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tv   PBS News Hour  PBS  October 5, 2015 6:00pm-7:01pm PDT

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captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc >> woodruff: good evening. i'm judy woodruff. gwen ifill is on assignment. on the newshour tonight: a historic flood leaves much of south carolina under water. then, this politics monday: hilary clinton weighs in to the debate over gun control. and in congress, a fight over who will be the next speaker of the house. plus, an investigation into the nation's silent mass disaster, when people go missing and their families are left in the dark. >> you can't celebrate a holiday when there's somebody missing from the room. i actually was supposed to get married and i didn't get married because i couldn't get married without my dad. >> woodruff: all that and more on tonight's pbs newshour.
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>> and with the ongoing support of these institutions >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. >> woodruff: south carolina lay stricken today, with cities, towns and roads inundated by the worst flooding on record. days of non-stop rain have killed nine people, driven hundreds into shelters, and left thousands more without power or drinkable water. some of the worst was in the state's capital, as william brangham reports. >> brangham: parts of columbia, south carolina were simply swallowed up today by the rising waters. it was chest-high, and even higher in some parts of the
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city. and even as the rain began finally tapering off, there were new warnings. >> this is not over. just because the rain stops does not mean that we are out of the woods. >> brangham: in a briefing today, governor nikki haley appealed to people not to take chances. >> i do want to say that we've had word that people have taken their boats to the lake murray dam to take pictures of the water. we're trying to really say that is extremely dangerous and this is-- i can't stress enough that this is not a fun event. >> brangham: all that water is the result of a slow-moving storm system that lingered over the southeast and sucked in moisture from hurricane joaquin, spinning out in the atlantic. on sunday alone, more than 16 inches of rain fell on the gills creek area near columbia. that's the most in one area, on one day, anywhere in the united states, in more than 15 years. hundreds of people also had to be rescued around columbia. this video captured one dramatic moment, as a coast guard team
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aboard a helicopter pulled a mother and her small child to safety. the flooding also shut down some 550 roads and bridges across the state, and 75 miles of interstate 95, and officials warned it could take weeks to re-open everything. state adjutant general bob livingston, jr.: >> the roads are still unsafe. a lot of them have been undermined by the flooding. and so the road may look perfect on top, but if you drive across it, it could collapse. we've had that happen to our rescue crews and we're having to do engineering evaluations on those so again, don't get out unless you have to. >> brangham: elsewhere, cemeteries, like this one in springfield, were so saturated that coffins were coming out of the ground. and on the coast, charleston reported its worst flooding since hurricane hugo roared through back in 1989. not far away, in summerville, drone footage showed entire neighborhoods submerged around cane bay. governor haley warned recovery will be slow, as the surging waters continue following their paths to the ocean.
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>> this is going to be a process. it is going to be one where we have to prioritize and we have to stay on it. it's going to be one where we're going to be ok but we are really going to have to take it one step at a time. >> brangham: meanwhile, columbia and two of its surrounding counties are under a nighttime curfew, and some 375,000 people have been warned to boil their tap water to make it drinkable. for the pbs newshour, i'm william brangham. >> woodruff: as the storm slowly moved on today, more rain fell in the low-lying northeastern part of the state. in the day's other news, a cargo ship that was caught in the path of hurricane joaquin has sunk with 33 people on board. the coast guard said today it's found a body and debris near the bahamas, where the "el faro" was last heard from. a coast guard officer leading the search -- from jacksonville, florida -- said the chances that anyone survived are slim. >> is if the vessel did sink on
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thursday and that crew was able to abandon ship, they would have been abandoning ship into a category four hurricane. so you are talking up to 140 mile an hour winds, seas upwards of 50 feet, visibility basically at zero. those are challenging conditions to survive in. >> woodruff: the ship's owner says the vessel's captain had planned to sail out of harm's way, but the main engines failed. tensions over the russian air campaign in syria escalated today after a russian fighter jet crossed into turkey over the weekend. moscow said it was an unintentional violation as its planes targeted the islamic state group, or isil, but nato member turkey protested. in brussels, the head of nato met with turkey's foreign minister and called the airspace violation "unacceptable." >> i call on russia to fully respect nato airspace, and to avoid escalating tensions with the alliance. i urge russia to take the necessary steps to align its efforts with those of the
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international community in the fight against isil. >> woodruff: the u.s. and nato have charged the russian air strikes are also targeting the western-backed rebels in syria. meanwhile, the "new york times" reports the u.s. will back a major offensive by rebel factions and kurdish fighters against isil fighters in northeast syria. in iraq, at least 56 people were killed today in a string of car bombings that bore the islamic state hallmark. the worst attack hit a shiite town in eastern iraq, followed by a blast in baghdad and another outside basra, in the south. the sunni militants of isil have frequently targeted shiites across iraq. elsewhere in the middle east, street clashes flared in the west bank, and israeli troops shot and killed two palestinian teens. it was the latest in a growing series of violent incidents. in bethlehem, palestinians threw rocks and firebombs near rachel's tomb, where israel's separation barrier juts into the city.
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the israeli army said soldiers initially used tear gas, then switched to live rounds. three scientists will share this year's nobel prize for medicine, for critical advances against parasitic diseases. irish-born william campbell and japan's satoshi ormura share half the prize for discovering a drug to treat river blindness and elephantiasis. and, tu youyou of china was honored for developing a powerful anti-malaria drug from traditional herbal medicine. colleagues praised her steadfast approach: >> ( translated ): over 200 prescriptions and dozens of kinds of traditional chinese medicine were used. her research started based on this. then it took a long time and many repeated failures. her team finally succeeded after trying around 300 times. >> woodruff: tu is china's first nobel laureate in medicine. there's word that german officials have almost doubled
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the number of asylum seekers they're expecting this year to 1.5 million. the "bild" newspaper reports the number comes from an internal government forecast. the earlier estimate was 800,000. back in this country, the justice department and five states announced a final settlement of $20 billion with b.p. over the 2010 oil spill in the gulf of mexico. flanked by other officials, attorney general loretta lynch said it's the largest settlement with a single entity in american history. >> it is significantly higher than the penalties exacted for the exxon valdez disaster which people often compare this to. and so we feel this will with cooperation with agencies here and the gulf states lead to real relief for people and the citizens and the businesses of the gulf. >> woodruff: the spill stained more than 1,300 miles of coastline and was the largest environmental disaster in u.s. history. the settlement includes alabama, florida, louisiana, mississippi and texas.
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the u.s. homeland security department is re-opening a probe into secret service efforts to discredit congressman jason chaffetz. it happened in march, as the utah republican was investigating agency misconduct. dozens of agents looked at his failed 2003 job application to the agency, and someone leaked details. the renewed investigation comes after the secret service director changed his version of the incident. >> woodruff: wall street had a bullish monday on hopes that the federal reserve will delay raising interest rates. the dow jones industrial average gained more than 300 points to close near 16,780. the nasdaq rose 73 points. and the s&p 500 added 35. still to come on the newshour: a major trade deal is reached with asia. fall-out from the airstrike in afghanistan that hit a hospital. an investigation into the nation's silent mass disaster,
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when people go missing. and much more. >> woodruff: after nearly a decade of negotiations and five nights of round-the-clock talks this past week, the u.s. and 11 other pacific rim nations announced the largest trade deal in a generation today. the stakes are big. together, the countries-- shown here and which include japan, canada, mexico, australia and vietnam-- make up more than 35% of world trade, totaling some $28 trillion. but there's substantial opposition to the accord, called the trans-pacific partnership. jeffrey brown looks at the deal, the compromises and the road ahead. >> brown: it's a wide-ranging accord that seeks to lower trade barriers and expand agricultural markets.
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among other things, it: but many provisions are the subject of deep skepticism and outright opposition from voices across the spectrum. and getting it approved by congress during an election year is no small matter. greg ip is chief economics commentator for "the wall street journal" and the author of the forthcoming book, "foolproof." welcome back, greg. >> thank you. first, an overview, huge dollar amounts, wide ranges covered. it's a big deal. >> it's the biggest trade deal since the uruguay agreement in the world trade organization 20
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years ago and the first to be negotiated by the united states under the obama presidency. 30% of world gdp. covers areas that haven't been covered in agreements of this size, like services and intellectual property, and important in g.o.p. terms because it's important for the countries in it and the countries that are not, more importantly china. >> reporter: first, in economic terms, the obama administration and supporters point to the benefits. give us a couple of champs. >> there are specific areas where the united states is very competitive, has had trouble getting to other countries' markets, agriculture, for example. japan and canada which have highly protected dairy have to open up more to the united states. and other industries where the u.s. is advanced like drugs, intellectual property, high-end services and engineering, under
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this, no longer can discriminate against and other countries can challenge countries in their own court. >> brown: intellectual property has not been part of trade agreements and has been difficult to negotiate. >> exactly, an example, the united states has a lot of pharmaceutical and biologics have 12-year battent protections likprotections. >> in other countries, they will get 5 to 8 years. that's not so good for the buyers overdrugs. >> brown: a lot of opposition has been throughout and will continue. point to some of the particular areas where the opposition. >> one is the pharmaceutical biologic agreement because people who worry about the access by poorer countries to most advanced drugs are afraid
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they will be forced to pay extremely high prices because they can no longer put generics under the patent protection the law provides. auto exains may not be happy japan will have more access to the u.s. automobile market at a time when american companies always struggled to penetrate the japanese market. larger level, bernie sanders running for president, free trade benefits wealthier than the average. >> brown: free labor are against many ports of this. >> right. >> brown: going back to the geopolitics, a lot of this is in the context of rising china. china is not part of this deal. >> correct. and china couldn't really be part of this deal because many of the things the united states wanted, for example governments may not allow government-owned companies to have special privileges. this is not compatible with the
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way chinese economy is which is comenated by state-owned enterprises. the united states was adamant we create a framework that favors its more liberal vision of trade. china swek med to join but it will be a while before china is economically and politically ready to do that. it is a sign of u.s. leadership and a time of uneasiness about the fact china's company has grown and persuaded countries to sign up with its vision of unilateral -- >> brown: this is seen as upa act of leadership and a model of future kind of deal? >> possibly. but i think, at the same time, is that one of the big selling points you will hear from barack obama is that irrespective of what you think of the economic pluses and minuses of the deal, china is out there and there is a contest between the united states and china for economic leadership and if the united states doesn't step forward to right the rules, china will and
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the rules will not be as friendly to americans as u.s. rules. >> brown: you mentioned bernie sanders and you could go through the list of politicians because it's a campaign year. s in going to spin out over the next couple of months, play out inevitably in the presidential campaign. >> first we have to get the text of the agreement, that will be at least another month, and congress will have to vote on it sometime next year. they've already voted on trade promotion authority which means we will vote yea or nay on the agreement but cannot amend it and the vote passed very narrowly and most democrats voted against it. you should not take for granted this will pass. that said, republicans who now control both houses of congress by and large support free trade so they probably won't let the president get what he wants on this one matter. >> brown: thank you. thank you, jeff.
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>> woodruff: the fallout over a u.s. airstrike on a medical facility in afghanistan continued today. the incident, which is being called a "war crime" by doctors without borders, took center stage at the pentagon this morning. >> if errors were committed, we will acknowledge them. we'll hold those responsible accountable, and we'll take steps to ensure mistakes are not repeated. >> woodruff: that was general john campbell, u.s. commander of coalition forces in afghanistan, pledging the facts will come out about friday's deadly attack. the air strike killed 22 people at a doctors without borders hospital in kunduz, amid heavy fighting between the taliban and afghan forces. some afghan officials say taliban fighters were firing from inside the hospital, a charge that doctors without borders denies. initially, the pentagon said u.s. troops called in the air strikes, but campbell changed that account today.
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>> we have now learned that on october 3, afghan forces advised that they were taking fire from enemy positions and asked for air support from u.s. forces. an air strike was then called to eliminate the taliban threat, and several civilians were accidentally struck. >> woodruff: the general repeatedly declined to answer questions about exactly who authorized the bombardment. >> that will come out in the investigation. >> i don't want to go into those great details yet until we get the investigation, and i don't want to cover the rules of engagement in this format at this point in time. >> woodruff: campbell also did not say if the hospital was hit by mistake, or if u.s. air crews verified the target before firing. doctors without borders has said it provided g.p.s. coordinates of the site to coalition forces and notified them during the air strikes, but to little avail. today, the group's general director, christopher stokes, rejected the latest u.s. version of events. in a statement, he said:
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>> woodruff: as to that, general campbell said today the u.s. military, nato and afghanistan are already investigating. >> if there's other investigations out there that need to go on i'll make sure that we coordinate those as well, but i won't go into those details here. >> woodruff: back in kunduz, fighting continues on the city outskirts with afghan security forces trying to drive out any remaining taliban. and senior white house officials tell "the washington post" that president obama is now considering keeping 5,000 troops in afghanistan beyond 2016, which had been the deadline for withdrawal.
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>> woodruff: stay with us. coming up on the newshour: an investigation into what happens when someone goes missing in the u.s. and a look ahead to this year's docket on the supreme court. but first, gwen gets the latest on the race for the white house. she recorded this conversation earlier today before leaving on assignment. >> ifill: from gun control, to the email dispute that won't go away, to a fresh leadership fight on capitol hill. congressional politics and presidential politics overlap this week. so we turn to amy walter of "the cook political report," and tamara keith of npr, reporting tonight from new hampshire, for our weekly monday night look at what's happening behind the scenes. hillary clinton today got on the gun control bandwagon forcefully with her own plan. we want to hear a little about what she had to say.
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tamara, i want to hear how it went over. >> we need to go back and, with all of our hearts, working not just in washington but from the grassroots up, demand that we have universal background checks. 40% of guns are gun shows, online sales. we need to close the loophole so that when we have a universal background check -- (applause) -- it will cover everybody. we have got to keep guns out of the hands of people who should not have them -- domestic abusers, people with serious mental health problems -- >> ifill: of course, this is a result to what happened in oregon last week, the mass shooting at a community college, and the president's strong words about gun control and how we have to do more than just talk about it. tamara, is that what she was doing as well? >> yeah, and hillary clinton has actually spoken about gun
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control forcefully in the last few months following other-mass shootings, but this time she has put out a plan, she has several bullet points she's calling for, different items she wants. in the room, this was very different from many other clinton town halls i have been to. it was more emotional. the crowd was almost more into it, you could say, than many of our other town halls. many standing ovations. people really enthusiastic about what she's saying and proposing. in particular, there was a moment where hillary clinton, as she was finishing her reactors, asked a mother to come up on stage. this is a sandy hook mom whose 6-year-old son was killed in the shooting at sandy hook. as hillary clinton talked about that mom's experience, hillary clinton's voice choked up a little bit, and it was a very emotional moment in the room. >> ifill: it's interesting because, as you know, amy, we've had this conversation many times
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and, in fact, last time the president came out, he was accused of sounding as if he had given up on being able to do anything and we heard some of that from jeb bush as well. is there anything different in this gun control argument this time? >> i don't think it's changed much at all. i think we see the two parties going back into predictable lanes. democrats talking about more gun control, republicans talking about how they have to defend the rights of gun owners, and this is coming at a time, also, of a very competitive primary fight very specifically republican but on the democratic side as well where both sides are trying to speak to the base. the democratic base, this is an issue that's very important to them, the idea of gun control. on the republican side, they are more concerned with gun rights. so you're seeing both camps just lining up pretty predictably. >> ifill: let's try something. you were in the room tonight where bernie sanders had a rally in boston this weekend, tamara,
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had 20,000 people there yet he doesn't come down on the same side of the argument as hillary clinton on guns. does that hurt him at all with his base? >> this is a fascinating thing. bernie sanders is to the left of the democratic field on absolutely everything except for guns and, when it comes to guns, he's more moderate. in the '90s, he voted against the brady bill. in 2005, he voted for a bill that became law that shields gun manufacturers from lawsuits. hillary clinton is trying to make a big issue out of this. one of her proposals is to repeal that law that bernie sanders voted for and she voted against. i think that clinton and her supporters see this as an opportunity and also martin o'malley, the maryland governor, sees it, too, to show differences and, for once, show that bernie sanders is not the purest candidate on the left on at least one topic.
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>> that speaks to the demographics of th the issue of guns. gallup did a country. people who own guns a mainly white, southern and male. people who do not loan guns are the lowest, minority, women. if you want to speak to overwhelmingly white, male and southerners, he lives in an overwhelmingly white state, vermontics and this issues plays differently in vermont than brooklyn. >> ifill: which we can expect hillary clinton to exploit. she has an opportunity to exploit something else. as we know, she's been struggling with the email controversy and republicans are helping her. kevin mccarthy said this. everybody thought hillary clinton was unbeaten, right? that we put together a benghazi special committee. what are your numbers today?
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dropping. why? because she's untrustable. but no one would have known any of that had that happened. well, today in new hampshire, hillary clinton pushed back and said, the horror of this, it's pure politics and proves the point i was making. so this was kind of an opportunity for her today. >> absolutely, and she came out pretty angrily on the "today" show. she was more angry than i think i've seen her about the benghazi committee and the controversy over the e-mails really saying kevin mccarthy proves my point that republicans are trying to politicize this. many hillary clinton supporters would agree with that assessment. others are concerned about the email issue and it gets wrapped up in the idea of trust. >> ifill: well, the other problem, of course -- capitol hill politics -- this provide and opportunity for somewould be to challenge kevin mccarthy. let's listen. >> i think i bring a skill set
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that's maybe a little bit more different, the communications side of it, making sure we have a spiker who's speaking and driving home the communications side of it. internally, i think i've earned a reputation of being a fair, honest broker that can bring all sides of the political spectrum together. there is some internal strife and divide that needs to be bridged. >> ifill: now, he was talking to lisa desjardins, our political director in that interview. he was saying, clearing i can communicate better than this other guy. >> he said "communication" in a letter to his colleagues this weekend talking a lot about if you put me on national television, i won't make these same kind of mistakes. what that benghazi gaffe revealed for the republicans in the house is a divide that was always there and a concern that's always been there that the new team coming in is going to have the same problems as the old team that's going out that cannot figure out how to bring
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the republicans together and they can't figure out a way for the republicans to push a message that looks like it can bring in a broader group of voters. so, now, we have had a real fight for the speakership. this was supposed to be kevin mccarthy's, was supposed to be very easy and talking to folks on capitol hill today there's a sense that i don't know if anybody can get to 218 votes, which is the votes you need to be speaker. >> ifill: and, tam remarks it's not about who is speaker even if mccarthy has more votes, you then have to fight for the number two jobs. >> yes, and that's been delayed till later in the month. the more conservative, hard-line members of the republican caucus are sort of balking and saying you want all of these people basically allied with john
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boehner? the whole point was to get righted of john boehner and get rid of the people who support his -- he would call ate more practical viewpoint about what republicans in congress can get done. >> ifill: all part of the same loop. thank you very much. >> woodruff: now, a story from our partners at the center for investigative reporting's podcast "reveal" about jane and john does, america's nameless dead. last month, a baby girl found on the shore near boston was finally identified as bella bond. but, there are still thousands of unknown bodies waiting for this resolution in city morgues and public cemeteries nationwide. reveal's michael shiller has the story. >> reporter: alice almendarez and her four sisters knew something was wrong when a week
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went by without hearing from their father. >> my dad was a softie, he had five girls and he adored us. >> reporter: when alice tried to report him missing, she says the houston police didn't take her concerns seriously. she says that because he had a criminal record and no permanent address, the police assumed he had intentionally left his family. >> they told me that maybe my father didn't want to be found. maybe he was tired of having a family. it was hard because you felt like you were fighting them to do their job. >> reporter: she didn't learn his fate for 12 years. >> you can't celebrate a holiday when there's somebody missing from the room. i actually was supposed to get married and i didn't get married because i couldn't get married without my dad. >> reporter: the fbi estimates there are some 80,000 reported missing people on any given day in the united states. at the same time, there are over 10,000 unidentified bodies.
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there is no national law requiring agencies to share this information, leaving many families in the dark about their loved one's fate. the u.s. justice department calls it "the nation's silent mass disaster." >> sooner or later, we have to address this problem. >> reporter: after 13 years as las vegas coroner, michael murphy says that because there is no unified approach to reporting jane and john does, bodies go unidentified far too long. >> you could have a body that was on one side of a county line and the next county could have that individual reported as missing and no one may have talked to each other. >> reporter: in alice's case, it happened within the same texas county. after 12 years of searching for her father, she learned that authorities had found his body only a few miles from where she lived, just weeks after their last visit. >> if i would have known the whole time that my dad was already dead, i wod have had some kind of peace knowing that my dad wasn't starving, wasn't hungry, wasn't being hurt. >> you know, a traditional
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funeral, three days you're buried, and then you find ways to adapt to your new life. in a missing persons case it's like a funeral that goes on for years. >> reporter: todd matthews started out as part of a network of volunteer sleuths working on cold cases involving nameless victims. it's become a full-time job. >> my day job is finding the missing among the dead. >> reporter: after matthews identified a body from a 1960s murder case, the department of justice called on him to help create a database: the national missing and unidentified-persons system, or namus, the first-ever federal catalogue that made it possible for anyone to search official missing persons and unsolved john and jane doe cases. he is now the director of communications and case management for the namus program. today, matthews is exhuming a body that's been unidentified for 45 years. the skeletal remains are believed to be those of a young woman who was found dead off a
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remote trail in eastern kentucky in 1969, murdered with stab wounds to the chest. >> somebody's getting away with it. the criminal aspect of it is that somebody's getting away with murder. >> reporter: even with no formal training in forensics, matthews is regarded as an expert in identifying human remains. >> it's just a matter of having to sit down and just go through these cases and find what you're looking for. the answers are in the system for a lot of these cases. >> reporter: the namus system allows authorities to automatically perform cross- matching comparisons between databases, searching for similarities. >> i'm good, we're at an exhumation in kentucky from a 1969 jane doe case. i've got some bones here. >> reporter: the main lab that the namus database relies on is at the university of north texas, where scientists extract and analyze dna from unidentified remains. but by itself, this dna is not enough. to make an i.d., there needs to be a matching source of d.n.a. that's why loved ones of missing persons have gathered in houston, texas for "family day," where volunteer groups and
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officials managing the namus database have gathered along with law enforcement to get more families to put their d.n.a. into the system. >> my son is missing. his name is ryan jacob esparza. he's missing out of pasadena, texas. this is the park that supposedly he was last seen at. >> reporter: gloria esparza brought her family so that their cheeks could be swabbed. their d.n.a. will be compared to likely matches to see whether any of the recorded john does are gloria's son. >> my world has been turned upside-down, up and down, and i want off. i want off of this roller coaster. >> reporter: coroner michael murphy in las vegas thinks that connecting the missing and the unidentified in one database is a big step in the right direction, but there is still more to do. >> there is not a national requirement or any law that i'm aware of that says that coroner medical examiner offices, law enforcement agencies or whomever will report to a database about unidentified remains. connecting this information is
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vital to the success of identifying the unidentified persons. >> that is why i am here to urge my friends to join us in supporting billy's law, legislation that will begin correcting these problems that plague our nation's missing persons system. >> reporter: in 2010, then- representative chris murphy introduced a bill that would establish standards for reporting missing and unidentified persons. but that effort and two following ones failed to gain broad support. recently, now-senator murphy sponsored the bill for a fourth time. >> i can say there are agencies, medical examiners, coroners, law enforcement that still today don't know namus. so much as we've done to get the word out-- free tools, free science-- still, there are still people who don't know about it. >> reporter: late last year the namus database surpassed more than 10,000 unidentified bodies in their database, a grim milestone, but one that increases the odds that the missing will be found. alice's father used to be one of
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those cases, until 2014, when alice submitted her d.n.a. for comparison. just a few months later, there was a match. >> if everybody was entered into that database, everyone would have that closure, not that they wanted, but that they needed in order to live again. >> reporter: alice's father remains buried at the harris county cemetery, where he's been for 10 years marked as an unknown hispanic male. today, alice is waiting to exhume his body so she can bury him in their family cemetery, using a gravestone with his real name. >> no matter what somebody does, i don't think they deserve to be buried as john doe. my dad had a name. >> reporter: for the pbs newshour, i'm michael schiller from reveal in houston, texas. >> woodruff: reveal has launched a searchable database to facilitate matches between missing persons and identified bodies. you can find that online at lostandfound.revealnews.org.
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>> woodruff: it's the first monday in october, and that means the supreme court kicks off its new term. the court will deal with several political issues, among them affirmative action, voting rights and unions. for what to look for in the months ahead, we are joined, as always, by marcia coyle of "the national law journal." >> thank you. >> woodruff: it is developing into a pretty big turn. >> it is, and not only the cases the court has agreed to hear but big ones are waiting in the wings the justices are likely to add to this term's docket. >> woodruff: you were telling me there was a lot of conversations, before we get into the specifics of this, about how this could turn out to be a more conservative term than the last one.
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what did you mean by that? >> so much of a term's character depends on the nature of the cases that the justices take, but it also depends on if those cases are controversial and the court is likely to it mr. ideologically. justice kennedy is in the middle, the swing vote and he tends to vote conservative more than to the left on certain issues, and those certain issues are on the docket -- as you mentioned, affirmative action, voting, first amendment, unions. >> woodruff: let's tackle a few and start with affirmative action. this is fisher vs. university of texas. >> right. the university of texas uses race as one of something like 17 different factors in its admissions policies. its goal is to achieve broader diversity. this is the second time this case has come to the courts. several terms ago the court sent it back to the lower courts because it believed the lower
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courts hadn't applied strict scrutiny -- that is, hadn't first looked at whether race-neutral alternatives were used by the university before using race. went back to the lower court. the lower court once again said this program passes constitutional muster. comes back up to the supreme court and, apparently, there are four justices because you only need the votes of four who still want to look at the use of race to achieve diversity in higher education. >> woodruff: so as you say, the second time before the court. another texas case, marcia, this on political redistricting, one person, one vote. >> it's hard to believe the principle of one person, one vote is now before the supreme court in a very basic way. how should you count people in order to get to one person one vote in legislative districts? the state of texas and just about every single state counts total population in order to get
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to that, but the challengers in this case say, no, you really should count voting population, eligible voters, and the reason it has politically high stakes is if you go with voting population, that tends to benefit rural areas where people do vote more and they tend to vote republican. if you do it on total population which includes not only voters but non-citizens, they tend to trend democratic in voting. >> woodruff: so you're going to capture a bigger group. >> exactly. >> woodruff: it raises probably questions about -- >> cities, yes. >> woodruff: so another case we know is coming up has to do with public sector labor unions and individuals who are not paying members, dues-paying members of these unions but who may receive benefits. >> back in 1977, the supreme court decided a case in which it had to strike a balance between
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the first amendment right of non-union members as well as unions' rights when they gauge in collective bargaining, the benefits of collective bargaining also go to the non-union members in the public sector and the unions look at that as free riding. the supreme court says first amendment rights of non-union members aren't hindered if they contribute to the cost of collective paring but they don't have to pay for the unions' non-collective bargaining activities like political lobbying, speech, things like that. but in the case in the supreme court, the supreme court is being asked to overrule the 1977 and eliminate the fees non-union members pay to unions. so the stakes are high for public sector unions which remain the largest unions in the country. >> woodruff: the other thing, marcia, is you've told us there are a couple of cases, in your
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words, in the wings, potentially really controversial cases. >> yes, there are two cases pending right now involving abortion clinics and restrictions on how those clinics operate. this goes to the sort of art of the abortion right, how do you determine what is an undue burden on a woman's right to abortion? do these restrictions or regulations, are they an undue burden and, thus, unconstitutional? and in the second group of cases -- there are seven right now and probably will be more -- come from religious nonprofits who are objecting to have the government accommodate their objections to contraceptive health insurance. >> woodruff: it's enough to keep you very, very businessy. >> potentially a very big term, judy. >> woodruff: marcia coyle, thank you. look forward to seeing you again soon. >> my pleasure.
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>> woodruff: next, the latest addition to the newshour bookshelf. in the early 1960's, it was a city that stood on the threshold of unlimited possibilities. but, it was not to be. today, some two years after detroit declared bankruptcy, it is slowly recovering from decades of decline. washington post editor and detroit native david maraniss looks at the motor city of 50 years ago in his new book, "once in a great city: a detroit story". jeffrey brown talked to him recently at the national book festival here in washington. >> brown: so "once in a great city," you are taking us back to a great moment, right? >> the book is placed between 1962 and 164 when motown was booming, the mustang was
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conceived, cars were selling more than ever before, when the labor movement was at their peak. the working people were reaching middle class. there was a luminescence about the city but also a luminescence what was a dying light. >> brown: before the dying light, the luminescence, what was detroit at that moment? it's so easy to forget looking at now. >> it had 1.7 million people. now it's gone to 700,000. it had the big three was building more cars than ever before. it had a creative spirit. one of the themes of the book is creation, creativity, destruction, decay, and you see them sort of intertwined. you could invent yourself in detroit 50 years ago. >> brown: and motown was inventing itself.
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>> yes. i give a lot of credit to m motown. it's throwing think about smokey robinson, stevie wonder, the supremes, all these great musicians grew up, aretha franklin -- >> brown: so you have all the personalities on the creative side and the personalities on the business side, in particular the auto industry. >> henry ford ii, the deuce. >> brown: large personalities. more writing saying the seeds of the problems to come were already there. >> one of the important things to understand is people think about the decay of detroit, a lot of people tend to blame it on the riots in 1967, the municipal corruption that
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followed and the pension problems that ensued. you can see the structure problems before that. in 1963, great sociologists predicted exactly what was going to happen. productive people will leave the city, a perfect storm of racial problems, housing and fairness, urban renewal and the structure problems. all this created the problem starting in 1963. >> brown: did it happen quickly? >> no, it happened over decade. more people leaving every year. the city's structure changing. obviously the auto industry expanding all over the world and leaving detroit behind. very crucial decisions were happening then but took decades for the full decay of detroit and finally perhaps --
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>> brown: i want to ask you about the creativity. if the creativity was there in 1962, what happened to that? one can sort of see the structural -- >> let me give you one example. i was trying to figure out why did motown happen? part of it is individual genius. the other part is it is a huge geographic city with single-family homes and a great piano company that could get pianos into the working class homes, the people could afford the pianos because they had job and had great public school teachers, music teachers in every school. every motown person i dealt with said i remember my elementary school teacher. >> brown: and the piano at home because that used to be the ideal of a middle class home.
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>> exactly. as the jobs leave, the school system shrinks and music is pushed out of the schools, that led to people leaving. >> brown: i read music somehow inspired -- >> it's a very odd thing. i was going to detroit, the packers are playing, i'm watching the game on a bar and at half time i'm see ago commercial that has the detroit freeway sign and this hypnotic beat starts and you see detroit industry and eminem getting out of the car and walking into a factory and saying this is what we do. i teared up. it was emotional. that struck a chord with me about detroit in a very powerful
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way. not only about chrysler but i want to write about the city from which i came, the city of my birth and what it gave america. >> brown: you used the word renaissance earlier. is renaissance fair enough? what do you see happening now? >> it's a great place to go if you're young. 28 miles of detroit, you know, and you can go through miles of it, two out of every ten houses are gone, too many are abandoned, very strong working class white and black. so in one sense you do see it reinventing itself but it's a different detroit and it has real structure problems in that the people there 50 years ago building america, you could never call it a true renaissance. >> brown: are you hope snfl. i'm always hopeful.
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>> brown: "once in a great city: a detroit story," david maraniss. thank you very much. >> thank you. >> brown: good to talk to you. you, too. >> woodruff: now to another installment in our "brief, but spectacular" series. tonight, republican political consultant fred davis, who has created some of the most memorable television campaign commercials over the years, gives us his take on what makes an ad stick. if i adore somebody, i hope i can make you adore them. ♪ when i get asked who our clients are, i try to start in one part of the country so i can get them in a row. arnold schwarzenegger, carly fiorina, bob corker. lamar alexander, david perdue.
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if i left you out, it's just a lot of names. probably carly fiorina. a man running against her is a wolf in sheep's clothing. you're the candidate or campaign team you don't want to hear your best bet is putting some poor guy in a fake sheep's outfit and you don't want to tell john mccain that his best bet for winning in 2008 was comparing him to paris hilton. >> he's the biggest celebrity in the world. >> that's not an easy sell, but those folks worked fabulously. here's the problem with most the advertising these days. over the course of the day you will see, what, 500 ads, and you get home at night, how many of
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those do you remember? probably this many. and, so, my job, i think, it should be the job of any ad guy, is to make that one ad that your client spent so much hard-earned -- so much tough time raising money to pay for that ad to make it something they talked about. when i was a kid, i was the guy in the neighborhood who put on the plays. i would build the little control panel, have the lights, do all this excitement stuff and my poor little brothers and sisters and neighbors had to be in my play. that is not very different than what i do today. i'm fred davis and this is my brief but spectacular take on political advertising. >> woodruff: that brings us to our newshour shares of the day, something that caught our eye which might be of interest to you, too. tonight, something not for the faint of heart. china's first high-altitude
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glass-bottomed suspension bridge has opened to tourists. the pedestrian walkway, known in english as the 'brave man's bridge', is nearly the length of three football fields. it spans two cliffs in shi-niu- zhai national geological park in central china. visitors daring enough to walk on the attraction's 1" thick glass get vertigo-inducing views of the valley floor, 600 feet below. >> woodruff: on the newshour online right now, a closer look at three winners of the nobel prize in medicine, including a traditional herbal medicine pharmacist who scanned ancient chinese texts for possible remedies for malaria. all that and more is on our web site, pbs.org/newshour. >> woodruff: tune in later this evening on "charlie rose", actress clare danes on the fifth season of "homeland". >> woodruff: and that's the newshour for tonight. tune later this week. on wednesday, i head to iowa to sit down for an interview with hillary clinton.
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i'm judy woodruff. join us online and again here tomorrow evening. for all of us at the pbs newshour, thank you and good night. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: >> bnsf. >> and by the alfred p. sloan foundation. supporting science, technology, and improved economic performance and financial literacy in the 21st century. >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you.
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captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc captioned by media access group at wgbh access.wgbh.org
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♪ ccess.wgbh.org >> announcer: this is "nightly business report" with tyler mathisen and sue herera. by stake. an activist investor jumps into ge in order to revive the share price of one of the most widely owned stocks in mutual funds. deal reached. 12 nations, one controversial trade pact. and the impact on the u.s. economy could be massive. cost of convenience. why you're paying record amounts to withdraw your cash. all of that and more tonight on "nightly business report" for monday october 5th. good evening, everyone, and welcome. glad you could be with us on this rally monday. stocks started the week on a high note. the dow jones industrial average soared 304 points to

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