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tv   PBS News Hour Weekend  PBS  November 29, 2015 5:30pm-6:01pm PST

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captioning sponsored by wnet >> sreenivasan: on this edition for sunday, november 29th the world's attention turns again to paris, now for a highly anticipated global summit on climate change. pope francis in africa. visiting a nation caught in a violent conflict between christians and muslims. and, "pain and promise." we'll preview a series of special reports from nigeria. >> reporter: i've been asked for bribes by police officers, by soldiers, by airport security officers behind the x-ray machine. >> sreenivasan: next on pbs newshour weekend. >> pbs newshour weekend is made possible by: lewis b. and louise hirschfeld cullman. bernard and irene schwartz. judy and josh weston. the cheryl and philip milstein family. the citi foundation.
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supporting innovation and enabling urban progress. sue and edgar wachenheim, iii. corporate funding is provided by mutual of america-- designing customized individual and group retirement products. that's why we are your retirement company. additional support has been provided by: and by the corporation for public broadcasting, and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. from the tisch wnet studios at lincoln center in new york, hari sreenivasan. >> sreenivasan: good evening thanks for joining us. world leaders are descending on paris for the two-week united nations climate change conference that starts tomorrow. france will host more than 190 delegations and 140 heads of state, including president barack obama, who left today. the white house said today the u.s. and 18 other countries financing 80% of the world's clean energy research and
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development, will announce tomorrow they will double those investments over the next five years. leaders are gathering in the hope of reaching agreements to reduce emissions of heat- trapping gases like the carbon dioxide created from burning coal and gas. u.n. secretary general ban ki moon said today whatever is agreed on, emission targets should be reviewed every five years to limit the global temperature rise. thousands of supporters of binding agreements marched today in london, amsterdam, rome, and other cities around the world. in rio de janeiro, brazil, marchers called attention to deforestation, which is blamed for 15% of greenhouse gas emissions. germany is considering sending soldiers to support, but not directly fight, in the war on the so-called islamic state in iraq and syria, or isis. the country's defense minister said today that it could send as many as 1,200 soldiers to the middle east by year's end. under the plan, a german ship would refuel fighter jets from
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the u.s. and france-led coalition carrying out airstrikes on isis, while its jets would provide airborne surveillance. germany is already providing weapons and training for kurdish fighters battling isis in iraq. the plan requires approval from the country's parliament. chancellor angela merkel pledged greater german involvement following the november 13 paris terrorist attacks. the european union has agreed to pay turkey to stem the flow of migrants coming into europe from turkey. the deal reached today in brussels by the 28 member e.u. would pay turkey three billion euros -- about $3.2 billion -- over the next two years to aid the two million syrian refugees in turkey. negotiated over the past several weeks, the agreement aims to improve living standards for refugees and migrants -- hoping to persuade them to stay in turkey and not attempt to cross into greece, bulgaria, and onto other european countries. if that effort succeeds, the e.u. may offer turks visa-free travel to europe in a year's time. u.s. attorney general loretta lynch is calling friday's multiple shooting at a colorado
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springs planned parenthood clinic quote "a crime against women receiving health care services." lynch says agents from the f.b.i. and the bureau of alcohol tobacco and firearms are assisting local investigators on the shooting and standoff that killed three people -- a police officer, another man, and a woman -- and wounded nine others. none of planned parenthood's 15 employees were hurt. several news organizations are quoting an unnamed law enforcement official briefed on the investigation as telling them that accused gunman robert lewis dear said, quote, "no more baby parts," unquote, during a rambling police interview after his arrest. the planned parenthood site performs abortions and has been the site of regular anti- abortion protests. dear's first court appearance is tomorrow. on this busy, end-of-holiday- weekend travel day, there are dangerous driving conditions throughout texas, oklahoma, and kansas. eight people died in floods in northern texas, and six people died in accidents on icy roads in kansas and oklahoma. many roads were covered with ice following a winter storm that began on thursday.
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80,000 oklahomans were left without electricity today. flood warnings remained in effect in parts of texas where swelling waterways swept cars off roads. temperatures are expected to warm, but water levels along the trinity river and the rio grande are expected to continue to rise throughout the week. >> sreenivasan: today, pope francis brought a message of peace and reconciliation to the central african republic, a majority christian nation that has seen steady violence between christians and muslims during the past two years. this was the pope's final stop of an african tour that also took him to uganda and kenya. "associated press" reporter nicole winfield is covering the trip, and she joins me now by skype from the capital of the central african republic, bangui. it's been quite some time since the pope walked into essentially an active war zone or civil war
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zone. >> yeah, we were trying to think when the last time was. pope john paul 2 made a very unexpected nine hour stop in kartu m about 20 years ago and that is probably the closest that any pope has gotten to active fighting. >> sreenivasan: app what did the pope do today? where did he go? >> he arrived at the airport which in itself is remarkable. a heavily armed airport. he flew in over one of the displacement camps where some of the people who have been uprooted by the fighting have settled. he went then to the presidential palace. ewen to a refugee camp, another one of these displacement camps where he met with some of the residents and he just finished celebrating mass at the cathedral. >> sreenivasan: so the tension is between muslims and christians in the country. what did the pope say to each group? >> well, he had a majority christian audience today so far. but the message is the same to both. lay down your weapons.
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peace, reconciliation. he just now in his homily has told the faithful gathered in the cathedral that pardoning and forgiving one another is hard. it's the hardest thing to do. but christians at least are called to love their enemies and that that is what is necessary now. >> sreenivasan: and how has he been received? >> the enthusiasm has been incredible. this is a country that has been as the president said, it's descended into hell over the past two years. so i think for the residents, just the fact that he came was remarkable. i don't think anyone really expected that he would. there were such serious security threats in the weeks and months leading up to this trip that there were concerns he would council, or at least trim it back. so the fact that he arrived and the fact that he went fief
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kilometers in an open pope mobile showed that he's not afraid. and that he wanted to-- just his presence to be here. >> sreenivasan: give us some perspective on how significant this fighting has been. there is pretty much an exodus of muslims leaving that country. >> that's right. and the muslims who have remained there itself are essentially ensierk-- encircled in a quarter. the the km-5 neighborhood of the capitol and they basically can't leave because the christian millisha is essentially surrounded it for their own safety. so the muslims here who have stayed here are very much a beseiged people. they are hoping also to hear some words from the pope, some words of encouragement for them. and they might get it tomorrow when he goes into that quarter. >> sreenivasan: all right, nicole winfield from the
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soarnted press joining us via skype from the capitol of the central african republic. thanks so much. >> thank you. >> sreenivasan: nigeria is africa's richest and fastest- growing economy and america's top trading partner on the continent. but at the same time, nigerians are twice as likely to be impoverished today than they were 30 years ago. the poverty, and widespread corruption, has helped fuel the nigeria-based islamic extremist group boko haram - which has become the deadliest terror organization in the world, responsible for 20,000 deaths during a six-year insurgency. tomorrow, the newshour will begin a four-part series taking a closer look at this nation of about 180 million people. newshour special correspondent nick schifrin, who will join me in a moment, traveled to nigeria to report on the threat from boko haram, the economy, corruption, and anti-gay violence. corruption is the focus of the following excerpt from the
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series called "pain and promise." >> on the streets there is a saying, every day it's for the-- he was supposed to be his protecter. >> the police often ask for money. >> they are still gomming in nigeria here. taking money from people. by force. >> he drove a taxi called a try siblg. last month the police officer stopped him to demand a bribe. >> for $2,000. >> that is about $10, what he would have made working as a taxi driver that morning. >> so i say i'm coming from the church with my family. >> he was with his wife and their three children. he refused to pay. >> all of a sudden, i heard a gun shot, twice. and now went down. and the blood was just gushing out. >> so the bullet came right
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through there. >> right through here. >> the officer had shot him for refusing to pay $10. >> the per sengs has been that the police is corrupt. you can abuse the rights of the average citizen. >> she studies police corruption. she says low salariesnd a culture of impunity has lead to this. videos on local media show police officers inside people's cars demanding money. >> the officer exhibits no shame. his victims reveal no surprise. >> this is the number, this is recorded. >> i don't have more than 2,000. >> in nigeria this is daily life. for some, when the person asking for money has a club or a gun, bribes are more like ransom. >> low level corruption makes it worse, when you come in contact with police officers. when you go and report a case and the case can be turned
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against the person that has come to report. >> in nigeria the corruption is sadly everywhere. shop keepers here say police preside over a market for fake medicine. i have been asked for bribes by police officers, by soldiers, by airport security officers, behind the x-ray machine. in nigeria the cancer of corruption has been spreading for years. >> often it starts in childhood. ed school looks like many rural nigerian schools. this is the second grade classroom. no desks, no chairs, no pencils, no books. >> how can they learn to sit on the ground. >> the principal points out this is mostly not about poverty. the 2014 federal education budget was $2.4 billion. mohammed accuses the government of pocketing money that is supposed to educate children.
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>>. >> this was done in 2009. >> yes. >> he has been asking the local government to fix his classroom. the win blew the roof off six years ago. >> the contractor used this instead of the wood they were supposed to use. >> they were supposed to use, 2x4, they use 2-d x2. >> the thinness of this wood, this is why the roof came down. >> so they're keeping a part of the money as opposed to using. >> that is true. >> and they're putting it in their pocket. >> that is it, that is actually what happened. >> is ta because the government is in on it. >> that's it. that is the problem. >> why is there not money coming to the school? >> the corruption from our leaders. >> silest never-- sylvester say local human rights campaign. he accuses government officials of theft. >> they make promises when they come on board, they will do this, they will do that. but at the end of the day, they. >> and i am joined by nick
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schifrin in the studio. what this piece, what is the government's response. >> the government is taking this very seriously. the new government is taking this very seriously. a senior advisor encore ruption issues puts it this way. either we kill corruption or corruption kills the country. the new president has committees looking, especially at high level corruption. and the focus is on 20 billion dollars, that's the accusation that has been stolen by oil officials because most of nigeria's money comes from that oil. but also money stolen from the military. money that was supposed to go to fight boko haram instead got diverted. so that is the focus of this new government and they hope if they can get some high level prosecutions, some high profile prosecutions, that will send a message that the days of impunity are over and then you will see a difference or at least a little less low level corruption because those plifers you saw will feel like well, if the big people can't get away from it, neither can we.
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>> sreenivasan: you also have a story about the economy, what did you find. >> as you mentioned at the top of this segment, the it is superlatifs, richest country in african, biggest oil produce ir, fastest growing economy. by 2015 there will be more nigerians than americans. the middle class will grow by eight, the more ultra rich growing in nie ger than-- nigeria than the u.s the the also a hundred million people in poverty. very difficult to get those people out so long as you have a lack of infrastructure, a lack of electricity and a lack of investment and agriculturement those are the three areas that the new gooft is trying to focus on but again after decades of neglect and some of that corruption, it's very difficult to lift so many people out of poverty. >> sreenivasan: most of the headlines from nigeria are coming from boko haram and you have another piece on that. >> 6600 people killed by boko haram last year. that is more than the islamic state. that will give you a sense of how deadly that group has been. there have been some gains in the last nine months especially
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against boko haram. the nigerian military made gains. earlier they brought in merser ins fromout safer ka and the neighboring countries, the militaries from chad, niger and camaroon have come in and been doing that fighting earlier this year. but now we are seeing a lot of suicide attacks. boko haram can't seize and hold land like they used to, but girls mostly are going into markets, into mosques and blowing themselves up. that is why we see so many headlines headlines from out of there. what the country is doing is not only trying to go in with the military but also create a multinational coalition with those neighbors to go in, but it's extremely difficult, you know. a lot of these fighters blend back into the population and that a why we are seeing these bombs. initially the country set a december deadline to defeat boko haram. the military now admits it won't be able to match that eventually most people think that the battle against boko haram will be won but the war against all of these other things, the poverty, corruption, that is what is most important, that will be the most difficult for
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nigeria to win. >> you also found a population within nigeria that besides boko haram and everything else, they are worried for their lives just because they are gaim. >> absolutely. the same sex marriage probition act was passed last january. this not only goes after same sex marriage t criminalizes homosexuality and can send someone to jail for up to 14 years. if you advocate for gay rights you can get ten rights. if you are a parent and don't turn in your knowingly gay son or daughter, you get ten years as well. nobody has been prosecuted under the law but this is what gay men and women told us and what we see in video evidence is that people in using the law, in order to increase extortion and violence. and this is mobs on the street, these are state sponsored vij lanltees and police officers who know that they can threaten someone who is gay with jail and so they can actually get money out of them. >> sreenivasan: nick, we're looking forward to the series on the newshour this week. thank yous so much
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>> sreenivasan: with the u.n. conference set to begin in paris tomorrow, delegations from more than 190 countries will try to agree on a plan to combat climate change. one goal is to increase reliance on clean energy. for a glimpse of how those alternatives might be put into practice, we turn to hawaii, which has the highest rate of residential solar power in the u.s. 12% of homes there have installed panels. most remain tied to their island's electrical grid but some hawaiians have cut ties with local utility providers and live off the grid. henk rogers, co-founder of the gaming company "tetris," is one them. he's even started a business selling and installing battery systems for homes running on solar. newshour special correspondent mike taibbi has more in this report we originally brought you this summer.
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>> the suburban streets outside hob lieu lieu are a dense network of houses but in this neighborhood one house is completely independent. that is energy independent. >> nominal volt age, 48 volts, these are my charge controllers. these are my inverters. >> for the last two years dave green, a heating and air conditioning specialist hasn't paid one cent in electricity bills. instead, he relies on high be end batteries to store the power generated by his soller powers. when he first cut ties with the grid he had to convince his wife and daughters to conserve energy to make sure they would have enough juice to meet their needs. >> dad would always say you're not going to use that, shut it off or only use that for this much, you know, don't you know the sun didn't shrine today. if you need to do this and that-- you're always managing t eventually you get to the point where you really don't need to manage it you have enough leeway, oh, i left the light on, well, it doesn't matter because we have plenty of power.
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>> green doesn't consider himself a environmentalityist and he says defecting from the grid has been a hobby more than a statement, like improving the 40 plus mpv his prius was already getting by adding even more batteries. >> getting about 87 miles to the gallon. >> green estimates he spent around $50,000 on the continuing experiment in self-reliance he calls a hobby. he says the system will pay for itself within six to eight years. >> it does all the controls, all the operations. >> it's more than worth it to know that he's in control of his own energy. >> it's a neat feeling. i like the feeling of knowing that if the price of energy were to go up or if gas were to double, i would be like, so? >> hank rogers, another grid defector over on the big island of hawaii remembers the confusion caused by his decision to quut ties with the utility. >> i had a very interesting phone call. and it goes something like this, is this mr. rogers. yes. this is so and so from the electric company.
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there seems to be something wrong with our meter. and i said no, there's nothing wrong with your meter. there i'm just not using any of your electricity. >> an industrial scale of 360 cutting edge solar panels. >> 85 kill o watts on the roof. >> the latest in energy storage technology. >> these are our batteries here. >> they are charging now. >> they're at 91% now. >> even an electrolyzer to make use of any extra power his system generates. >> we're done filling the batteries, then we start producing high descro again. this is hydrogen, this is oxygen. high school chemistry. so this is our high do gren-- hydrogen fueling station. >> hydrogen can be used to run vehicles and machine ree. rogers uses it that way. and he uses his own intricate
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and expensive experiment in off the grid living to press home a point. >> we're experimenting with all of this because i can, and because i want to. and it's the right thing to do. >> rogers is confident that as energy storage technology advances, the number of residents choosing to move off the electrical grid will increase. >> okay, so i'm a higher net worth individual and i can afford to do this. but it's a matter of time before everyone can afford to do this. and when they can, they will. >> sreenivasan: how has the earth changed since industrialized nations agreed in kyoto, japan, 18 years ago to lower their greenhouse gas emissions? read our climate change primer online at: pbs.org/newshour the two civilians shot and killed in friday's shooting at a colorado springs planned parenthood center have been identified. the denver post reports they are 36 year old jennifer nar disz cofsky and keyaa a father of two and an iraq war vet ra.
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today in saudi arabia, about 900 saudi women begin campaigning for municipal elections to be held december 129 it is the first time saudi women across the country have been permitted to run for public office. they will also be voting for the first time. that's all for this edition of pbs newshour weekend. i'm hari sreenivasan, have a good night captioning sponsored by wnet captioned by media access group at wgbh access.wgbh.org >> pbs newshour weekend is made possible by: lewis b. and louise hirschfeld cullman. bernard and irene schwartz. judy and josh weston. the cheryl and philip milstein family. the citi foundation. supporting innovation and enabling urban progress. sue and edgar wachenheim, iii. corporate funding is provided by mutual of america-- designing customized individual and group retirement products. that's why we are your retirement company.
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additional support has been provided by: and by the corporation for public broadcasting, and by thank you.om viewers like you.
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announcer: explore new worlds and new ideas through programs like this, made available for everyone through contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. greetings. we are preparing to embark on a wonderful journey. we will climb mountains and swim oceans. together we will be enthralled and embrace emotions that can only be touched by the sounds of classical music. get ready to travel, from the old world to the heavens and back as we are transported with melodies from the masters that will propel us through the centuries. i'm david ogden stiers. this is classical rewind ii starting now on my music. ♪

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