tv PBS News Hour Weekend PBS June 28, 2015 5:30pm-6:01pm PDT
captioning sponsored by wnet >> sreenivasan: on this edition for sunday june 28th, the greek government imposes restrictions to prevent massive withdrawals of money. also, california, poised to limit the reasons parents can refuse to vaccinate their children. and in our signature segment the origins of conflict in kenya's war with al shabaab. >> reporter: al shabab is extremely active here and it is recruiting young kenyans. >> by living here, it's like there's no hope of life. >> sreenivasan: next on pbs newshour weekend. >> pbs newshour weekend is made possible by:
corporate funding is provided by mutual of america-- designing customized individual and group retirement products. that's why we are your retirement company. additional support is provided by: and by the corporation for public broadcasting and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. from the tisch wnet studios in lincoln center in new york hari sreenivasan. >> sreenivasan: good evening and thanks for joining us. i'm hari sreenivasan. we begin in greece, where we see the strongest signs yet of a possible economic collapse. banks and the stock market will be closed tomorrow. the government has also imposed capital controls, in order to limit massive withdrawals of money. worried citizens have been standing in long lines this weekend, emptying out a.t.m.'s. two senior bank officials say
500 of the country's more than 7,000 teller machines ran out of money yesterday. european central bankers said this afternoon, they will no longer keep extending emergency bailout funds to greek banks, as the county is set to default on its first 1.6 billion euro loan payment on tuesday. it was part of the topic of conversation between president obama and german chancellor angela merkel this afternoon. all this comes after greek leaders voted to have the people decide whether or not to accept the creditor's terms in a popular vote scheduled for next sunday. we're joined now by elena becatoros via skype, she is the bureau chief for the associated press in athens. what does this mean, the stock market closed tomorrow? >> reporter: the banks and the stock market will be closed tomorrow and restrictions will be placed on how much money greeks can withdraw their bank accounts using atm machines. the prime minister announced it in a televised address. he said it came after a recommendation by the bank of greece. what he didn't say is exactly how long the banks will remain
closed and how much the banking transactions will be restricted. a few banking sources have told us that they -- the banks will probably be shut for several days, probably the entire week. >> sreenivasan: so if all these banks are shut that means commerce grinds to a halt. how do you pay for your groceries or how do the groceries pay their suppliers? >> reporter: it's very unclear at the moment exactly what credit capital controls will be in place. it's not clear what kind of transactions will be allowed, whether electronic bank transfers will be allowed. whether people can pay their bills or not. nobody actually has been told this at the moment. >> sreenivasan: there's also a gap here. on tuesday is when greek is essentially set to default on its first massive loan payment but the government or the parliament has approved a referendum that won't happen till next sunday.
>> reporter: yes, indeed. and the prime minister said tonight that he has renewed his requests for the bailout to be extended until the referendum is held. he even made the same request over the weekend earlier this weekend. and it was rejected by the euro group which is the other 18 finance ministers of the euro bank. so so far that hasn't been accepted. and prime minister alexis sip ras said tonight he has renewed that company. he it remains to be seen whether that will be approved. >> sreenivasan: we also see the european commission the bankers actually suble sized deal that's on the table kind inform an effort to show how far they've come to make greek solvent. >> reporter: yes indeed. the referendum, the way that it's been called at the moment has been the government is advocating a -- they're saying it is on the credit suisse
proposal. problem is so far until the commission actually publicized this document, there hadn't been an officially released document of what exactly this proposal was. it was all in the form of leaks to the press from brussels. and it also hasn't been translated in greek. so there might be an issue with that when greece has been asked to vote on a proposal that many of them, if they don't speak english, haven't been able to read yet. >> sreenivasan: so what do you see happening here in the next week? we've been talking about this for four years, five years now. >> reporter: i have to be honest. it was very unclear. i'm not sure anybody knows exactly how this is going to play out. there are several scenarios from the more reasonable to the more outlandish but if there's one thing this crisis has taught us is to expect the unexpected. it remains to be seen how this will play out. the chancellors of greece are
paying -- the debt on tuesday which is 1.6 billion euros is at this stage pretty high. >> sreenivasan: elena becatoros joining us live, the associated press bureau chief in athens. thanks very much. >> sreenivasan: large crowds turned out for gay pride parades and festivals across the country today, bolstered by friday's supreme court decision legalizing same-sex marriage in all 50 states. here in new york, onlookers lined the streets, as parade floats passed by. but amid the national celebration, a handful of politicians continued to criticize the supreme court decision. louisiana is the only state refusing to issue any marriage licenses to same sex couples. the state's attorney general says he wants to wait for a final supreme court order on the issue. this morning on nbc's "meet the press," louisiana governor and republican presidential-hopeful bobby jindal said he strongly disagrees with the ruling. >> i think the left is now going
to go after our first amendment rights. i think it is wrong for the federal government to force christian individuals, businesses, pastors, churches to participate in wedding ceremonies that violate our sincerely held religious beliefs, we have to stand up and fight for religious liberty. >> sreenivasan: in vienna, negotiations over limiting iran's nuclear program may extend beyond tuesday's scheduled deadline. iran's foreign minister returned to tehran today for further instructions. a major sticking point remains how much access u.n. weapons inspectors would get to iran's military sites. the talks among iran and the five permanent members of the u.n. security council plus germany. are aimed at curtailing iran's capacity to make nuclear weapons in exchange for easing of economic sanctions. french police are holding a 35- year-old muslim man for ramming a truck into an american-owned chemical warehouse in southeastern france friday. police say the man also beheaded his boss, as itn's jonathan rugman reports.
>> reporter: yassin salhi was forced to the ground by a firefighters and when police reached the greed they found the severed head of his boss hanging on a fence nearby. the victim of this grotesque attack was herve corn ora a 54-year-old married father of one. it's believed he was killed before salhi rammed his van into the plant in an attempt to blow it up. the victim and his alleged attacker worked here at this transport company, where salhi began driving vans in march. it's not known if these gas canisters were the kind salhi delivered and were seen yesterday trying to open and set alight. police sources say yassin salhi is refusing to talk about this attack. it's still not known if he was acting entirely on his own or as part of a coordinated wave of terrorist violence which may not be over yet. >> sreenivasan: in taiwan, officials are investigating the
cause of a massive fire during a music party at a water park in taipei last night. a warning, these images are graphic. amateur video shows the moment when a fireball ignited after someone sprayed colored powder over the crowd of at least a thousand people. nearly 500 people were hurt or burned, and today 400 remained in the hospital. no one was killed but eight people were reported to be in critical condition. in the south, four predominantly black churches have burned this week, investigators suspect three of them were set on purpose. federal and state officials are investigating a fire friday night that destroyed the glover grove missionary baptist church in warrenville, south carolina. on tuesday, a church in georgia was burned, and on wednesday, a north carolina church caught fire. that blaze reportedly caused 250,000 in damage. a florida church caught fire friday morning, but investigators ruled it accidental. in florida, an unmanned privately funded rocket exploded about two minutes after lift-off at cape canaveral this morning. the falcon 9 "space x" rocket was making a cargo run to the international space station, but
the blast destroyed the supplies on board. the two russian cosmonauts and an american astronaut on board the space station have four months worth of food and supplies left. russia plans to launch its own supply rocket friday. >> sreenivasan: it's pride weekend in new york city. see scenes from celebrations being held here and around the world. visit our website at pbs.org/newshour. on friday, al-shabaab militants attacked an african union military base in southern somalia killing dozens of troops. it's the latest in a series of attacks the militant group has launched within somalia's borders. but over the past few years, al- shabaab has also gone after malls, schools, and restaurants as it tries to exert more influence in the region. special correspondent martin seemungal explains the complicated history of al shabaab.
>> reporter: it has been two months since al-shabaab islamic militants targeted the university in garissa, kenya. a nation made up of more than 80% christians, it was the christians that the islamic militants were after, sparing the lives of students they believed to be muslims. >> reporter: cedric barnes is the director of the international crisis group in nairobi and an expert on al- shabaab. >> they knew that the people there would be mostly the people that are a long way away from home and probably, largely, predominantly christian. so it was very deliberate it was very cynical . >> reporter: 147 students were killed, shot, or hacked to death. among the dead-19 year old bilha gitau. this is her family's home outside nairobi. a simple building on a small plot of land. this is her father, godfrey. >> ( translated ): when i heard about the attack i was worried he says.
i tried calling her but there was no answer. >> reporter: he still struggles to understand, why? >> these people are not right he says. my daughter was killed just because she was a christian. i don't understand why they are doing this. >> reporter: al-shabaab, "the youth" in arabic. somalia's version of al qaeda, a group to whom it has pledged allegiance. they are a hardline islamic group preaching extremism fighting for power in somalia at war with neighboring countries. fuad shongale is a key al- shabaab ideologue alleged to be responsible for a series of terror attacks inside somalia. >> only when we fight the unbelievers can we be honored he says. if we do not fight them we will not be honored. >> reporter: anarchy erupted in somalia after the fall of the government in 1991 and the islamic court union, a group of autonomous courts formed along clan lines, managed to restore a fragile peace in somalia after
years of inter-clan fighting. but eventually that fragile peace broke down and al-shabaab emerged. most somalis practice a more moderate form of islam-sufism- and supported an initiative to form a transitional national government, completely contrary to what al-shabaab wants, to the way al-shabaab thinks. >> so they all believe that they are performing their islamic duty by fighting and that they are going to create a better society, an islamic society by undertaking armed jihad. >> reporter: in 2006 predominately christian ethiopia sent in its soldiers to help the transitional government, forcing al-shabaab from the capital mogadishu to its strongholds in southern somalia. but al-shabaab used the foreign intervention as a rallying point to attract supporters.
it is funded by somali individuals in the diaspora other terrorist organizations, kidnapping and piracy. as al-shabaab attacks continued african nations including kenya sent in troops that pushed al- shabaab back to the countryside. the group responded by making kenya a target. even today, al-shabaab continues to use foreign interventions to appeal to somalis and specifically to muslims. >> it's saying, we are defending you muslims. you happen to be somali, but we are defending you muslims from these interventions that come from unbelievers. >> reporter: in some areas under al-shabaab's control the lawlessness ended, electricity was restored and public works projects were restarted. but the strictest form of sharia law was also imposed, at odds with the way most somalis practice islam. even though al-shabaab continued to lose ground, they did not
lose the ability to launch attacks. it has assassinated transitional government officials, bombed government ministries carried out suicide attacks against soft-targets-- hotels in mogadishu. and the attacks have also gone beyond somalia. the westgate mall attack in nairobi, kenya in september of 2013 was carried out with murderous efficiency, the al- shabaab gunman storming the mall killing 62 people and injuring 127. witnesses said muslims were spared-- non-muslims were executed. kenya's president, uhuru kenyatta tried to console a stunned nation. kenyatta's own nephew was killed in the attack. >> terrorism in and of itself is the philosophy of cowards. >> reporter: kenya struck back shelling al-shabaab targets in somalia. internally, kenyan police and security forces intensified
operations in areas where many of kenya's ethnic somalis live. homes and mosques linked to suspected radicals were raided. cedric barnes says it was a very focused very intense government campaign against kenya's somali community. >> so you've had assassinations you've had arrests, you've had people being deported and you've had general harassment. >> reporter: the government denied extra judicial assassinations but the official line has been clear, the crackdown is part of a necessary, pre-emptive counter- terrorism effort. when the april attack in garissa came the loss of so many innocents tore at the heart of kenya, and grief turned to shock when it was revealed that three of the four attackers might have been kenyans, and not ethnic somalis. president kenyatta appearing on tv again, this time to deliver
the sobering news that the threat is also homegrown. >> the planners and financiers of this brutality are deeply embedded in our communities and were seen previously as ordinary harmless people. >> reporter: kenya shares a long border with somalia that starts inland, runs past garissa, right down to the indian ocean. mombasa is about 250 miles from the somali border. it is the major city on the kenyan coast. it is predominantly muslim. al-shabaab is extremely active here and it is recruiting young kenyans. unemployed, disillusioned, angry at the way they feel the government sometimes treats muslims. abdul, not his real name is one of them. he says some of his friends have joined al-shabaab and he says he may too.
>> he says westgate and garissa were carried out for revenge because of kenya's involvement in somalia. do you believe in it or are you against those attacks? >> reporter: we tried to speak to families who believe their sons have gone to somalia but it was difficult because of the level of mistrust. hussein khalid is executive director of haki, a muslim human rights organization. >> families fear that if they speak out maybe they would be considered as traitors by you know al-shabaab. families also fear that if they
speak up then probably the government will come for them in the guise of looking for their relatives. >> reporter: this woman agreed to an interview but didn't want to reveal her identity. she says her son joined al- shabaab in somalia in 2012. she says he was killed last year. the circumstances around his death are unclear. >> ( translated ): it is terrible. al-shabaab is brainwashing young people, not doing a good thing. i lost hope when my son joined them. i knew it was over for him. >> reporter: the father of bilha, one of the 147 murdered in garissa, lives with his lost hope everyday. his daughter's grave is in the nearby field. one small monument to a nation's war with al-shabaab.
>> sreenivasan: california is on the verge of requiring more children to get vaccinations even if parents disagree. the state's assembly passed a bill this week that allowed medical exemptions but did not allow for exemptions based on personal beliefs." wall street journal" reporter caroline porter joins me now from los angeles with more on this divisive issue. put the numbers in perspective. how many kids in the california school system aren't vaccinated? >> reporter: so it's a small percentage of school children who are not vaccinated. but the concern is that it could be rising. over the past decade or so we've seen an increase in parents who are looking at ways to reduce or possibly change the way in which children receive their vacks nargses -- vaccinations. and the concern is there would be clusters of children where they don't reach what's called herd immunity where there aren't 95% of the population with the required vaccines which would make outbreaks more likely. >> sreenivasan: and where are these clusters or what do we know about them?
>> so the clusters seem to be in places with either high educated population or those without -- below the poverty line. so it seems to go either -- in a situation where there aren't enough resources or where there are such resources that people are taking their own initiative not to vaccinate. >> sreenivasan: so if this law gets signed by governor brown, does this mean that if you have a -- if you want a personal belief exemption you're good night have to home-school your child? >> well, that's correct. basically that's one of the main concerns is it's a constitutional right to a free public education in california. so if i choose not to vaccinate my children, does that mean i have to home-school? and there are a couple of exceptions to that. you can home-school in groups, so families can get together and say, you know, we're going to home-school our children together because they all do not have the same requirements in terms of vaccines. the other option is you can have what's called an independent study in schools. what that generally means is that you won't be in a classroom with other students by and
large. >> sreenivasan: so if this becomes law is the opposition ready to sue to try to challenge it? >> so the opposition has been loud. i mean, in terms of testimony and hearings and protests and petitions, from what i hear, it's been one of the most controversial and acrimonious debates that we've had here in california this legislative session. and talking to different protesters or organizers, what i hear is that they are considering litigation. >> sreenivasan: and where do doctors come down on this? i know some pediatricians' offices will actually refuse to see you in their clinics if you don't vaccinate your child. >> you know every doctor's going to have a different opinion. but the cosponsor of the bill is a pediatrician himself. and i think that's one of the main thoughts of his in wanting to put this through is concerns for the population at large and the medical community has had concerns. >> sreenivasan: all right, caroline porter of the "wall street journal" joining us from los angeles.
thanks so much. >> thank you. >> sreenivasan: tuesday on pbs," frontline" premieres "growing up trans", a documentary that explores the struggles opportunities, and choices faced by transgender children and their families. the program tells the story of eight kids in various stages of transitioning, including nine-year-old lia. ♪ >> i am transgender. i was born male and identify as female. but i like to say that i'm a
girl stuck in a boy's body. i transitioned when i was 6 or 7 to more of a girl and now i'm complete -- well almost completely female. >> in the second grade i was liam and this year i changed my name officially. so i've changed my name my clothes, my room, and my pronouns. and that's really all you need except for the fifth one that i still need surgery and medicine. to help me look like a girl.
media access group at wgbh access.wgbh.org >> pbs newshour weekend is made possible by: corporate funding is provided by mutual of america-- designing customized individual and group retirement products. that's why we are your retirement company. additional support is provided by: and by the corporation for public broadcasting and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you.