus... >> here's your tall hot americano. >> ifill: a college education within reach. starbucks offers employees a chance to earn their degree without the burden of debt. >> the role and responsibility of a for-profit public company can't be just about making money. >> woodruff: and, trading tobacco for vapor.
e-cigarettes promise smokers a nicotine fix with less risk, but how harmless are they? >> if you think that you're picking these up because they're glamorous and that you're not gonna have any downstream or long-term effects as a result of this, i think you kidding yourself. >> ifill: those are some of the stories we're covering on tonight's pbs newshour. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: at lincoln financial, we believe that you are the boss of your life. the chief life officer. in charge of providing for loved ones. growing your nest egg. and protecting what matters the most. lincoln financial is committed to helping you take charge of your future. life, income, retirement, group benefits, and advice. lincoln financial. you're in charge.
>> supported by the john d. and catherine t. macarthur foundation. committed to building a more just, verdant and peaceful world. more information at macfound.org >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions and... >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. >> woodruff: the mayor of baltimore asked the justice department today to investigate the city's police department. that follows the death in custody of a young black man, freddie gray. mayor stephanie rawlings-blake said a federal review would show if the gray case is part of a larger pattern of police bias and excessive force.
>> i have systematically put in place reforms for this department and it's clear that more needs to be done. i will make sure that whatever they find we need to do to repair the relationship with the community and have a department that our citizens deserve, i'm determine to get that done. >> woodruff: also today, maryland governor larry hogan formally lifted the state of emergency imposed in baltimore after riots broke out. thousands of national guard troops and state police have already left the city. >> ifill: israeli prime minister benjamin netanyahu reached a last-minute deal today to form a new coalition government. it came less than an hour before the deadline. the agreement with a nationalist party gives netanyahu a bare majority in parliament-- 61 of 120 seats. his coalition will be dominated by hard-line and religious factions. >> woodruff: in yemen, shiite rebels seized more of aden, sending hundreds of people fleeing the port city. at least 40 died when a shell hit their boat. civilians have left in droves in
recent days as the combat escalates. aid workers report growing shortages of food, fuel and medicine. many of the refugees have fled to djibouti, where secretary of state john kerry visited today. >> we have urged all sides anybody involved, to comply with humanitarian law and to take every precaution to keep civilians out of the line of fire, out of harm's way, as well as to provide the opportunity for humanitarian assistance to be able to be delivered. >> woodruff: later, kerry arrived in saudi arabia to urge a pause in the fighting. a saudi coalition has been bombing the rebels in yemen for a month and a half. >> ifill: about 10,000 families have fled their homes in northeastern afghanistan, to escape a taliban offensive. a major battle is brewing in kunduz city, where militants and government forces have been in a stand-off for the past week.
>> woodruff: also in afghanistan, four men were sentenced today to be hanged, in the mob killing of a young woman in kabul. she was falsely accused of burning a quran and was beaten and thrown off a roof. her body was ultimately set on fire. a total of 49 suspects went on trial. eight were sentenced to 16 years in prison. but the judge dropped charges against 18 others, citing lack of evidence. >> ifill: a chilling new disclosure today in that march airline disaster in france. investigators now say the german pilot had practiced flying into a mountainside. tom clarke of independent television news, reports. >> reporter: we will never know exactly when andreas lubitz decided to crash germanwings flight 4525. but today, compelling evidence emerged that he rehearsed the descent that later killed 150 people including himself. using details from the plane's charred and mangled flight and voice data recorders,
investigators have reconstructed lubitz's actions on the earlier, outbound flight from dusseldorf to barcelona. just before 7:20, the captain left the cockpit. lubitz, now in control, put the plane into a planned descent. but seconds later, he set the aircraft to dive to 100 feet before swiftly correcting the settings. during the next few minutes, he instructed the plan to plunge four more times. then, less than five minutes after he left, the captain knocked to re-enter. lubitz reset the controls to the correct altitude. >> ( translated ): the captain didn't know because the copilot's test during the outgoing flight happened during a normal, preprogrammed descent and it didn't have any effect on the plane's trajectory. >> reporter: the report also reveals that lubitz ignored 11 radio calls from air traffic controllers and three from french air defense forces.
the investigation will now focus on how a mentally unstable man came to be in control of a passenger plan. and how a line between passenger safety and medical confidentiality can be redrawn. >> woodruff: back in this country, another oil train derailed and burned today, this time in north dakota. it happened near the tiny community of heimdal, forcing the 20 people who live there to leave. 10 tanker cars on the b.n.s.f. train caught fire, blanketing the scene in thick smoke. no one was hurt, and there was no immediate word on the cause. for the record, b.n.s.f. railway is an underwriter of the newshour. >> ifill: global concentrations of carbon dioxide have reached levels not seen for two million years. the national oceanic and atmospheric administration said today the monthly average crossed that line in march. it also said concentrations of the heat-trapping gas are rising at a record pace. >> woodruff: the federal government says reports of sexual assault on u.s. college campuses nearly doubled between
2009 and 2013, to almost 6,100. the department of education released the numbers, but clarified it's not that assaults are increasing, but that more people are willing to report them. officials credit enforcement efforts and improved public awareness. >> ifill: a bipartisan group of senators called today for an independent review of the department of veterans affairs. they said the number of backlogged claims for pensions and disability has decreased, but not by enough. republican dean heller of nevada said they're concerned that mismanagement discovered at the v.a.'s regional office in philadelphia might be systemic. >> we have reason to believe and i think it has been reported in the past that some numbers have been manipulated as far as these claims are concerned, you know change the dates and so on. we want to get to the bottom of those issues. >> ifill: the senators want the government accountability office to investigate all 56 of the v.a.'s regional offices. >> woodruff: a former speaker of the u.s. house of representatives, jim wright, has
died. the texas democrat passed away early today at a nursing home in fort worth. wright represented that area for 34 years, beginning in 1954. but in 1989, he became the first speaker to be forced to resign, after violating rules on reporting and accepting gifts. jim wright was 92 years old. >> ifill: on wall street today stocks fell on news that hiring dropped sharply last month and on a comment by federal reserve chair janet yellen that stock valuations are "quite high." the dow jones industrial average lost nearly 90 points to close below 17,850. the nasdaq fell nearly 20 points, and the s&p 500 slipped nine. >> woodruff: and, in a finding sure to trigger endless debate, a british study concludes hip- hop has had the most profound effect on pop music in the last half century. researchers analyzed roughly 17,000 songs from 1960 through 2010.
they say hip-hop's influence on chord patterns and instrumentation was even greater than the "british invasion" of the 1960's. >> woodruff: still to come on the newshour: california resorts to tougher limits to cope with a historic drought. a preview of elections in the united kingdom. probable cause found that the new england patriots deflated footballs. starbucks offers employees access to a college education without massive debt. the health hazards of electronic cigarettes as more americans trade tobacco for vapor. and, how the illegal ivory trade is closer to home than many americans might think. >> ifill: drought-stricken california has been working to reduce water use which by getting
residents and businesses to agree to voluntary restrictions. so far it's not working and now the state water board has passed emergency rules to slash usage by 25% in urban areas, the first time such limits have been made mandatory with penalties attached. the new rules can require cities and towns to cut water use by as little as 8% to as much as 36%. the chair of the california state water board joins me from sacramento, felicia marcus. what has been achieved since governor brown came out with the voluntary restrictions? >> we had voluntary restrictions, then mild mandatory orders to our local water agencies and on average californians did step up and saved around 9% which is significant, just not enough in the face of another dry year we're in. >> ifill: what areas of the state have been hardest hit? >> agriculture in rural california have been hit the
hardest through the course of this drought. we have hundreds of thousands of acres of soured fields, hundreds of thousands of people out of work. communities are running out of water and we're delivering water in tankers and drilling wells and running pipe. we're taking this action to give our large urban community extra resilience in what we know is an unprecedented drought in our lifetime, our grandparents lifetime but certainly not in history and the other countries. the australian experience in the 2000s when they thought they were in the usual three-year drought cycle, theirs lasted ten, 12, 15 years, depending where you are. their advice conserve early. don't wait as long as we did. >> ifill: is the cause agriculture's demands, businesses' demands or individuals, we think of car washing and lawn watering? >> i think it's more complex than that. i think we're in a drought of unprecedented proportions.
i wouldn't want to cast blame we're in uncharted territory and we have to adapt as we go. we have a lot of opportunities to adapt with conservation being the cheapest and smartest and fastest way to extend water resource, but particularly in the city all kinds of ricycling and storm water capturing and desalination but those take time to get off the ground so this will buy us time so we don't have to go to harsh or more expensive measurers like our friends in australia or saaão paulo are doing now where they have to just turn the water off for hours at a time because they're so low in reserves. >> ifill: with these new rules, what is the penalty for not complying? say people just say i'll water my lawn at night or i'll do something snells. >> well, i think there are penalties and i want to avoid that but generally folks step up when things are mandatory
regulations. we know voluntary gets you so much, regulations get you so much, there are a number of tools local agencies can use. public communication and community spirit does a lot and regulations help because everybody knows everybody is playing in the same ball field and everybody is expected to come up to the same norms. frankly, a lot of the bus communication and bus programs with the greatest results where communities have stepped up and engaged the public, explained why they need to do it and giving people a sense of what their neighbors are doing even goings so far as to threaten fines but allowing people to go to water conservation school like santa trues and they have had tremendous response from that and they're the lowest gallons per capita in the state and still have a vibrant community including landscapes. >> ifill: assuming every community isn't as forward-thinking as that isn't a hammer about -- does a hammer about to fall on you make you
act with more alacrity? if there are fines and whistleblowers, wouldn't that make people step up to the bat to use the baseball metaphor? >> absolutely. it is a piece in the continuum just not the only piece. i think there are fines in the background. we early on in our early regularslation gave authority to locals up to $500 to implement the prohibitions we enacted in the last nine months not watering -- hosing down your driveway when a broom would do, not having ornamental fountains without a circulating pump if they use potele water. hotels having to offer customers not having their sheets and towels washed every night and restaurants asking if someone wants water. they're common sense but they help build community awareness and spirit. the governor met with mayors
last week where he will propose legislation to give local agencies more enforcement authority and local enforcement tools, not all of them have alike, south an important piece but is part of a continuum that starts with and can't substitute with good communication on the part of the water agencies with the customers. >> ifill: felicia marcus state water resources control board, thank you. >> thank you so much for taking the time. >> woodruff: across the pond in the united kingdom, election day is just hours away. hari sreenivasan reports on a race that's too close to call. and one that could determine the u.k.'s future as a member of the european union. >> sreenivasan: it's the coveted front door british political leaders are vying for-- 10 downing street, home of the prime minister. >> keep fighting, we've got to go for it. >> sreenivasan: whether conservative david cameron will go on living there after tomorrow's election, and which party will control the house of
commons, is anyone's guess... but in the final flurry of campaigning on this election eve, it was clear there's deep discontent, and deep division among voters. >> well, the conservatives are making a reasonable job of sorting out the mess that labour got us in, but they could do a bit more to help the ordinary working people >> i'm afraid like most people i have decided that westminster needs a complete clean up, it's not working for the people, it's working for the bankers and the very rich. >> sreenivasan: the short campaign season kicked off in april, with all 650 seats in the commons up for grabs, and predictions of a deadlock, or "hung parliament," come friday. in order to govern by itself, a party needs an outright majority of 326 seats. but opinion polls suggest neither of the two largest parties, conservative and labour, will get there on their own. david cameron's tories have blamed britain's troubles on the labour government that preceded them.
>> i feel like the fireman. i feel like the firefighter hosing down the burning building and there's ed miliband the arsonist, the guy who lit the building on fire and saying let's do things a bit faster, you ought to be doing a bit more. >> sreenivasan: and labor leader miliband has answered in kind. >> i am going to fight every step of the way for a britain that can do so much better than it can with david cameron. now my opponents might want to start talking about the outcome of an election that hasn't happened; i am going to focus on getting the right outcome of that election for the working people of our country. >> sreenivasan: but it's almost a given that the outcome will mean forming a coalition that includes smaller parties. the liberal democrats, led by deputy minister nick clegg, are one of those parties. in the last government they joined a coalition with the conservatives, but this time around, they're not tipping their hand. >> we now need to await the judgement of the british people about what they prefer, do they prefer the stability the liberal democrats offer or the shambles and chaos of a lurch to the right or left. >> sreenivasan: the "lurch to the right" refers to growing support for "ukip," or the "united kingdom independence
party." led by nigel farage, its main objective is to leave the european union. >> we want to be good neighbors with our european friends, but we desperately seek a referendum so that we can set this country free from political union. >> sreenivasan: on the left, the scottish nationalist party. under 44-year old nicola sturgeon, the s.n.p. is riding a wave of progressive enthusiasm after last year's failed independence vote. >> a vote for this s.n.p. manifesto on may 7 will make scotland's voice heard at westminster more strongly than it has ever been before. >> sreenivasan: the s.n.p. surge has ed miliband struggling to hold labour's 41 seats in scotland, and ruling out any kind of deal with them. all of which left the candidates and the british people waiting today to see if a post-election shambles lies around the corner.
dan balz, correspondent for "the washington post" is at the elections and joins me. what happens tomorrow if there's not a clear majority and they have to form a coalition and likely strange bedfellows? >> it's likely there will be strange bed bedfellows and will likely take a long time. last year it took five days and this year it could take a matter of weeks to form a government. the matter is whether the conservatives who expect to win more seats will fall short of majority may have problems putting together enough for a majority government and may leave it in the hands of the labor party which is expected to run second but may have more potential allies to form the government. >> sreenivasan: what were some of the factors leading the smaller parties to gain in popularity and take away the mandate either of the two major parties would have had traditionally? >> well, there's a couple of things. the biggest single factor is the
earthquake that's happened in scotland where the scottish national party which just last year lost the referendum battle to declare independence from the united kingdom has been rejuvenated in this campaign and they're now in a position to win almost every seat in scotland tomorrow. scotland has been a strong hold of the labor party. that's the biggest single piece. the other thing is the liberal democrats which used to be the dominant third party in the country have seen their support erode as they have been part of the coalition government with the conservatives. and then you have the rise of the ukip, the u.k. independence party which is an anti-immigration anti-europe party which is polling quite strongly. it will end up with very few seats, but it has drained off popular support from the conservatives in some area and labor in other areas and some of
the support on the left that labor might have counted on in the past has gone to the green party. so you have a real fracturing of a system that over a century or more basically produced stable single-party governments and a strong, stable two-party system and that has all broken apart in the last few years. >> sreenivasan: so from an american viewpoint are there likely to be any changes in policy or alliance regardless of who's in power and the deal that they have to make to form a coalition? >> well, i think there is worry on your side of the atlantic over a couple of things. if this is a conservative-led government, david cameron who's the prime minister has pledged he will put forward a referendum on whether the united kingdom should stay in the european union. that will create a considerable amount of disruption. there is worry in the states about what that means in terms
of the inward looking britain as we'll see as they debate their own future as being somewhat robust in the world and what kind of standing they will have in europe whether that passes or not. i think the concern on the other side is that if there is a labor-led government that great britain would beless robust of an ally in terms of projecting power with the united states and places around the world, which they have certainly been over the years but there has been a backlash against what happened during the iraq war. so there's concern about the direction of the united kingdom and great britain no matter which way it comes out. there's a feeling this is a country that has more to think about in terms of its own future -- where is its place in europe, will it be a united united kingdom or will it break up with scotland leaving there are a lot of issues with nationalism
coming to fore. so britain is looking inward more than in the past. >> sreenivasan: what are implications on a global or foreign policy front of how the u.k. chooses to behave in light of what happens? >> well, i think one element will be the degree to which they are prepared to commit military forces in the fight, say against i.s.i.s. or other things like that. miliband has pledged to keep the fight against i.s.i.s. but he was very much against taking action in syria and used that -- used his opposition to the president of the united states as an example of how tough he is prepared to be as prime minister. there have been questions about is he strong enough to stand up to putin and in one of the interviews he did in the campaign, he said well i'm plenty tough, i stood up to the president of the united states on syria, so i think there has to be concern about that.
>> sreenivasan: all right, dan balz from "the washington post" joining us from london. thank you. >> thank you. >> woodruff: we have an online guide to thursday's election in the u.k. that's on our homepage, pbs.org/newshour. >> ifill: deflategate is back. it's been three months since the new england patriots won the superbowl. but the n.f.l. today released a report on the use of under- inflated footballs during the playoffs, and whether the patriots had an unfair advantage. the investigation found patriots employees likely did deflate footballs used in the team's conference championship win. and the report said patriots quarterback tom brady who denied knowing how the footballs got deflated was probably aware of the rules violation. jeffrey brown has more. >> brown: the report repeatedly singles out brady's connection with two patriots employees and implies he requested footballs below the standard level.
it also includes numerous text messages with those employees that suggest brady complained about the air pressure in regular season games. this exchange came after a game against the jets in october 2014. we've deleted profanities. a team employee in charge of delivering the football texted: "tom sucks... i'm going make that next ball a... balloon." an assistant texted back: "talked to him last night. he actually brought you up and said you must have a lot of stress trying to get them done.. ." mike pesca joins us again. he's the host of the "slate" podcast called "the gist" and a contributor to npr so more probable than not, right, that balls were tampered with, mike, that's the key phrase used here? >> oh yes. some people may be dissatisfied with that because it doesn't comport with anything in our legal system except what was the standard of proof for a report like this?
any reasonable person would read this and say, yeah seems like tom brady did it. the report is showing us the patriots pretty much did it and it's hard to imagine a way tom brady didn't know about it. so i think the language is trying to be as careful and precise as you can but you can't come away from reading this report with really making any other reasonable conclusion than this was going on and most probably with brady's knowledge. >> brown: and as a reminder, the team said all along that they did scientific investigations and said the weather probably caused the changes in the footballs. >> yeah. i mean, there are a couple of explanations, i don't know or implodsable deniability. so there's the fact that people love to hate the patriots but if you want to be very hard and fast about this, you would say the patriots cheated and then the patriots lied. does that mean they should get some sort of excessive sanction
or punishment? they will be punished somehow. they did cheat and lie. >> brown: before we get to the punishment, we refer to the patriots, but this report goes out of its way to say the coach bill belichick a polerrizing figure in and of himself, seemed to not know about it. >> yeah, i don't think he did. however, i point out where there were other situations where the saints had a bounty program and even if the head coach didn't know about it roger goodell from the n.f.l. said the head coach should have known about it and he suspended the coach of the saints for a year and a half over that. i don't think that will happen with belichick, but sometimes the n.f.l. holds the coaches accountable for what goes on under their watch. >> brown: what kind of discipline may come? we hear it could come within days. what's possible? >> the employees will have a
tough time with their key card, if it swipes and works tomorrow. i think they're embarrassed they criticized the quarterback. seems tom brady wasn't exactly a model citizen or fellow employee, if you want to look at it that way. i think there's a chance tom brady would get suspended, arguing less than the absolute definitive proof and he's a marquee player and it hurts n.f.l. not to have tom brady on the field. you could make the case belichick could face sanctions. i doubt it. there's a minimum $25,000 fine. they might pay a fine and lose draft picks. >> brown: we heard from patriots owner robert kraft, a prominent owner within the league, he is still not buying this at all. >> i don't know what that is. i don't know if that's blindness. i don't know if that's him thinking he has to stick by his employees, but, you know, he's
doing the thing sometimes the head of a corporation does who you know disavows any knowledge of it and disputes even what seems to be -- 243 pages this was a thorough thorough report. they have full records. we're talking about deflated footballs. the scrutiny is probably off the charts for this. i can't think of anything as heavily scrutinized for a couple psi of pressure. >> brown: hundreds of pages in the report. the inevitable question and debate for sports fan is to what extent does this tarnish the reputation of the team, super bowl champion and the great career of tom brady. >> i think that says to what extent did shooting people tarnish the reputation of billy the kid. this is their reputation. it goes up to the line. bill belichick goes up to the
line, in a couple of cases he's been shown to cross the liefnlt maybe he gets criticized more than others but there are a raft of n.f.l. coaches who do not bring up what he does. we could bring up the past misdeeds, the spygate story, the way he handles the injured list. he's an opaque character. the most accomplished current coach in the n.f.l. add it together, it's his legacy. >> brown: roger goodell will be making the decision. another black mark for the league which has had another a lot of problems. >> yeah, i think he will welcome the chance to be a hanging judge and a tough fist of justice in a case which, you know, doesn't include things like beating women and doesn't include child abuse. this is a funny kind of thing. it was cheating, it was lying, but no one actually physically got hurt and so roger goodell is probably saying, thank god i get to show i'm tough, i get to be the iron fist and we're really
not talking about a transgression that has ramifications for the rest of society, doesn't make us feel bad about ourselves. >> brown: mike pesca, thank you so much. >> you're welcome. >> woodruff: now from coffee to college. in our latest story in partnership with the "atlantic magazine," we look at starbucks' push to get their employees access to higher education. >> woodruff: it's 6:00 a.m. and 23 year-old markelle colum- herbison is already at the computer, getting in a little studying before she's off to her full-time job. >> i knew that the only way out was to have an education. >> woodruff: the plan had always been that mom and dad would help markelle pay for some of that education. >> we lived in a five-bedroom home, three bathrooms, two- story. it was beautiful.
>> woodruff: that all changed overnight in 2008 when the economic crash hit markelle's family hard. >> i remember signing up for food stamps. it was that bad. >> woodruff: today, markelle, is still living at home to help make ends meet. she is one of 21 million people trying to put herself through college. now, more than ever, the challenge for low income students and others is not getting into college, but finishing. >> american colleges are not really historically designed to make sure students finish. they are designed to enroll students. >> woodruff: writer & author amanda ripley has specialized in higher education. >> we have one of the highest college dropout rates in the developed world. we have 35 million people now who have started college and not gotten a degree. >> woodruff: for markelle, a scholarship to community college got her through two years, but she had no idea how to afford the two more years it would take
to earn a degree while working 40 hour weeks at starbucks. >> lily, here's your hot tall americano. >> woodruff: she is one of the first starbucks employees to benefit from a unique financial aid program started last year by an unusual duo. >> woodruff: the man who introduced americans to the grande latte, starbucks ceo howard schultz, and the president of arizona state university, michael crowe, announced the expansion of a program that will have the company pay for the college education of its employees. now, if they work at least 20 hours a week, all 140,000 starbucks employees are eligible for a four-year tuition-free online education at arizona
state university. >> the role and responsibility of a for-profit public company can't be just about making money. it has to be about giving back, and it has to be about achieving the balance between profit and social impact. >> woodruff: the very existence of the college achievement plan suggests few want to be baristas. schultz says he wants employees to get the education that will equip them to move up to higher- level jobs at starbucks. >> adam, i've got your venti skinny vanilla latte. >> our republic is built around the notion that the key to our democracy will ultimately be the education of our people and the advancement of our democracy will depend upon their education. well, its not working now. >> woodruff: the average college grad now leaves school with $30,000 of debt. at four-year private colleges, it goes as high as $100,000. 40 million americans have at least one student loan, with most juggling as many as four. >> what i noticed early on is people had a lot of shame about their personal debt.
and you have to peel the onion back and finally someone has enough courage to say, "i'm so embarrassed, but i have $5,000 in debt and i haven't been able to pay it off." >> woodruff: since the 2008 recession, student debt has jumped 84% to a record $1.3 billion surpassing even credit card debt in america. the personal consequences of not succeeding to finish or to pay it off can put a student in debt for decades. there is also a hidden emotional cost. >> people, i think, their self- esteem was crushed as a result of failing the first time and then being saddled with that debt. >> woodruff: if schultz and crow understand so well the stigma that failure can be for a student, how easy it is to lose hope, its because it goes back to their roots. >> i think when i sat in a room with these young kids and felt hopelessness from them, it took
me back to a different time in my life living in the projects of brooklyn, new york. i can remember as if it was right now. and i still have the scars and the shame of what it meant to be a poor kid. >> what they needed was a warm, welcoming, safe place where they could advance their personal development and so we created that with mentoring and advising and nurturing. >> every starbucks student gets an enrollment counselor, a financial aid advisor and academic advisor to help pick out classes. and then and ongoing success coach, as they call it, to help them deal with the inevitable problems that come up. >> there was a lot of pressure on me and it was scary to have to make those adult decisions and those grown up decisions without having all of that life experience. >> woodruff: that's a real challenge, too many colleges are good at everything it seems but customer service.
>> i think american colleges are confused places. they are trying to enroll students and they are very good at that. they are trying to garner research funds and they are good at that. many are trying to gain status and they are good at that. but those things often are at odds actually with helping students finish efficiently and thrive in the modern economy. >> woodruff: mario matus is markelle's personal advisor. and that has been the key to success so far. >> there's that fear of i'm falling behind, or this isn't what i expected, or maybe this isn't the right major for me. we want them to know thats ok that's part of the process. it's not just you on a computer on an island. you are part of a community. >> and it's really nice to have someone there through those hard times and there to celebrate all of your accomplishments. >> having someone in your court like that who texts you and calls you and checks in and is there to give you a little advice or a little support turns out to be hugely important. >> woodruff: nationally,
students who enroll in online courses are more likely to fail or withdraw. low-performing students or those who have previously struggled in college tend to fall further behind in online work. this is another reason starbucks and a.s.u. provide the advisors, although most are unable to meet face-to-face like markelle who lives near the a.s.u. campus. the goal here, howard schultz, is to move the baristas, the people who work for you, on and up out of the company. >> the goal of the company is not move them out of the company. the goal of the company is to give them new tools, new resources and obviously broader comprehensive education to do many other things within starbucks. >> woodruff: even though tuition comes at a discount, if students don't finish a course, they'll be even deeper in debt. perhaps that's why sign ups for the program started slow. in addition, initially, only students who already had two years of college credit were
eligible to participate. now any employee working 20 hours a week is eligible. and you wouldn't be doing this if you didn't think it would help your bottom line? >> that's exactly right. but i also-- i'm doing it because i recognize that, more than ever, that not only do we have to exceed the expectations of our customers but we have to: exceed the expectations of our people to succeed. >> woodruff: this can benefit a.s.u. at a time when universities face decreasing enrollment. >> i do think that in this case their business interest and their social justice interest are aligned. >> the american dream is opportunity, that is what we stand for here. we are a culture where anything is possible. we are setting new standards, it truly is the american dream and we are bringing that back. >> woodruff: hundreds of other workers like markelle will determine if that dream is achievable through the hard reality of online while working part-time.
>> ifill: depending on who you talk to, e-cigarettes are either: an answer for millions trying to stop smoking, or, the dawn of a new era of nicotine addiction. they are either: a threat to big tobacco, or may save it. as special correspondent john larson reports, either way, to the surprise of nearly everyone involved, e-cigarettes have been completely unregulated up to this point by the federal government. and that is about to change. >> how long have you guys been vaping? >> reporter: when craig majors was thinking about opening "liquid vapor lounge" a few years back, the e-cigarette industry had not yet caught fire. >> you cashed out your 401k, took a loan out on your car took all your savings... >> went all in. >> reporter: all in, selling a selection of products for vaporizing liquid nicotine. there was only a handful of so- called "vape" shops in oklahoma city at the time, but that changed, almost overnight.
>> three years ago, 10 shops. two years ago, 15. now, 200. >> reporter: in less than five years, vapor products and e- cigarettes have become the fastest growing sector of the $100 billion american tobacco industry, with hollywood pitch- women... >> i'm jenny finally found a smarter alternative to cigarettes. >> reporter: appearing in local superbowl ads... >> friends don't let friends smoke. >> reporter: and even in hbo's, "veep." >> catherine, are you smoking? >> i am vaping. >> reporter: in fact an estimated 20 million americans have taken up e-cigarettes and vaporizers. many motivated by the same thing. >> it helped me not want to go back to cigarettes. >> it worked. three years-- no cigarettes. >> it looks like we may have a product that could deliver nicotine to the lungs without combustion. so for some currently addicted adult smokers, if they could completely switch to e- cigarettes the-- this could conceivably help. >> reporter: and it's that message that the f.d.a. and big
tobacco agree on-- that e-cigs may be a safer alternative for cigarette smokers, >> we know what smokers want. >> reporter: and why robert dunham of reynolds american calls e-cigs the industry's holy grail. >> if you can deliver satisfaction to adult tobacco consumers in a way that poses far less risk, uh-oh. let's go. i mean, this has got to be the-- the billion-dollar idea. right? >> reporter: but despite the industry's runaway success, there has been little research and no federal regulation. two years ago, researchers at the university of california riverside discovered some vaporizing systems exposed users to heavy metals. another study from portland state university revealed vaporizing liquids at high temperatures, while uncommon, could expose users to high levels of formaldehyde, a known carcinogen. >> if you think that you're picking these up because they're glamorous and that you're not gonna have any downstream or
long-term effects as a result of this, i think you kidding yourself. >> reporter: dr. thomas sussan at john's hopkins university found in a recent study of mice that while healthy lung tissue looked like this... ...the lungs of mice exposed to e-cig vapor looked like this, showing evidence they were less capable of fighting infection. he also discovered free radicals, the same dangerous chemicals found in tobacco smoke. >> it was not to the level that we see in-- in conventional cigarettes. but the number of free radicals that we detected was seven times ten to the 11th, which is a huge number. so it's very likely that those free radicals are going to inflict some level of damage in the lungs. >> the f.d.a. has failed to recognize the impact of the advertising of this product towards young people. >> reporter: matt myers of the campaign for tobacco-free kids says according to the centers for disease control, e-cigarette use has tripled in middle and high school students in just one year.
an estimated 2 million kids exposed to nicotine. >> it's the way to be cool, it's the way to be sexy, it's the way to be independent, it's the way to be rebellious and it's the way to be just like everybody else. and it's no surprise it is appealing to millions of kids. >> reporter: nicotine has been proven addictive harmful to teenagers, threatening normal brain development. i imagine a parent of a teenager saying teenagers are what-- what's it gonna take to shut down this marketing? >> well, we share the concern. e-cigarettes should not be used by kids. and we were on the record last year of saying to get the proposed rule out took us longer than it should have. >> reporter: longer, because the courts overruled the f.d.a.'s first effort. the f.d.a. now is trying again proposing new regulations, which surprisingly do not address targeting teenagers with sweet flavors or advertising. >> i understand the-- the frustration that it's taking f.d.a. so long. there needs to be a little patience. we need answers to the questions that have been fielded in the many studies that we have put
out there, to have the full regulatory framework in place for e-cigarettes. >> have you ever had suicide bunny's mothers milk? >> reporter: visit any vape shop and you'll find hundreds of flavors, called e-liquids, or e- juice. some do appear to target the young, with sweet flavors like strawberry shortcake captain crunch, gummy bears. >> the industry is not targeting children. just because you're adult doesn't mean that you don't like gummy bears. >> reporter: a former rodeo rider and recovering addict sean gore is an advocate for oklahoma's vaping industry. >> you know, i-- i see adults buying-- you know, packs of gummy bears all the time. just because you're an adult doesn't mean that you don't like good flavors. >> reporter: and it is the growing abundance of flavors, variable nicotine strengths, and customizable equipment that gore says, is so popular. vape shops offer what's called "open" systems, so customers can pour e-liquids into open vaporizers.
big tobacco, on the other hand offers what's called "closed systems"-- the nicotine liquid is already enclosed within the e-cig. which turns out to be a huge point. because even as the f.d.a. is writing its proposed regulations, big tobacco is lobbying to outlaw the increasingly successful open systems offered by its competitors. >> we do have, and we've heard legitimate concerns from others, about the-- of-- the dangers of exposed nicotine. and that's one that we believe ought to be addressed. >> reporter: liquid nicotine is highly toxic. too much can be lethal. many of the new vapor entrepreneurs are small business. the owners of the vapor hut in oklahoma city, for example, used to sell snowcones out of this truck. now they have six shops, and a multi-million dollar online business selling 140 flavors-- which even the in absence of regulation, they are mixing in
what they describe as clean rooms. and, they're just one of thousands of new small businesses now competing with big tobacco. it feels like a million small businesses are crawling in over the walls into a business that you guys traditionally have relatively owned. i mean are they a threat? or should i say, how much of a threat are they to you? >> if we get our act together, the-- these guys are gonna be our-- our-- our future customers. there's no reason that those things don't want to-- to come together. >> and we're just gonna hand the industry straight back to them while driving small business owners out. it makes no sense. >> reporter: gore fears the pending federal regulations may force every small flavor manufacturer to spend tens of thousand of dollars proving the safety of every flavor at every strength. >> if that happens, you'll end up seeing, probably, five flavors. and really, the only individuals that will be able to afford the testing and getting-- getting the approval for those flavors would be big tobacco.
>> the notion that people who have no chemical training, no safety training are mixing concoctions in the backroom or their bathtub and giving it to consumer means we're doing a human guinea pig experiment on literally millions of americans without any knowledge of what the consequences are. if you're too small a manufacturer in order to be able to assure the public about what's in your product, then you shouldn't be selling it to the public. >> reporter: which brings us back to the public, and these folks in oklahoma who volunteered for closing portraits. all told us: vaping saved them from cigarettes. the government hopes to balance these benefits with the unknown risks. big tobacco says e-cigs are a small business fears big tobacco is trying to put them out of business. and as for the vapers themselves?
they do love the abundance of flavors, but want to know: what's really in this stuff? and how safe is it? for newshour, john larson, in oklahoma city. >> woodruff: it's a global crisis years in the making. poachers killing african elephants, a species on the verge of extinction, faster than they can reproduce. much of the money from the ivory trade goes on to fund global terrorism and criminal networks. it's long been known that china is the top ivory buyer. but the u.s. is also among the world's biggest markets. joining me now to talk about ivory sales in this country is the newshour's p.j. tobia. he hosts our newest podcast "shortwave." it's all about the intersection of foreign affairs and american life.
so, p.j., this is a fascinating piece you put together. >> thanks judy. >> woodruff: the black market, how much money are we talking about worldwide? >> it's hard to get a handle on any black market but it's thought to be worth about $19 billion. >> woodruff: most of it is in china but more than people realize in the united states, what are people using it for? why has it become of interest to these criminal and terrorist networks? >> well, the criminal and terrorist networks in africa groups like al-shabaab are interested in anything they can smuggle for cash. they need money to car reout their operations. they already have access to cross borders to smuggle people, drugs and guns and ivory is just another substance they can get cash from. >> woodruff: how do the transactions work. >> they know how to get people across borders, meaning they know what officials to bribe
they have transportation networks set up so they know the logistics of illegal smuggling. >> woodruff: here in the u.s. there are rules and regulations and laws around this but they don't seem to be doing the job. we should say people who are in the business of collecting antiques argue there should be a distinction made between avery collected a long time ago that's in a piece of furniture and ivory that's been freshly harvested. >> part of the problem is it's nearly impossible to tell with the naked eye when a piece of avery was harvested whether 1992 or 1892. you need sophisticated technology. and some ivory that's newer is okay to bring into the u.s. to import. if you shoot an elephant yourself on a game reserve that you've paid for it's a legal kill, you can bring tusks into the u.s. if the tusks are then made into an avery figurine and sold, that's a greyer area. >> woodruff: so there are
rules and regulations but your point is they're able to get through these is these? >> that's right. while the rules are in black and white, international trade is not. if a seller says a piece of ivory is from one date but it's from another, it's hard to prove different. >> woodruff: what's the significance of the craigslist report and how much work is being done on the issue? >> last month a week was spent on craigslist a group was trying to find ivory products and they found hundreds and it shows how easy it is to get it and how hard to regulate because if you're a seller -- i should say craigslist changed their policy because of this investigation, but if you're a certainly of ivory products, if you just take the word "ivory" out of the description no one
will know. >> woodruff: p.j., thank you. thank you. >> woodruff: you can join p.j. tomorrow to talk about another issue he's covered on "shortwave": modern day slavery. it's part of the newshour's weekly twitter chats-- that's 1:00 p.m. eastern every thursday. the details are on our home page, pbs.org/newshour. >> ifill: on the newshour online, the oxford english dictionary could be adding a new title that would join the likes of "mister," "mrs." and "ms." the authority on english language usage is considering the gender-neutral honorific "m.x.," pronounced "mix." read more about the history of that prefix, on our home page. all that and more is on our web site, pbs.org/newshour. >> woodruff: tune in later this evening, on charlie rose: the man who has been called "obama's secret weapon" in the iran nuclear talks: energy secretary ernest moniz. >> ifill: and that's the
newshour for tonight. on thursday, how the recent unrest in baltimore damaged the local economy. i'm gwen ifill. >> woodruff: and i'm judy woodruff. we'll see you on-line, and again here tomorrow evening. for all of us here at the pbs newshour, thank you and good night. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: >> supporting social entrepreneurs and their solutions to the worlds most pressing problems-- skollfoundation.org. >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions and... >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you.
this is "nightly business " with tyler mathisen and sue herera. >> on the rise. why everything from rates to the price of oil is heading higher. everything that is except stocks. cause for concern? companies added the fewest number of workers to their payrolls in more than a year. putting investors on alert ahead of the government jobs reports on friday. the whistleblower. meet the man who cracked open the secretive world of swiss banks, went to jail and said he would do it all over again. the first of a three part series is tonight on "nightly business re" for wednesday, may 6th. good evening, everyone. i'm sue herera. >> and i'm bill griffeth in for tyler mathisen. today