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tv   PBS News Hour  PBS  September 2, 2015 3:00pm-4:00pm PDT

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to take their anti-hypertension medication and their blood pressure's gonna be improved. and who would've thought that an attorney's gonna fix someone's blood pressure! >> woodruff: all that and more on tonight's pbs newshour. ♪ ♪ moving our economy for 160 years. bnsf, the engine that connects us.p-yh, up until the
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last moment. >> woodruff: it would take at least 41 senators to block a republican resolution of disapproval from coming to a vote. republican leaders said today that they'll go ahead with the debate next week. >> ifill: another day, another swing for wall street. this time, to the upside. investors came to the market in a buying mood, a day after the latest sell-off. the dow jones industrial average gained more than 290 points to close above 16,350. the nasdaq rose 114 points. and the s&p 500 added 35. >> woodruff: the c.i.a. and u.s. special operations forces have launched a drone campaign against islamic state leaders.
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"the washington post" reports drones are being used for targeted killings inside syria. the effort marks a substantial increase in the c.i.a's overall role in the syrian conflict. >> ifill: in iraq, masked men dressed in military uniforms kidnapped 18 turkish construction workers in baghdad. the kidnappers stormed a site at a sports complex early this morning, as the workers were sleeping. turkish officials said the turkish workers were separated out from the rest, and taken away. >> at this stage, it is difficult to comment on why this kidnapping happened or the motive behind it. we are in touch with the turkish construction company. we've learned among the 18 kidnapped, there were 14 workers, p engineers and 1 accountant. of course, we'll continue to follow the issue. >> ifill: there was no claim of responsibility, but suspicion fell on islamic state forces.
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turkey recently began air strikes against the militants in syria. >> woodruff: the state of california moved today to post crucial data on police and the public, online. a new website displays the number of law enforcement officers killed in the line of duty and suspects who die during arrests or in custody. according to the data, the state had 685 in-custody deaths annually between 2005 and 2014. and, an average of 10 police officers were killed on the job -- every year-- from 1980 to 2014. >> ifill: president obama closed out his three-day visit to alaska today, by putting a spotlight on the lives of native groups. he visited a village where he got a firsthand look at local salmon fishing. he also hoped to highlight how the warming climate is destabilizing native communities. >> woodruff: and, one of the last two survivors of the great san francisco earthquake has died. ruth newman was just five years old, living on a ranch north of the city, when the quake hit in
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1906. the violent shaking touched off fires that raged unchecked for days. much of the city was destroyed, and more than 1,000 people were killed. her family says ruth newman passed away in late july. she was 113 years old. >> woodruff: still to come on the newshour: migrants from syria and other nations in turmoil push for passage deeper into europe, ukraine struggles to stem violence and the turmoil in the east, and much more. >> ifill: there is even more tragedy to report tonight as desperate migrants and refugees attempt to make their way to and through europe. at least 11 people drowned near the greek island of kos when two boats sank, including this small boy, captured in a photograph that immediately went viral.
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they are all thought to be syrian refugees. meanwhile in hungary, the government has halted rail travel for refugees and migrants, creating a desperate and angry situation in the capital, budapest. james mates of independent television news is there and filed this report. >> reporter: the mood is darkening outside budapest's main station. almost 36 hours now since the exit route north to austria and then germany was closed, and there is growing impatience among the thousands stuck in a country where they don't want to be. they chant the name of the place where they believe they'll find a welcome. the police kept riot gear, even cans of cs gas close to hand, but none was needed. beneath the station in a concourse leading to the city's metro is where most of the thousands are making home. a small sea of humanity spread
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across concrete floors, most with nothing but a blanket or piece of fur. it is shelter from the blazing sun and some cover at night. but for parents of young families, this is no place to be living. hasnan was a computer engineer in damascus traveling now with his wife and three sonls. unhappy as he is here, it is better than where he came from. >> it is better here than in my country. so i have to run away with my children from over there. i wish for peace on the earth. >> reporter: there are many children here, some physically small, and some oppressed into family duty. there is food or water but nothing to do from morning till night. a volunteer brought in paper and pencils, a kind thought but no
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more than a gesture. a pipe has been erected for washing and hygiene but workers fear what will happen if the situation drags on. >> there are thousands of people here. there is only one water source for people. everything else is provided by volunteers. is government is nowhere to be seen. >> reporter: far from the grand buildings on the danube, the government insists it alone sen forcing european rules. >> this is a system through which not only hungary but the european countries are handling migrants and we have to face reality, this is not a ref egee crisis, this is a mass migration coming from africa and the near east which requires different handling and different rules. >> reporter: there are
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definitely migrants by the thousands here, though it's true a clear majority are refugees from syria, iraq or afghanistan. as they remind us, above all, they are human, and deserve better than this. >> ifill: for more on the economic and humanitarian tensions sparked by the rising tide of migrants, we turn to astrid ziebarth, a migration fellow with the german marshall fund in berlin. and nancy lindborg, the president of the u.s. institute of peace in washington. she previously served as assistant administrator for the bureau for democracy, conflict and humanitarian assistance at the u.s. agency for international development. welcome to you both. nancy lindborg, why are we seeing this uptick? i think uptick is too small a word to describe the amount of migrants. >> we are seeing an uptick from the number a year ago. but this is a small tip of a we're seeing 60 million people
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displaced from their homes over this past year. this is the largest ever. you have people who are giving up hope. they are living in conditions of repression, pofer thety, conflict that isn't ending, and they are seeking a better life at great cost, at great danger for themselves and their families. >> ifill: some people try to distinguish between people escaping conflict and people escaping economic pressure. is there any distinction to be made? >> i think there is a distinction. clearly, legally, refugees are those fleeing persecution, conflict and danger. that 60 million is people who have been specifically displaced from their homes and are still either internally displaced or are already refugees. the importance, however, is how these issues are so intermixed where you have repressive, poor governments and poverty that is so correlated with conflict.
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>> ifill: one thing leads to the other. >> exactly. >> ifill: astrid ziebarth in germany, chancellor miracle among others said they will accept up to 800,000 of these migrants and find some way to take care of them. but is hundred thousand arrived just last month. is it plan that's germany-specific or euro-specific that can begin to tackle this? >> first of all, we have to have note the 800,000 are a projection for the year, and this was stated by our interior ministry, but it's not entirely transparent how the numbers come about so we have to be cautious about this because the government also switch their statistical estimate. what is to be noted is germany is able currently to take up that many migrants and refugees but, as also stated, we have to be cautious not to just see that
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those are refugees from syria are fleeing conflict and violence, but almost 42% are from the western bal balkans and their rate is less than 1%, so this is something where the german government is trying to figure out how to speed up the processes for those fleeing persecution and violence and also trying to figure out how those who are not can be returned. >> ifill: there has been backlash in germany, not only in germany but we saw some in hungary, where people are beginning to say we can't absorb all of this. is that picking up speed, that attitude? >> at the moment, i mean with the number of 800,000 being put out also in the public, it's remarkable that the public mood in germany is still somewhat positive. you have the latest public opinion polls state that you have 60% of germans who state that we can cope with this, and
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the interior minister said we can cope with this for a while. but how long we can deal with such a high amount is the question. >> ifill: nancy lindborg, you said this is the tip of an iceberg. theoretically, someone figured out how to address this or handle this before. explain what the way people try to absorb this, the dublin mechanism. >> that was an agreement within the european union in which where you landed was the country in which you sought asylum and that's what's being shifted now. the larger question is not just how we deal with those arriving in europe right now but how do we address the continuing conflicts and repression that is pushing people out because you have a large pipeline of people who are displaced but still
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within their borders and, as these conflicts remain unaddressed, there are many, many more who may be seeking refuge into the future. >> ifill: at some point, a lot of people say they would open their homes to refugees and others, but other nations are hanging back and you wonder whether the backlash will make this a problem on this and that end. >> absolutely. also i will note if you look at the middle east, this is a region saturated with refugees even before the syrian crisis. since then, tough countries in this immediate region like turkey, lebanon, jordan, who have taken the majority of the 4 million syrian refugees to date. in lebanon, one out of four people living there is syrian, which is an almost unimaginable number to imagine happening in europe or this country.
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>> ifill: astrid ziebarth, is there any discussion about imposing quotas on a number of people allowed in? >> well, yes, there has been discussion about quotas. what is remarkable is a year ago no one at the european or national level would have talked about quotas, but we're now seeing the crisis has become so urgent that at first the european commission introduced the subjects of quotas in the spring and also proposed their action plan on migration, it was met by fierce opposition because they wanted to have binding quotas but the other member states said, no, we don't want binding quotas, and you had especially eastern european countries against binding quotas, they were pushing for voluntary quotas, but anything voluntary is always hard to come on an agreement on that one. now we're seeing again the discussion about quotas and definitely on the table for the upcoming conference in september
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when the interior ministers meet. >> ifill: nancy lindborg, is there any question about reset ling these refugees or migrants in the united states? >> well, the united states takes about 70,000 refugees every year. as a country, we have actually benefited tremendously from the vibrancy that many of these refugees bring. since 9/11, it's been a lot harder to bring in refugees from the middle east and i think the number from syria thus far is around 1,000. i certainly hope that we can find our way to increase that because we will probably benefit as a country as well as giving a home and a future to so many people. >> ifill: nancy lindborg, president of the u.s. institute of peace and astrid ziebarth of the german marshall fund in berlin. thank you both so much. >> thank you, gwen.
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>> woodruff: while much of the world's attention turned away from ukraine this summer, the fighting there largely raged on, killing and wounding more fighters and civilians and continuing displacement in the country's east. yet another cease fire between russian pro separatists and ukrainian forces went into effect this week, but many aren't holding their breath. chief foreign affairs correspondent margaret warner has this update. >> warner: for children across ukraine, even in war-torn donetsk, this is back-to-school week, with its traditional assemblies and ceremonies. it provided the occasion for a cease-fire that went into effect yesterday. but was violated today near rebel-held luhansk, when a ukrainian army vehicle was ambushed, killing two people. indeed, now in its second year of conflict, cease-fires brokered by european powers have repeatedly failed to stick. instead, trench warfare rages
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on, in eastern ukraine, between government troops and russian- backed separatists. all told, some 6,800 people have been killed, millions have fled and those who remain live in a constant state of fear. >> ( translated ): when it's evening, when the night is coming, we are waiting for something because there are almost no quiet nights. >> warner: "washington post" reporter thomas gibbons-neff just returned from eastern ukraine, where he spent five days on the front line with a ukrainian. every night is kind of the same routine burks that same routine involved a really, you know, palpable sense of tension. they are ready for someone to say, hey, tanks are coming across this field, get ready to fight to the death, or prepare to retreat. it was a strange routine in the sense that it happened the same every night, but that same
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night, every night involved, hey, maybe this is it, maybe this is going to be the big attack. >> reporter: the conflict in the east has stoked political tensions in the capital kiev. far right nationalists protested monday outside parliament as it voted to grant greater autonomy to rebel areas. violence broke out killing three national guardsmen and hospitalizing 140 people. inside, the lawmakers held a rowdy session, replete with chanting, paper tossing and impassioned speeches over whether to decentralize power, a condition growth to by president petro poroshenko, as demanded by russia in last february's minsk accord designed to end the vie listen lens. the ukrainian parliament speaker urged clogs to vote for the measure -- urged colleagues to-vote for the measure. >> difficult decisions are not easy to make. this may stop the ukrainian
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nation from being a slave to others and ukraine will be independent, sovereign and rich country. >> reporter: washington blames russia for the continued turmoil. >> the fact of the matter is ukraine is now under siege. russia is building military outposts on ukrainian soil. the brazen attempt to redraw the borders of europe by force threatens not only ukraine but the shared aspiration for a europe that is whole and free and at peace. >> reporter: n.a.t.o. is now conducting annual exercises on russia's doorstep. yesterday five u.s. warships and 1,000 troops joined other nations in operation sea breeze in the black sea. >> woodruff: margaret joins me now.
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margaret, how significant is this cease fire? you point out it was broken almost right away. >> it is holding if you have to be holding. the u.s. wants the europeans to push putin very hard to keep up his end of the bargain which was for constitutional changes that poroshenko is pushing. for the east is to withdraw russian heavy weapons and troops from ukraine. the question is what's the incentive for putin to do this? if putin's objective is to keep ukraine weakened and divided, make it very, very hard for them to become the kind of progressive, forward-looking european nation they want to, he's succeeded and the only answer americans can come up with is maybe the sanctions are beginning to bite, maybe me's going to carry out the military side of the deal, but they do not think that will end putin's
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maneuvers to undermine ukraine. >> woodruff: so you were reporting on this vote in parliament in the last couple of days, violent protests. what was driving that? >> i think, judy, this was the more disturbing thing that happened in the last week or two and that is there is growing resistance to the idea of a negotiated settlement with the russians. we've had a growing kind of radicalization in the western part of yiewk as this war has ground on and on. so on its face, there were these two fringe, far-right parties who did very poorly in the election. the voters won, called the right sector, people call them skinheads, thugs, putin calls them nazis and they were behind the actual event, but the deeper problem for ukraine is that there is growing unhappiness with the idea of a associated settlement and the attitude of these hard right parties is why should we give anything to these
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separatists when they continue killing -- you know, hundreds have been killed since the minsk agreement, and they're calling for all-out war right now on the eastern front and that, of course, is fantasy. if the ukrainian forces were to try to step up the war, the russians and their proteges would crush them. but it is a very persistent theme from them. >> woodruff: but is it clear what the broader ukrainian public thinks? >> yes. >> woodruff: i know there are demonstrations but what do most think. >> there are polls showing while the most extreme rhetoric has not resonated yet -- the leader of one of the parties is saying it's time to go after our internal enemies meaning president poroshenko, that is not hitting the public, but the sense they are being played as fools by putin, ukrainians are dying every day, this idea of a negotiated settlement is flawed. the problem with that is since
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neither n.a.t.o., the u.s., the europeans aren't willing to enter and help ukrainians militarily, the negotiated solution is the only solution for them. so it puts the ukrainian government in a difficult position, plus the public is furious because economically life is very hard. tall things they had to do to meet i.f.m. requirements or get debt restructured has meant subsidies and people pay more for electricity and fuel. so all in all, a sea of discontent, and if the aim of putin is also perhaps to so destabilize this government that the public will essentially kick them out, they are trying to wash russia. >> woodruff: what is the u.s. roll in all of this and what do u.s. officials think will happen? >> we've seen multiple phone calls to ukrainian government
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officials from the u.s., mentoring them on how to handle economic issues and so on, but they recognize in the absence of the u.s. being willing to step up military assistance, give true military assistance, that ukraine is, to some degree, on its own, and one senior official said to me they have to play survivor, which i think the model is outwit, outplay and outlast your opponents with a little help from the u.s. and the europeans. but it is not -- that is not the image of a powerful alliance that can rescue ukraine. >> woodruff: another tough one. >> yeah. >> woodruff: margaret warner, we thank you. >> always a pleasure. >> ifill: stay with us. coming up on the newshour: doctors and lawyers join forces to reduce patients costs and improve their health. college students head back to school-- how universities are working to offer more mental health resources on campus.
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and, a fresh take on the implications of piracy in the digital age. but first, militants in the islamic state group have been destroying temples and historic treasures in syria over the past couple of weeks. all part of a continuing campaign to target the region's cultural heritage. jeffrey brown has the story, part of our continuing series "culture at risk". >> brown: satellite images released yesterday by the u.n. confirmed the fears: the destruction of the temple of bel in the ancient syrian city of palmyra. unesco official giovanni boccardi: >> we know for sure that some time after august 27, most likely on august 30, this temple was blown up by explosives. it was dedicated to a local god, bel, but during byzantine times, it was turned into a church and then with the arrival of the
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arabs it turned into a mosque so so this is why it has this profound humanistic meaning which goes beyond the historic and even aesthetic aspects. >> brown: palmyra, a modern city and antiquities site located 150 miles northeast of damascus, was taken over by isis forces in may. who then continued a pattern of targeting ancient sites in iraq and syria. last week they destroyed a smaller temple at palmyra. and before that, gruesomely beheaded the guardian of palmyra's ruins, khaled al- asaad, an 82 year-old syrian archeologist who had looked after the city's sites for more than four decades. on another front-- the fbi last week issued a statement urging u.s. art dealers to be careful when buying antiquities from the middle east, saying there is evidence collectors have recently been offered artifacts plundered by islamic state fighters in syria and iraq. joining me is brenton easter, senior special agent with the
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homeland security department's immigration and customs enforcement and michael danti, an archaeologist at boston university who's worked in the region for many years and advises the state department. let me start with you, michael. help us to understand a lit moral about what has been lost. tell us about palmyra and the specific temple. >> palmyra is the site that dates back to the bronze age several thousand years b.c., but what it's most known for is standing greco roman remains that date to first and second centuries a.d., essentially an antiquity where east met west in the desert linking up with caravan traffic with the immediate trainian and east asia. so it's an incredible fusion of cultures and antiquity. it was known in antiquity for multicultural diversity. >> brown: you and i talked about this issue after the destruction of sites in iraq. when you look at something like
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this, is there a pattern to discern about why specific sites are being targeted at this point? >> yes, in many ways, palmyra serves as a microcosm for the picture for islamic state and destructions as they move into new territory. as their footprints expanded out, the first step generally is they carry out deliberative destructions of muslim heritage, generally mosques, schools and cemeteries. those destructions happened afteafter i.s.i.l moved in. then they move on to museum collections, the collections of private individuals and begin discussions about using contractors, followed by the
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planting of i.e.d.s in structures in pa palmyra and its about waiting for something to happen. we don't know what the timing yes, it is means to have the destructions of the temple that may become clear. >> brown: let me bring in brenton easter. we had the f.b.i. issuing this warning. we hear a lot about the antiquities as a source of revenue for i.s.i.s. is this a certainty at this point and what specifically are you seeing coming on to the antiquities market? >> one of the things h.s.i. has done phenomenally in the last years is we've begun to target these as not just intellectual property but financial and it can feed into other things. we are trying to tackle that angle. one to have the things i heard on the program that gwen ifill was speaking is conflict is an
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area of migration. when you have that you will have smuggled commodities which i.s.i.s. can use as a revenue fund being smuggled as well. >> brown: can i just ask, in that, how much do we know how much money we're talking about? do we know how many pieces we're talking about? what is the extent of the damage and of what's flowing on the market? >> well, that's a very good question, and i don't know if you're ever going to be able to get an exact number or total on any of that. you're hearing all reports from different people saying different things. what we have seen is there are commodities coming out, being offered to people outside of syria, sometimes the pieces are still in syria and we're seeing them being offered. other times they make it to some to have the transshipment locations. once they do leave, they enter into a very large transnational criminal organization network which is expert at smuggling these things, it's expert at
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layering false paperwork to be associated with these pieces so they can be entered on to the market. they're also good at storing these things for a period of time so the pieces can sit five or ten years before they're shown somewhere in one to have the major consumer markets like new york. >> brown: i was going to ask you briefly about the u.s. is there evidence that it is coming? i know you're working very hard to stop it from coming into the u.s. is there any evidence the pieces are getting in yet? >> what i can tell you is we are creating a large database that includes looting antic tirks including stuff not just out of syria and iraq and the middle east but stuff that's being looted around the world, although we have a lot of stuff specifically coming out to have the conflict regions we're discussing tonight. when it comes across the u.s., we hope to intercept it and when it hits the markets we hope to hit it. however, at this point, we aren't seeing large amounts of this commodity hitting at this time.
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>> brown: briefly, michael, were you expecting the way that this gets attention, do you expect to see more of this or what can be done at this point? >> with regard to the delivery of destructions, what can be done is eliminate i.s.i.l. syria and iraq are primarily responsible for the destruction. forces on the ground claim to be more of the destructions to gain media attention and take away attention from failures iraq and syria. >> brown: you think so some has to do with failures, that's why they might be doing this? >> yes, sometimes they're trying to control the message and divert attention from losses to kurdish forces in the north and other theaters in the conflict zone. it serves as a powerful, ideological tool for the organization for recruiting and a form of psychological war fair and i.s.i.l believes this destruction is primarily
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targeting the west. >> brown: thank you both very much, brenton easter and michael danti. >> woodruff: struggling through an illness is never easy. but studies have shown it is even harder for people who do not have much money, education or other resources. in response, many hospital systems across the country have begun establishing so-called medical-legal partnerships. lawyers become allies-- not adversaries-- teaming up with doctors, helping disadvantaged patients work through problems that could interfere with their health. special correspondent jackie judd reports from omaha, nebraska. >> reporter: diego salcido is only five years old and he has had more happen in his young life than people ten times his age. a diagnosis of leukemia led to a
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bone marrow transplant which failed, so he had a second. diego's mother is a constant presence by his side. >> ( translated ): it's been a very rough year. but, god has kept me on my feet. i don't know where he comes up with all this strength, my son. >> reporter: diego has a team of doctors, social workers and lawyers-yes, lawyers-trying everything they can to get him well. >> what do you think it's going to be like when you go home? >> ( translated ): i'd be very happy when we go home. diego will be well. we just have to face these difficulties. >> reporter: one of those 'difficulties' is whether the family apartment is safe enough for diego to live in once he is discharged. on this day, a team from legal aid of nebraska that works in
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partnership with nebraska medicine is dispatched to investigate. diego's father, victor, shows them evidence of an infestation of bugs, including cockroaches. >> ( translated ): there are so many and we can't seem to get rid of them. they come and fumigate but there has been no relief from the problem. >> reporter: the bugs present too great a health risk to diego, whose immune system is a ticking time bomb. >> ( translated ): so, what we would like to do is maybe try to reach out and find some resources to help you guys find a new apartment. and then help you terminate the lease with the landlord and get your rental assistance or your rent deposit back, if that's ok with you. >> reporter: even though lawyers are often the last people
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doctors want to see involved in patient care, a new attitude has taken hold here. >> we physicians have relatively little understanding of the legal process. and we will say, we would say things like "you ought to be out of that house, you ought to be in someplace clean." and don't realize the downstream implication that somebody's got to help them get the resources >> reporter: cancer surgeon kerry rodabaugh is that 'somebody' who gathered the resources. in fact, she only accepted a job with nebraska medicine once she was assured a partnership, similar to the one she formed at her last hospital, would be created. >> i ran a medical-legal that i could not practice medicine without that. we are learning that they are really impacting health. so, if we can get somebody reinstated with their insurance plan, then they're gonna be able
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to afford to take their anti- hypertension medication and their blood pressure's gonna be improved. and who would've thought that an attorney's gonna fix someone's blood pressure! >> reporter: omaha is part of a growing movement founded in 1993. doctors at the boston medical center linked pediatric cases of asthma to mold in homes and then enlisted lawyers to go after negligent landlords. it took years for the idea to catch on. but national leaders sa6, there yare medical legal partnerships in almost three hundred hospitals and health centers, and national leaders say dozens more are planned. the cases mangiameli and her team of six lawyers and two paralegals take on range from landlord-tenant issues, to insurance enrollment and reimbursement, to death bed wishes involving child custody and wills. >> they don't understand the system and that's where we help.
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and it is a great deal of stress it takes off because we know the system. >> reporter: in omaha, almost 17% of the city's residents live in poverty. so, to meet the need the partnership has grown from one department in one hospital to all five of the city's major hospital systems, including two neighborhood clinics. >> reporter: their patients are screened not only for health problems but problems lawyers could help with as well. >> reporter: nebraska medicine's payments to legal aid of nebraska have increased from $25,000 to more than $200,000 a year. and in seven years, it has recouped two-million dollars from insurers in contested reimbursements. partnerships are an increasingly attractive model for health systems as more of them get paid by insurers, not for specific services, but set amounts for
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keeping people healthy. if everything aligns, partnerships become a win-win for patients, doctors and hospitals. >> if we can take some of these issues and reduce the number of visits to a physician, reduce the number of times they're gonna end up in the emergency room, reduce the number of times that they're gonna be admitted to the hospital, that in itself will help from a standpoint of using dollars that are gonna be allocated going forward in a much more conscientious and wiser manner. >> reporter: those twin purposes, healthier patients and reduced costs, brought breast cancer survivor denise lauritsen to legal aid. dr. rodabough would not put lauritsen through the trauma of additional surgery, which would add to the cost of care, without knowing whether she had cancer in other parts of her body.
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so, a cat scan was ordered. >> she just really would not have been certain of her disease status and we would not have been clear on what the next best step for her care would have been. so the cat scan was critical. >> reporter: but, medicaid refused to approve the cat scan. after nine months, multiple legal briefs and court decisions, legal aid, and lauritsen, won. >> it gave me peace of mind. i couldn't sleep at night. i worried all the time. i was not at peace with myself and i think that cat scan was just the final, just the closure on all of it. >> reporter: lauritsen, who did have surgery in 2014, is strong and well. because medical-legal partnerships are relatively new, research to prove and to quantify how they improve
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health outcomes is only just beginning. diego's mother already is certain that having lawyers work side by side with the medical team has boosted her son's chances of living a long life. >> ( translated ): it's a lot of help i'm receiving. i thank god for all of the angels he has sent me. >> reporter: this is jackie judd for the pbs newshour in omaha. >> woodruff: this story was produced in collaboration with the solutions journalism network. >> ifill: as students head back to campus, colleges and universities across the country are facing a growing demand for mental health care. schools have long provided counseling. but increasingly, colleges are facing new dilemmas about how to best treat a student-- especially one at risk. hari sreenivasan is in our new york studios with the story. >> sreenivasan: in fact, rates of anxiety and depression among college students in the u.s.
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have soared in the past decade. there's more awareness of problems, risks and diagnoses and combined with the stresses of college life, schools are trying to figure out the right course of treatment, counseling and intervention. the chronicle of higher education examined this in a new series about what it calls "an epidemic of anguish." jennifer ruark is the editor of the series, which has been in the works for ten months and micky sharma is director of the association for university and college counseling center directors. he's director of the office of student life counseling at ohio state. >> they're seeingñi more incidei of serious situation thatçnaãnec >> sreenivasan: i'm thinking
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about this andñi saying, listen, haven't theçó stresses of moving away from home, perhaps the big breakup withxd the girlfxi boyfriendñi test --xd bombing añiñi test,çót that been around since college has been around?ñi what's differentñi now? >> i think theñi stigma regardig mental health has decreased. locally here at ohio state and across the country. students are more apt to reach out and meet withñiñixd a counsr when they'rep things. áq haveçó students growa fast-paced society. there areñi shoulders and ançó increase inxd anxiety we see in students.ñiçó3 traditionally,çóa5euj))p&ly,, depression was always the number one j(%ng thatxd students brougt toñr university counseling centers.çóéá3 about four years ago that flipped and now anxiety is the number oneçóñi problem students bxi ohio state and depression isñ&cc
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>> sreenivasan: are there schoolsñi dealingñr with thisñie differently, jennifer? inñrxdxd a couple of your stori@ the kid away as fast as possible to get help and another didn't. there vogsçó pt seem to beçóñr uniformity. >> every school wants its students to be in an environment where#÷ for the troubled individual and theñre1 rest of the classmates. but the care they're able to offer varies widely from campusi to campus. you have somex thatçó are able to have an onsie psychiatrist and many thatñi don't. there areñr many cam pulses whih don't have as manyçó hours aá)aâ center, who are staffing theçó center with interns or trying to rely more onñi peer education aó faculty intervention simply because they don'tvomúhzei the resourcesçóçó that theyñia/a ne. >> sreenivasan: mickyñi sharma,
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you have one of the biggest resc dealing with these populations or challenges. what are the appropriate boundaries for an institution of learning today between caring for the mental, the physical, the emotional, the psychological well being of a person because some asked, listen, you want your job to be a university or college and help teach? now we're asking you to think about healthcare and mental health care. >> i think the job of the university is to provide as much as they can of support services to help students be academically sucksful and at the end of the day that's what counseling centers are doing is providing support to students to come to the university, be sucksful, earn the degree and launch their agree career. so many university counselors, what we're doing is providing short-term treatment and on a time-limited basis at many centers so they're able to provide students and reach as many students as possible.
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additionally, many centers have evolved into providing a menu of service options, so a majority of what we do is individual and group counseling, drop-in workshopsñiñi tou strategies,ñ9iñi bm)oq) stressñ hands of açiñrñr many possible. >> srell6vasan: what did your reporters find about theñ balancing act at schools between having their student populations safeñi÷d andçó÷d cared for and n balancingçó privacy rights on te other hand. >> colleges won't jlowñr whether students comexdñi ws.$5a=/%ut mental health conditions unless the studeni orñr family chooseso disclose that.@zc @&c campuskinsingu alre on some psychotropic medicine in part because of the listing of theñi stict( stigma u referred to earlier. if añiñi faculty memberñiñi nots
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signs a student may be troubled, they can encourage that student to seek counseling and to talk to people, but unless it becomes a crisis situati[ really force the student to seek counseling. >> sreenivasan: micky sharma, tell me about the challenge that poses, if you have a larger population coming to you year afterñr yea+óñiñi who might have alri uá collegeñr orxdgçó as jennifer d to if they'reñré does that doñi when you have to talk to themñr first? >> in terms of what that does to the services that the universitv counseling center sit forces reach students. as i mentioned before, we have in our centerñi the individual therapy is the number one thing that we do, but we have psychiatristsñr who provideñ but we also look at other forms to provide students such asñi educational programming. and look at matching the
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services to a particular student's need. i often tell our faculty and staff, just because a student is crying doesn't mean he or she needs psychotherapy. sometimes that's an emotional response we want to see. so we're looking at getting the right level of service to match an individual student's need. >> sreenivasan: micky sharma, jennifer ruark, thanks so much for joining us. >> thank you. >> woodruff: finally tonight, we close with an essay: a new occasional feature on the newshour bringing we hope some fresh perspective on provocative issues. tonight we hear from author joshua cohen. he gives us his thoughts on the value of intellectual property and what it means to steal.
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what's the thing a pirate is afraid of. >> the dark! i remember hearing the joke when i was ten. i remember the guy i heard it from. herman pollack. an older guy around the synagogue and had a lot of jokes and a lot of them were about pirates. why did the pirate quit his ship to write poetry? >> for the love of the arts! anyway, this guy from the synagogue told these jokes to me and told them to me free of charge and now "newshour" is paying me to tell them to you. how do i justify this? do i owe herman pollack or his heirs a per sedges of what i'm earning? a few years off heard the jokes is when i went online for the first time, 1994. this was the first time online for a lot of people. in many ways, mine was a test generation. everything was free for us or felt free. we wanted music, we downloaded it. we wanted to print a photo and hang it on the wall, so what. we downloaded books or ebooks with a single click. woe downloaded games. it all seemed like a game.
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there was so much to hear and see and read. we played around in the imagination of strangers. or whoever it was who produced all this stuff, they weren't even strangers, they weren't even human. culture came out of the void. i remember clicking on a site full of jokes and some of the jokes in the site i already knew and i remember that feeling, none of this was created by anyone, it was all just here to begin . with but then i started writing for myself and i came to know the months, the years it took to make something and the pride of having made something, how it feels to receive credit for bringing a readser a spark. now i take credit not money because to nee chief intellectual property theft is not that it deprives me of a living or but the audience and the art itself of a life. it's my belief that culture has to be paid for, if not with mony or prairksz then with time and attention. there are more things to hear
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and see and read than ever before, but the cheaper it is to get your hands on them, the cheaper your appreciation of them will be. the cost of a thing is the care you give it. the fact, is you can rip off a million books but they're not truly yours if you're not going to read them. songs aren't songs if they're never heard, films and films if they're never watched. culture must be lived, active, it can't just be in a folder on your desktop or a bund of bytes on your hard drive. herman pollack, the man who told me the pirate jokes seemed to love the jokes because they were ability language and puns and english was the fourth language he spoke. he learned these jokes and they taught him the language. herman grew up in a world that didn't have as many books as ours and what decent books the world had, it tended to burn. because herman didn't have such
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free access to books, he took to memorizing any he could find. memorizing these books is how he earned them, how he owned them. his memory of them was his truest possession, no one could take that away from him. which reminds me... why don't pirates ever learn the alphabet? because after a and b, they spend all their lives at c. >> ifill: on the newshour online: the centers for disease control and prevention says roughly half of u.s. adults suffer from chronic conditions like arthritis, diabetes and h.i.v. for many, these illnesses can be invisible, showing no obvious symptoms. that's why two friends-- both sufferers themselves-- decided to launch a photo campaign that sheds light on some of these hidden illnesses. you can see a photo essay and find out how you can participate
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in a twitter chat on the topic on friday. the details are on our homepage. that's pbs.org/newshour. >> woodruff: and that's the newshour for tonight. on thursday, margaret warner takes a look at the debate among american jews over the iran deal and whether it's good for israel and america. i'm judy woodruff. >> ifill: and i'm gwen ifill. join us online. and again here tomorrow evening. for all of us at the pbs newshour, thank you and good night. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: >> supporting social entrepreneurs and their solutions to the world's most pressing problems-- skollfoundation.org. >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions
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>> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc captioned by media access group at wgbh access.wgbh.org
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>> this is "bbc world news america." >> funding of this presentation is made possible by -- the freeman foundation, newman's own foundation -- giving all profits from newman's own to charity and pursuing the common good, kovler foundation -- pursuing solutions for america's neglected needs, and mufg. >> they say the oldest trees bear the sweetest fruit. at mufg, we have believed in nurturing banking relationships for centuries, because strong financial partnerships are best cultivated for the years t

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