tv PBS News Hour PBS July 31, 2015 3:00pm-4:00pm PDT
captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc >> woodruff: good evening. i'm judy woodruff. on the newshour tonight: a game- changer in the fight against ebola, the vaccine that could transform how health workers contain outbreaks. then, the nuclear-armed submarines that lurk deep beneath the ocean, ready to attack at moment's notice. how the military plans to build the next generation of underwater defense. >> one submarine carries at its minimum the equivalent of 600 hiroshima's. if they launch those missiles, it would be a destructive event beyond history. >> woodruff: and it's friday. mark shields and david brooks analyze the week's news. all that and more on tonight's pbs newshour.
>> the ford foundation. working with visionaries on the frontlines of social change worldwide. >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. >> woodruff: a wing fragment discovered on an island in the indian ocean is on its way for testing to see if it belongs to a missing malaysia airliner. the debris was carefully packaged and loaded onto a cargo flight today bound for special defense facilities in toulouse, france. meanwhile, locals scoured reunion island's coastline for traces of more debris. and australian officials-- who are leading the search for the plane-- urged caution about what the wreckage means.
>> i'm not sure that this finding will actually enable any refinement of the search area. it is 16 months since the aircraft disappeared, this piece of debris has traveled a very very long way, so i don't think it'll be possible to back trace where it came from. >> woodruff: boeing has confirmed the debris is a wing part known as a "flaperon" and the serial number found on it belongs to a boeing 777. hundreds of people mourned a palestinian toddler who burned to death in his west bank home in a suspected arson set by jewish extremists. two palestinian homes were burned in early morning firebombings. the toddler's parents and four- year-old brother are in critical condition. palestinian president mahmoud abbas blamed the incident on israel's settlement policy. >> ( translated ): we wake up to a crime of the israelis. it is a war crime and a humanitarian crime at the same time, so we will not stand
still, we will not stand still at all. as long as the occupation and settlement exist these acts will continue. >> woodruff: israeli prime minister benjamin netanyahu visited the family in a tel aviv hospital and said he'd made a rare call to abbas to express his outrage. >> i told him of this visit and of israel's absolute commitment to fight this evil, to find the perpetrators, bring them to justice. we have to calm the spirits and recommit ourselves to our joint battle against terrorism and extremism. >> woodruff: the attack spurred clashes between hamas supporters and israeli police in the west bank city of hebron. protesters threw rocks at israeli vehicles as soldiers fired gas grenades to disperse the crowd. in washington, a white house spokesman condemned the incident, calling it a "vicious terrorist attack". in charleston, south carolina the white suspect in the shooting rampage at a black church entered a temporary not
guilty plea today to federal hate crime charges. 21-year-old dylann roof is accused of killing nine worshippers last month. roof initially wanted to enter a guilty plea, but his lawyer advised him to wait until the government decides whether to seek the death penalty. the number of homicides in baltimore soared to a level not seen in more than four decades. 43 murders were recorded in the month of july, making it the third most deadly month in the city's history. at the same time, non-fatal shootings have reached 366 this year, compared to 200 at the same time last year. the spike in killings comes three months after riots erupted in response to the death of freddie gray, who died in police custody. president obama signed a stopgap measure into law today that funds the nation's highway and transit projects for the next three months. the short-term patch was all congress could agree to before
leaving for an august recess. mr. obama said a long-term solution is what the country needs. >> we can't keep on funding transportation by the seat of our pants three months at a time. it's just not how greatest country on earth should be doing its business. i guarantee you this is not how china, germany, and other countries around the world other big powerful countries around the world handle their infrastructure. >> woodruff: the senate did pass a long-term transportation bill yesterday, setting up discussions with the house this fall on how to fund transport projects over time. a former governor of virginia-- jim gilmore-- became the 17th republican to enter the race for president. he explained why he's running in such a crowded field in a video released on youtube. >> i've been looking for someone to enter the race committed to my belief that america's economic and national security is increasingly at risk.
but i haven't seen a response from anyone that makes me certain about their knowledge or solutions to the threats facing our nation. i do not seek the presidency because i want to be something. i seek it because i want to do something for america. >> woodruff: gilmore served as virginia's governor from 1998 to 2002, and he launched a brief presidential bid in 2008. wall street posted small losses today. the dow jones industrial average lost 56 points to close at 17,689. the nasdaq fell less than a point. the s&p 500 dropped more than four points. for the week: the dow and nasdaq each gained nearly one percent and the s&p added 1.2%. despite its lack of natural snow, china's capital city won the right to host the winter 2022 olympics today. the announcement came during an elaborate ceremony in kuala lumpur, malaysia.
the international olympic committee picked beijing over almaty, kazakhstan. beijing will be the first city to host both the summer and winter olympics. still to come on the newshour: a promising trial for an ebola vaccine, a prison-to-college pipeline, opening doors to higher ed for inmates and much more. now a potentially exciting development in the search for an ebola vaccine-- and to hari sreenivasan. >> sreenivasan: results of a clinical trial conducted in the west african country of guinea and published today in the medical journal "lancet" found an experimental vaccine was 75%- to-100% effective in blocking new infections of the ebola virus. the trial involved more than 7,000 people, over 3,500 of whom
were vaccinated. guinea is one of three west african countries that marked the epicenter of the 2014 ebola outbreak that killed more than 10,000 people. for more on efforts to create a vaccine and on this trial, i am joined by dr. anthony fauci, director of the national institute of allergy and infectious disease at the national institutes of health. so there are several different companies and people working on venus including a member of your team burks today we hear word like "game changer," you know, these are significant results. why was this so important? >> well it's significant because of the outcome of the trial. it showed rather impressive results. now, it was done under very difficult circumstances so that's really very important. it was done right during the intensity of the outbreak itself and the data that have been released today show that the results are really quite favorable. there is still a lot of work to be done to determine, in fact,
if this protection against ebola is durable, mainly that it can last for several months because we certainly would like to have this available for future outbreaks, and inevitably there will be future outbreaks of ebola. so this is an important step in our armory of preventing ebola infection in addition to the public health measure to prevent infection. >> sreenivasan: how did they figure out this was effect sniff. >> a very interesting design to the study. it's called a ring vaccination study, ring meaning you create a ring around an index case of when someone gets infected, and you jacks nate the contacts of that person and the contacts of the contacts. but the thing about the ring study is it was randomized, so that when they identified a case of ebola they had two rings, one in which got vaccinated
need, and one which got vaccinated 21 days afterward, and then they compared the number of infections in those who were vaccinated immediately versus those who had a delay to of 21 days, and the results are rather impressive because the number of ebola inneksz the people vaccinated immediately were zero, and the number of infections for those who were vaccinated on a delayed basis was 17. relatively speaking, this is an interim analysis of results, but it's still rather impressive. now we're going to have to look at the details of the data to really delve into what it means. but having said that it's important that the results came out this way. >> sreenivasan: you alluded to this earlier. this is in the middle of an epidemic. thisthis isn't our definition of a gold standard of a clinical
trial when you give some people medicine and some a placebo. i guess it's somewhat unethical not to give someone medication when you see people daying within days of contracting the virus. >> if you don't know what works and you do a controlled trial, then you get informed consent about how you're going to do the trial and it is really quite ethical. so i think this design was an interesting novel design. it's fashioned after the design of how we approach smallpox and the elimination of smallpox. it was a creative design that was done under difficult circumstances. >> sreenivasan: when people think of vaccines, they also think of things that actually have the virus in it. did this virus have ebola in it? >> no, it did not. it had a protein of ebola. so let me explain what it is. a virus was used which was a virus that infects animals and
rarely infects humans. what the virus was is you took one gene of ebola and inserted it into this other virus and then injected this other virus into the vein vaccine recipients. once it got in them it started making the ebola protein, so none of the individuals got the ebola virus itself. they got the protein of ebola that was given to them through this vector or carrier virus. >> sreenivasan: dr. anthony fauci from the national institutes of health, thanks for joining us. >> good to be with you. >> woodruff: today the secretary of education and attorney general of the u.s. proposed a major shift in policy. after a 20-year ban, some federal and state inmates could become eligible for pell grant
money to take college classes while behind bars. our special correspondent for education, john merrow reports on an earlier pilot program to create a "prison-to-college" pipeline. >> i've been in prison since i was 16. i'm 34 now. >> i've been locked up five years. i've been in this jail three years. >> i've spent 21 years in prison. i was arrested at the age of 17. >> i've been incarcerated 21 years now. i'm 39 years old. >> i'm in jail for murder. >> two drug sales and a burglary charge. >> for homicide. >> taking someone's life. >> reporter: many people would say, "hey, they did the crime, so let them do the time." but this woman believes that, if prisoners are going to change their ways, they need an education. >> we see education as integral to the reentry process. >> reporter: and so these men are studying shakespeare. >> were you able to see some of these themes, motifs, and symbols? okay, good. >> reporter: today they're
analyzing "othello" in erin kaplan's introductory english class. >> the fact that othello's a foreigner and the fact that he's in a higher office, and has a higher prestige wife makes him wanna do this because he feels that he should have all of this. >> i took it as when the duke made that statement, what he was saying because they kept describing othello especially iago and him as a moor as being evil, black is devilish, as you know, this thick-lipped person and so on and so forth. >> reporter: these 12 men are incarcerated at a new york state correctional facility in otisville. >> if it not be for some purpose of import give it me again. poor lady. she run mad when she will lack it. >> reporter: this class, and five others like it, are part of a pilot program called "the prison to college pipeline." to enroll, prisoners must have finished high school, pass a reading and writing assessment and be eligible for release within five years. >> we have this idea that, possibly, in the three to five years prior to release, we want to seize on the high expectations, the high hopes
the anticipations of coming home, take advantage of that hope and turn it to education. >> reporter: baz dreisinger founded the program in the fall of 2011 with just 14 students. it's a collaboration among john jay college of criminal justice, hostos community college, and the new york state department of corrections and community supervision. the cost, about $3,500 per student, is covered by private and public sources. it costs new york state about $60,000 a year to keep a person in prison. >> he's comfortable in military tactics. >> he's confident. >> you understand? >> as a warrior. >> exactly. >> reporter: educational opportunities behind bars are very rare. two-thirds of correctional facilities do not offer college courses. where programs do exist, many are like baz's: very small. today, of the 1.6 million men and women in prison, only about 35,000 are taking college courses. >> and it could also be as far
as his mentality, his morals and principles, the fact that he's a general within the army. >> reporter: for many, this is their first college class. >> i never, actually, had the opportunity to take college. i consider myself a good student-- always did. >> reporter: but it's not their first time in prison. >> i went out and committed a crime and came back. >> reporter: will terry's experience is typical. 55% of prisoners end up back behind bars within five years of their release. >> and the doubt came from somebody else. >> reporter: the program gives prisoners the opportunity to develop new identities-- as students. >> i've been out of school for a very long time, so becoming a student again is-- it has really been quite a ride, but i enjoy it. i like the challenge. it gives you a self worth that is unspeakable. it's very nice. >> the students want to be edited. they want to be taught.
they want to double the length of the readings. they want you to critique their papers ten times over. part of it is that you've been in an intellectual void for so long that you're hungry for this knowledge, and the other part of it is that the stakes are very high as they see it. they know that they're re- defining themselves via education and they take it really seriously. >> it's in act 1 of scene 3 of 781. >> what line? >> reporter: success inside means opportunity outside. students who do well are guaranteed admission into one the 18 colleges that make up the c.u.n.y. system. >> i like to describe the prison-to-college-pipeline as a college and re-entry program and a college as re-entry program. so the program starts inside and completes outside, and i think one of the reasons why that's so powerful is that you benefit from getting some college education inside, but you also benefit from having a real campus experience and being in a college when you come out. >> i know how much a support system is important.
to be able to be afforded an opportunity to go somewhere and meet with people that we already established relationships with, like baz. they're not just saying "get the hell out." we actually have people that's out there rooting for us. that's gonna hold us down no >> reporter: but providing prisoners with college opportunities is not a popular idea. new york governor andrew cuomo introduced a plan to publicly fund college programs in ten state prisons. it faced opposition from both parties and was quickly shot down. research indicates that prisoners who participate in correctional post-secondary education programs are 51% less likely to be re-incarcerated. it's too soon to know if this program will be successful because only 36 men have participated. >> it's hard to talk about numbers and percentages, because the program is so small and we've just started.
>> reporter: seven of the 12 students have been released, and six are already enrolled in college, or are applying for admission. only one is back in prison. reporting for the pbs newshour i'm john merrow, in otisville, new york. >> woodruff: stay with us. coming up on the newshour: the military's plan to replace an aging fleet of submarines armed with nuclear weapons, mark shields and david brooks analyze the week's news and how debates between gore vidal and william f. buckley changed television and political discourse in america. but first, schools for students with disabilities and behavioral issues in the state of georgia are under scrutiny. in a two-year long investigation, the u.s. department of justice found georgia is illegally segregating these students. some of the programs are even housed in dilapidated buildings
once used as all-black schools during the jim crow era. alan judd is an investigative reporter for the atlanta journal constitution. he has written about the schools and the justice department's findings. alan judd, we welcome you. so who are these students that the state of georgia is putting in a separate educational program? >> at any given time, there may be about 5,000 of them. they are students who have -- of varying ages who have behavioral issues, mental health issues who maybe are in the autism spectrum, but they are children who have been deemed difficult to control and difficult to educate by their home schools. >> woodruff: and how is the program for them different from the mainstream general education k-12 opportunity that the state of georgia offers children?
>> first of all, many are segregated entirely from the mainstream classes from their regular education peers. they often do not have science labs they don't have art classes, music classes, they may not have access to a gymnasium. the report by the justice department found that at least one school actually has segregated restrooms for these students, a separate lunch period a separate entrance to the building from other students where they actually go through a metal detector where other students don't. another one of the schools keeps them in the basement all day so they're not even allowed to be in the sight of other students. >> woodruff: there are some pretty terrible examples that you've written about both what's been going on more recently and then a really horrific thing that happened back about ten or eleven years ago with a 13-year-old in georgia. >> right.
jonathan king with you, as you said, a -- jonathan king was a 13-year-old assigned to one of these schools in gainesville georgia, northeast of atlanta. he had been kept in a seclusion room, which is basically a holding cell. it's a concrete block room with no windows no water, no rest room facilities, nothing. he had been kept in there, i think, 15 times in 29 days for an average of 94 minutes at a time in solitaire confinement. he twice threatened suicide, and on one particular day he was placed in that room and allowed to keep a small piece of rope he was using to hold up his pants as a belt and promptly hanged himself. >> woodruff: what is the justice department saying the state of georgia has to do? >> they're not giving specific instructions but expecting a significant reply, i believe, from state officials. mainly it would be to find ways
to desegregate the system. then it may mean closing it down altogether, may mean mainstreaming more children than we're doing now, could mean possibly finding private facilities that would take some of these children and educate them. >> woodruff: alan judd, how different is the way georgia handles these children from most other states? >> the trend for the last couple of decades or more has been to mainstream children in special education, what we have always called special ed. georgia seems to be the only state with this network of what they call psychoeducational schools that are specifically designed for children with behavioral problems, primarily. so it looks like we're the only state that still does this. >> woodruff: as i understand it, the state has not yet responded. they say they're studying what the justice department charges. >> that's right the governor's
office and the state department of education have just said don't go look at it. >> woodruff: well, it's a disturbing piece of reporting, a disturbing report from the justice department. alan judd we thank you. >> thank you. >> woodruff: during the 1980s and '90s, the u.s. navy built a fleet of nuclear armed submarines. their mission: deter an attack against the united states. and if that failed, fight a nuclear war. those submarines are now approaching the end of their lifespans. the navy plans to build replacements, but there's growing debate over how many are needed and how to pay for them. veteran pentagon reporter jamie mcintyre-- who is now national security correspondent for al jazeera america-- has been on special assignment for the newshour. his report was produced in partnership with the pulitzer
center on crisis reporting. >> man battle station missile. spin up all missiles, sound the general alarm, general alarm, >> reporter: if america's strategy of nuclear deterrence ever fails-- the beginning of the end might look something like this. >> aye-aye sir. >> reporter: the u.s. navy's ballistic missile submarines are all part of the "ohio class," named for the first submarine of the design, the "u.s.s. ohio." they have only one mission: to lurk silently, deep beneath the ocean, ready to rain nuclear devastation on virtually any target, anywhere, anytime on orders of the president. submerged just off the coast of hawaii, the 180-man crew of the "u.s.s. pennsylvania" demonstrated for the pbs newshour an abridged version what it practices every week the sub's at sea. the submarine's video screens displayed only unclassified
data, and the navy reviewed our footage to ensure nothing was compromised. what we saw was a mock doomsday scenario: the launching of three nuclear-tipped missiles, enough to destroy several major cities and kill millions of people. it's a drill where there can be no questioning of orders, no consideration of consequences no second thoughts. lieutenant a.j walker is the "triggerman" whose job is to what's euphemisically termed "close the circuit." this is the missile compartment. it what makes this submarine such a fearsome weapon. 24 missile tubes, each one capable of holding a trident missile with multiple independent targeted warheads. that means this single ship could deliver massive destruction to multiple targets around the globe. to critics back in washington, that raises an obvious question:
if one submarine can bring on armageddon, how many does the u.s. really need? joseph cirincione is president of the ploughshares fund, a foundation that supports eliminating nuclear weapons. >> one submarine carries at its minimum the equivalent of 600 hiroshima's. if they launch those missiles, if they launch those warheads it would be a destructive event beyond history. >> reporter: it's not just an academic argument. the military commander of america's nuclear arsenal, admiral cecil haney wants to upgrade the aging fleet of 14 ohio-class ballistic missile subs in the coming decades by building 12 new next-generation subs. >> replacing the ohio class submarine is one of my top priorities. >> reporter: each sub has a price tag of upwards of $5 billion. although when you count research and development the total price climbs to over $100 billion, according to the congressional budget office. >> however you want to calculate
it this fleet is a bargain. >> reporter: vice admiral mike connor commands the navy submarine forces. at his headquarters, in norfolk virginia, he makes the case for an almost one-for-one replacement of the current fleet, arguing the cost is just one-percent of the overall defense budget, while the benefit is incalculable, measured, he says, in wars that never start. >> the truth is that we use them every day to deter major power war. >> reporter: the ballistic missile submarine is an awesome war machine. at 560 feet, it is as long as the washington monument is high -- yet nearly invisible to enemy eyes when slinking silently deep beneath the waves, which makes it the most survival leg of america's nuclear triad of subs bombers, and land based missiles. >> and what would happen if they did attempt a massive strike, no matter how massive that strike was the submarine force at sea would survive, and be in the
position to retaliate. >> reporter: as the u.s. cuts the number of nuclear weapons in the latest round of reductions negotiated with the russians, submarines will play an outsized role in the deterrence mission - carrying 70% of america's active nuclear arsenal. still, critics-- like ploughshare's joe cirincione-- argue building enough new subs to destroy the world a dozen times over is expensive overkill. >> if you just need this to be a deterrent force to respond, in case someone is crazy enough to actually attack the united states and therefore deter them from doing that. well, you really could be talking about four, five, six nuclear submarines each of which would have 16 missile tubes, each of which would carry five to six warheads-- that's a lot of nuclear weapons. >> reporter: but as admiral connor war-games various worst- case scenarios, involving russia, china, north korea, he insists the psychological
calculus of deterrence can't be reduced to a simple math problem. >> so you think about an intelligent adversary, and our adversaries-- peer competitor situation-- are intelligent thinking adversaries, you wouldn't want to have a situation where there is an incentive where they say, "you know, if we strike on this day or when this ship is being repaired or being leaving port or coming in, a balance or force might change in our favor." >> reporter: but ultimately it could be money not strategy that torpedoes the navy's pricey plan to design and build a state-of- the-art sub to replace 12 of the current. >> the costs of the program has been estimated in the range of $100 billion, and the navy said it cannot pay for it out of its navy budget. >> reporter: at his senate hearing to be confirmed as joint chiefs chairman, general joseph dunford agreed, paying for a whole new fleet of subs out of the regular shipbuilding account
would bust the navy's budget. >> what i can tell you with the degree of surety is that, were we to fund the ohio class replacement out of the department of the navy, it would have a adverse plan on the ship building plan and the estimates are between two and a half and three ships a year. >> the cost is some people will say is outrageous, i just say it's tremendous. >> reporter: naval historian and consultant norman polmar says either way you fund the plan through the normal budget, or a special account it's unaffordable, and unworkable. >> if congress were to fund the navy strategic submarines out of a separate fund, tomorrow afternoon the air force would come in and say, "hey, congress has approved a new bomber, we want that funded out of a separate strategic fund. >> reporter: polmar says there are smarter, cheaper ways to buy the same level of nuclear deterrence, modifying smaller attack submarines already in service, which he argues would allow the navy to buy fewer of the bigger ballistic missile subs.
>> today, every attack submarine can carry tomahawk land attack conventional missiles. most of our submarines have vertical launch tools for 12 of these tomahawk missiles. those missiles tomorrow or in a couple of years, could have nuclear warheads. >> reporter: but the navy counters the smaller attack subs don't have the endurance of the bigger "boomers," and that their cruise missiles don't have the intercontinental range or carry multiple warheads that can destroy different targets. and advocates for far deeper weapons cuts, say the whole debate underscores the folly of expensive new nuclear weapons that would only be used if a war were essentially already lost. this plaque shows the "u.s.s. pennsylvania" was launched in april of 1988. that makes it over a quarter of a century old. it-- like other submarines of its class-- was designed for 30 years of service, which means it would have been decommissioned in the next couple of years.
but now the navy says it's figured out how to keep those submarines running for an extra 12 years. commander john cage is captain of the "u.s.s. pennsylvania." so you've showed us around your boat, it looks great, everything looks like it's spit-polished. it looks like this boat could go on forever. >> she still has a lot of life left in her. but it's definitely getting on in the years. there's things that, we have a lot of redundant systems that i find myself using those redundant systems a little bit more. certain components will fail. certain things are just beginning to run into their life, past their lifetime. >> reporter: but the sub's crew is still prepared to make the unthinkable reality. >> we do think about it. it's definitely something we don't want to happen. nobody in the boat wants it to happen. >> reporter: how would you handle the crew on the boat after you launch like that? when no one would know what the fate of the world is? how do you keep the crew together?
>> i'll tell you that would be difficult. one of the reasons why we train so frequently, the evolution that you saw we do time and time again. so it becomes something we can execute immediately and quickly. but after that it would be a very difficult time. >> reporter: a successful deployment is one where the only projectiles from the sea, are the bottlenose dolphins who playfully surf the sub's bow as it prepares to dive. jamie mcintyre, for the pbs newshour, aboard the "u.s.s. pennsylvania," off the coast of hawaii. >> woodruff: online we have a lot more about nuclear armed submarines. you can watch extended excerpts of the interviews we featured, and see how submarines get re- supplied at sea. all that is on our web site, pbs.org/newshour.
from the police shooting in cincinnati, to rising expectations for the first republican presidential debate, it's been a full week. and it leads us to the analysis of shields and brooks. that's syndicated columnist mark shields and "new york times" columnist david brooks. gentlemen, welcome. so mark, this shooting in cincinnati of a black man by a white policeman the video released this week, there appears to be no question about what happened. why do these things keep happening? >> i wish i knew, judy. i mean, i do -- i've never heard a press attorney just come right out and say this was essentially murder, but i have to say i am encouraged by the use of body cameras. this is where it's been tried,
used, endorsed by the national association of chiefs of police and led to the diminution of violence. we know character is how we conduct ourselves when no one is looking. this is an incentive to character. the bogus charge against a police officer is discredited because of the presence of these cameras. but to answer your question i do not have an answer. >> woodruff: david, rereported earlier the city of baltimore has had a record number of homicides, gun deaths just in the last month, yet these incidents continue. >> yeah, well, you know, i suspect my theory would be these things have all been happening and we just haven't known or talked about it and without the cop cam in this case we probably wouldn't know about it at all, it would just be an invisible case for us.
i'm ambivalent about cop cams, a lot of what police do are going into homes at people's most vulnerable moments and how also how the camera can interfere with the relationship and the trust of the police officer. in this case, it's very clear. i think this is the case where finally we have the technology that gives us the information. as to why the murder rate is rising, my reading on the research is first there's a lot of gang activity and a lot of it is extremely localized. but we've seen all the cases of police abuse. but the police are there for a reason and they generally do good and prevent crime. if the police are being a little less aggressive sometimes for good reason, it's not totally surprising you're going to see a an uptick in crime. >> woodruff: mark. i think, judy, cameras
they're not a panacea but i think they will help restore the relationship and trust in the police. i think they're good for the police, quite honestly. and there's no question that there's been a breech in the trust between especially urban community, african-american minority communities and the police in mainly american cities. >> a tough thing to watch this week. let's turn to presidential politics. david, we are six days away now from the first debate. the republicans are going to meet in cleveland. i guess ten of the now 17 republicans, former virginia governor jim gilmore jumped in the race today. what do we connect? this is the first time we see ten of the 17 together. >> well, first what's trump? is this a donald trump reality show with nine supporting actors? that's going to be the big story, whether he is able to dominate with his own voice whether everyone, as they have been doing off camera in the last week, trying to get publicity for themselves by
attacking him whether he becomes a central figure or whether they try to ignore him. >> woodruff: hope they try to ignore him and let the thing ride itself out. but he remains perversely the big issue here. >> woodruff: what do you expect? >> here's what's going to happen -- (laughter) well, i go back to the democratic race in 2004 when howard dean was the frontrunner and his debate gephardt the democratic challenger who won iowal in 1988, took him on directly and said he wasn't a real democrat. the problem is, when you've got a multi-candidate field, and you have 17, this time you will have 10 on the stage, when a goes after b in a two-person race then either a pays a price for the charge if it's true, b benefits from the charge if it expose's a shortcoming. but when a is left to b and there's a c d and q lined up,
you have no idea who's going to be the beneficiary. i don't think there's any question there will be an effort to go after donald trump. >> woodruff: isn't that just going to make him -- >> no, you have to do it. you have to bring him down to earth. this is a man who is pro-choice. now he's pro-life. he's for single-payer health insurance. he's add odds philosophically to his career his support of democratic candidates, large checks for hillary clinton's campaigns in the past. they explained now it was all transactional. you want to bring him down if you're his opponent and charging him, i think chris christie will go after him most directly because he had already played for himself the role of no nonsense tell it like it is straight from the shoulder and donald trump has totally preempted that. but, no, i think it's going to be fascinating. judy, debates are important even
this early. >> woodruff: donald trump has benefited, it seems to me, somehow from the attacks. he's gotten bigger and stronger. >> i agree. i think the normal logic does not apply to donald trump. i think if you go after him as he's gone after all these republicans and these republicans have gone after him it illustrates there are nine or 16-of them and one of him and he stand out. couple of things are happening, one, people always like a middle aged obnoxious guy. i built my whole career on that. (laughter) second, he's not like the rest of them. somebody did a good speech analysis of the opening speeches all the candidates gave and all the candidates had speeches using the same language, clusters of words they're all very similar except donald trump. different verbal style arguments and word and he just stands out. as mark pointed out on this show a lot, if you have two or three
decades of politicians attacking washington and he is the ultimate anti-washington candidate and they're all sort of washington then attacking him will make him look exceptional and probably help him in the short term. >> woodruff: if donald trump is getting bigger on the republican side, bernie sanders continues to draw big crowds on the democratic side. there's some question about whether he's taking fans away or votes away from hillary clinton this early but how do you explain this appeal of these two outspoken people with very different views, bernie sanders and donald trump, what is out there going on? i saw a quote today from the democratic pollster peter hart where he said a lot of people are scared and they want somebody to protect them. >> i have great respect for peter and that may very well explain part of the appeal. but to me the appeal that they have in common is that they are
essentially, as david put it, out of the mold. donald trump is not the typical candidate people have come to expect. he's not tailoring his language to the moment. bernie sanders, what you see is what you get. i mean, there are a lot of democrats who are still at heart, disappointed that the people that they felt brought the nation to its knees in 2008 2009 -- wreath wall street, the top 1% -- have skated never been held accountable never gone to the bar of justice, nobody's paid a price. bernie sanders is the avenging angel. he's the anti-candidate in this case, judy. no focus groups he spent no money on polling, no pre-tested remarks, he just says exactly what he's been saying. the crowds are truly expressive.
>> woodruff: does that explain bernie sanders, david? >> yeah, i think so. i mean it's not what you believe sometimes, it's how you believe it. donald trump and bernie sanders have very different belief styles. i'm not sure donald trump believes in anything except his belief system begins and ends with the morning mirror. but sanders actually believes in this and he's intellectually consistent and rigorous. i don't agree with it but it is a coherent belief system and, to me, his success is explained by the rapid and almost dam-breaking movement intellectual movement based further to the left. so what has been an anchor of democratic centrism, that anchor is gone. people are responding to tissues of the day, inequality, stagnation, and they are moving forward quickly and that's where bernie sanders is. for hillary clinton it's catch up, for him home base.
>> woodruff: you're right, we are hearing some of that from hillary clinton. i want to ask you about the super pac we're supposed to be hearing tonight the filing fundraising reports on the super pac. in the past money has not always been determinative just because somebody raised or had a lot of money didn't always mean they were going to do well. couldn't that change this time because some of the super pac money is just off the charts hundreds of millions. >> president john connally and president phil gramm would agree money never delivered the white house to either one of them even though they were both great fundraisers. in the past, in order to continue as a serious candidate, you had to be in the top three finishes in iowa, you had to be in the top two out of new hampshire. all our presidents elected in the past half century finished either first or second in new hampshire and in the top three in iowa. that changed with the citizens united when we gave unlimited amounts of money.
newt gingrich finished a bad fourth in iowa in 2012, a weaker fourth in new hampshire, but sheldon aidleson wrote a $50 million check and could go to iowa and salvage mitt romney which he did. now we have 30 people so far an hour before the show who gave a million dollars to a pa c 70% gave it to jeb bush. >> woodruff: will money make a dismrches. >> if candidates are super poor, they won't be able to run a campaign after a while and will drop out. so it helps you stay in the race like newt gingrich did. but once you're in the race and in the major leagues, i don't think it matters because there will be so much swamping of money you're just making the rubber bourns and i don't think it will give you a huge advantage over the other candidates because everybody will have plenty of it and we will be bombarded with ads and
they will cease to make a difference. so it gets to the candidate what they're saying and how distinct they are. >> woodruff: next time we get together we'll be talking about the first republican debate. david brooks, mark shields we thank you. now to political commentary still steeped in intellect, but far less civil than shields and brooks. jeffrey brown has the story. >> brown: hard to imagine now: a time before political pundits dominated cable and broadcast news programs. the documentary "best of enemies" pinpoints a key moment of change. when two intellectual giants-- william f. buckley on the right gore vidal on the left-- attracted a huge national audience with intelligence and
wit, but also put-downs and insults. filmmakers morgan neville and robert gordon explored a series of debates the two held during the 1968 political conventions that for a variety of reasons, would alter the future of political discourse on television. we spoke recently at the a.f.i. docs festival in washington. you set this up as both a personal and a kind of national epic. why do you think it rose to that level? >> gore vidal and william buckley represented the polar opposites-- the left and the right-- at a time when america was kinda coming apart at the seams a little bit. this is 1968. there's rioting in the streets and they're representing those poles there on national tv, but what i think what makes it such a dramatic story for us is that it was deeply personal, it was under the veneer of politics, but i think they saw in the other person somebody who could
detect their own insecurities and expose those to the world. >> brown: you presented, i mean, you followed ten debates, right? it's like a heavyweight, a heavyweight fight, right? you even have the round one round two, debate one, two, three. what happened, what did you see happening over the course of the fight, so to speak? >> it was an ever-growing attack. we saw in the raw footage within two minutes of the first debate, these high-minded guys take the low road. it becomes very personal. >> brown: right away. >> right away. >> brown: you saw that. >> this big blow-up was inevitable, although it's a slow fuse. and you don't get that now. you don't get that kind of time on tv now to have a slow burn like that. now it's like, "we're back, and here's the fireworks!" >> brown: over the course of ten debates, that slow burn morphed into a bitter rivalry that was broadcast to millions.
>> there were so many nuggets we found and one of my favorite things was going through gore's papers of harvard and finding that the papers he had on his lap with him during the debates which included pages of scripted insults that he... >> brown: really, scripted insults. so, he came to play, so to speak. >> he was there with a game plan and that was the evidence right there. >> brown: and of course it does lead up to this culminating most famous moment where he does get under buckley's skin. he calls him a "crypto nazi." buckley comes back at him with calling him a queer and threatens to punch him in the mouth. >> it was one of those defining moments in television. of course there were rioting on the streets and people are paying attention to that, but most of america is taking this in on television. the television audience that night was huge and this is before youtube, before people could go back and analyze it. it happened and then it
vanished. >> brown: let me just ask you one more question about the personal drama of the two men because you're making the case that television news, television political discourse were never the same, the two men were actually never the same. they never quite got over this. >> it was something, i think they were regularly asked about for the rest of their lives. it was something that not only did they have this blow-up on television, they wrote long pieces in "esquire" magazine the next year, debating, re-debating this. then they sued each other over those pieces for three years. >> brown: why do you think they couldn't let it go personally? >> i think buckley was the one who couldn't let it go. i think gore would have just bragged about it at dinner parties the rest of his life and that would have been it. i think buckley really felt like he had to answer to himself for something that had happened and i think for buckley it was trying to explain why he lost his cool, when he was the king of not losing his cool. >> so it was uncharacteristically losing his cool because that's what it was. it was unlike any other moment in his career. and i think that by showing that he couldn't let it go, gore
realized that he could continue to enjoy that moment of victory by bringing it up at every opportunity he was given. >> brown: the spark between the two heavyweights was a hit with television audiences and a boon for abc, then a relatively new network desperate to stand out from its competitors. sensing a good thing, executives there decided that instead of covering the conventions in full, they could punctuate the coverage with vidal and buckley's political-- and sometimes personal-- commentary. >> abc couldn't afford to do gavel-to-gavel coverage at the conventions as networks had traditionally had done. and so they came up with what they called "unconventional convention coverage," which was a kinda distillation of the conventions news with these commentary segments every night these debates between vidal and buckley. >> ...ridiculed by other networks. >> and in the aftermath of this, even with the big blow-up between vidal and buckley and the ratings they got, no network ever again did gavel-to-gavel coverage again, so it really did establish a new template and
>> these guys brought a command of history, of language, of politics, all these things to bear on this conversation and it produced this massive forest fire. it just wants the flash paper fire, it just wants the flame. it doesn't care about what's burning. >> brown: and you're saying we're still living with that today. >> brown: the film "best of enemies" can be seen in theaters nationwide july 31. for the pbs newshour, i'm jeffrey brown. >> woodruff: on the newshour and a reminder about some upcoming programs from our pbs colleagues. gwen ifill is preparing for "washington week," which airs later this evening. here's a preview: >> ifill: the politics of provocation takes center stage as republican candidates for president prepare for their first debate. we examine the push and pull, as donald trump rides at the top of the polls. and on capitol hill, racing against deadlines over critical transportation spending and a big nuclear deal. that's all tonight on washington
week. judy? >> woodruff: on pbs newshour weekend saturday: home or hotel? how the sharing economy is changing real estate. >> two years ago, jennifer and her husband began listing their two-bedroom brooklyn apartment on what was then an up and coming web site, airbnb, they have hosts to share homes short term. what sounds like a wenijan liu is not so simple. what jennifer is doing may be illegal in new york city where city and state laws restrict short-term rentals. >> woodruff: that's tomorrow night on pbs newshour weekend. and that's the newshour for tonight. i'm judy woodruff. have a great weekend. thank you and good night. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by:
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>> this is "bbc world news america." >> funding of this presentation is made possible by the freeman foundation newman's own foundation, giving all profits from newman's own to charity and pursuing the common good, kovler foundation, pursuing solutions for america's neglected need. and mufg. and sony picture classics, now presenting "a rational man." >> it was at this moment that my life came together. >> spirit seemed up, and yet for some reason, it bothered me. >> you had a theory about abe. >> rated r. now play