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tv   PBS News Hour  PBS  December 14, 2015 6:00pm-7:01pm PST

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captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc >> ifill: good evening. i'm gwen ifill. >> woodruff: and i'm judy woodruff. >> ifill: on the newshour tonight: nearly 200 countries make history with a breakthrough climate agreement. what happens next? >> woodruff: also ahead: an ever-growing population shows strength at the polls. we look at how the g.o.p. is wooing latino voters, and new shifts in the race for president. >> ifill: plus, a mysterious infection causes an olive crisis in italy. >> what is certain is that these plants are dying, that these plants are drying and we don't know what the future will be and we don't even know that there's a solution to this situation. >> woodruff: all that and more on tonight's pbs newshour.
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>> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: ♪ ♪ moving our economy for 160 years. bnsf, the engine that connects us. >> and the william and flora hewlett foundation, helping people build immeasurably better lives.
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>> and with the ongoing support of these institutions >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. >> woodruff: president obama today insisted coalition forces are hitting back at islamic state militants harder than ever. as a result, he said, the group - also know as isil - has lost key leaders and control of large swaths of iraqi and syrian territories. the president outlined the progress after meeting at the pentagon with his national security advisers. >> every day, we destroy as well more of isil's forces. their fighting positions, bunkers, and staging areas; their heavy weapons, bomb-making factories, compounds and training camps. in many places, isil has lost
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its freedom of maneuver because they know if they mass their forces, we will wipe them out. >> woodruff: also called on allies in the middle east to step up their contributions to the fight. and islamic countries like turkey and pakistan. >> ifill: investigators in egypt say -- >> ifill: investigators in egypt say october's crash of a russian passenger jet can't be called terrorism...yet. that's in direct conflict with russian, american and british statements that a bomb was probably to blame. a group linked to the islamic state had claimed responsibility for the sinai crash that killed all 224 people on board. egypt's assessment is a preliminary finding. their investigation is ongoing. >> woodruff: in argentina, at least 43 police officers died today when their bus careened off a bridge, plunging 65 feet
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into a ravine. the crash occurred near salta, roughly 1,000 miles north of buenos aires. rescue crews pulled victims from the overturned bus, which was carrying around 60 people. investigators believe the accident was caused by a ruptured tire. >> ifill: up to 750,000 people have evacuated the central philippines as a powerful typhoon made landfall. the storm slammed into a tiny village on the northern tip of samar island today, packing wind gusts up to 115 miles per hour. authorities warned the heavy rain could trigger storm surges, landslides, and coastal flooding up to 13 feet. there was no immediate word of casualties. >> woodruff: official results out today showed france's conservative party held off a challenge by the far-right national front in the second round of regional elections. the conservatives, led by former president nicolas sarkozy, captured 40% of sunday's votes.
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current president francois hollande's socialist party won nearly 29%, and the national front took 27%. sarkozy warned the far-right's strong showing in the first round of votes should have everyone on guard. >> ( translated ): this mobilization for our candidates in the second round should in the second round should under no circumstances allow us to forget the warnings which were sent to all political leaders, us included, during the first round of those regional elections. >> woodruff: while the national front garnered its largest number of votes in any election, it still failed to win a single region in the polls. last night, its leader, marine le pen, downplayed the loss. >> ( translated ): the national front will be the main force of opposition in the regional councils in france, an opposition which will be constructive but demanding, because we are free of any associations. an imaginative opposition because we are free of any
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interest groups. >> woodruff: the anti- immigration national front party had recently seen a rise in popularity in the wake of last month's deadly paris attacks. >> ifill: in saudi arabia, at least 20 women won seats on local councils following the ultra-conservative kingdom's first election open to female candidates and voters. 2,100 seats were up for grabs in saturday's vote, but saudi women are still banned from driving or making important decisions without the approval of a male relative. >> woodruff: back in this country, army sergeant bowe bergdahl will face charges of desertion and endangering his fellow troops, in a court- martial. bergdahl walked off his post in eastern afghanistan in 2009. he was held captive by the taliban for five years before being traded for five of the group's leaders in guantanamo bay. he now faces the possibility of life in prison. >> ifill: a baltimore jury today began deliberating the fate of the first police officer to
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stand trial in the death of freddie gray. officer william porter was in the police van where grey sustained his fatal neck injury. in closing arguments, prosecutors argued porter should have properly secured gray in the vehicle. but his defense said there is no evidence porter's actions caused gray's death. >> woodruff: shrimp peeled by enslaved migrant workers and children in thailand has made their way to all 50 states. an associated press investigation found the seafood for sale at major retailers like wal-mart and whole foods, and on the menu at red lobster and olive garden. the laborers were often held against their will in unsanitary conditions and paid little to no wages. many of the american businesses condemned the labor abuse and vowed to investigate. >> ifill: most recreational drones will soon be required to register with the federal aviation administration. the agency announced that today, just in time for the holiday gift-giving season.
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remote-controlled aircraft weighing between half a pound and 55 pounds can be registered on the f.a.a.'s website beginning december 21st. that will help authorities track down an owner if a drone collides with another aircraft or ventures too close to an airport. >> woodruff: stocks closed higher on wall street today, boosted in part by strong gains in the oil industry. the dow jones industrial average gained 103 points to close at 17,368. the nasdaq rose nearly 19 points, and the s&p 500 added more than nine points. >> ifill: still to come on the newshour: will the historic climate accord lead to historic results? the g.o.p. tries to win the latino vote. a migrant bottleneck forms in greece. and a former college dean's take on why over-involved parents could be hurting their kids' futures.
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>> woodruff: u.n. secretary general ban-ki moon invited world leaders today to come to new york this april to put their signatures on a historic climate accord. but there are numerous questions about its practical realities. six years after a summit in copenhagen failed to find common ground, the paris meeting ended with a major blueprint for governments and a message to business. >> woodruff: delegates from 195 countries were on their feet after they struck a landmark climate deal in paris. >> ( translated ): it's a small hammer, but i think it'll do great things! >> woodruff: french foreign minister laurent fabius, president of the conference, gaveled the deal to extensive applause. for the u.n.'s climate chief, it was a moment of success after six years of failure. >> i have been saying for a long time, "we must, we can."
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and i used to say "we will." today, we can say "we did." >> woodruff: as delegates left the conference, they cheered the news and looked for the man of the hour, laurent fabius, for autographs and pictures. the agreement lays out a number of goals and timelines including: wealthy countries are encouraged but not required to help poorer ones reduce emissions, to the tune of pledging at least $100 billion a year. and nations have to report on their emissions and efforts to reduce them. hours after the paris pact was signed, president obama chimed in his praise from washington.
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>> the paris agreement establishes the enduring framework the world needs to solve the climate crisis. it creates the mechanism, the architecture, for us to continually tackle this problem in an effective way. >> woodruff: but critics of the deal still abound. in paris, some protesters said this agreement doesn't go far enough, citing that there are no penalties for countries that don't meet their targets. and back in the u.s., republicans in congress warned the deal will be shredded in 13 months if a republican wins the presidency. utilities and some republican politicians are also challenging emissions regulations in court. >> woodruff: so how meaningful are this weekend's pledges? and does it signal a fundamental change in how we will get our energy? fred krupp is the president of the environmental defense fund. he's back from paris. and robert bryce is a senior fellow at the manhattan institute and author of several books about this. his latest book is called: "smaller, faster, lighter,
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denser, cheaper." and we welcome you both to the program. fred krupp, to you first, how much of a difference is this agreement going to make? >> it's going to make a big difference. it's the first conference that exceeded my expectations going into it, really set us on a path toward solving this problem. now, judy, it doesn't solve the climate problem, no one meeting could do that not by a long shot, but it gets us a long way there. the reductions that have been pledged by nearly every country on earth get us perhaps halfway there and then there is a mechanism built into the agreement that allows the ambitions to be ratcheted up and, perhaps most important, there is transparency, which means countries will have to be reporting their emissions and there will be a technical review of those reports to make sure
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they're accurate, and that is critical so that there is not only ambition here but also accountability. >> woodruff: robert bryce, do you sthee as an agreement that goes a long way toward doing something about climate change? h. >> i do not. i think there are three key problems with it, judy. first is, none of these targets that have been set by the individual countries are legally binding. second, ban ki-moon, the secretary general, made it clear before the meeting started in paris that said all the targets made by the individual countries are not sufficient and that they're going to have th have te back in a few years and provide lower targets for emissions. most importantly, there is nothing in any of the agreements that moves the ball forward on nuclear energy, and this is the key issue. wean you listen to what the climate scientists have been saying, december 3, in the guardian, james hansen, one of the most high profile climate
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scientist in the world along with three other climate sign tills said nuclear energy will make the difference between the world missing crucial climate targets or achieving them, and the hard reality is that, unless we have an energy form that can replace substantial quantities of coal fired generation -- and that means natural gas and nuclear -- then i think we're not going to come near any kind of significant reductions in co2 emissions to meet the co2 emissions targets that have been laid out. >> woodruff: fred krupp, let me take mr. bryce's last point first that the geement doesn't make meaningful progress on moving toward nuclear or another real alternative to carbon. >> well, i would strongly disagree with that. countries are free to meet their obligations any way they want to, but they have to report and be accountable, as i said before. china plans to build 30 nuclear power plants and is constructing
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about half that number now. so if nuclear technology comes along that's safe and affordable, nuclear very much is on the table and could be part of the agreement. >> woodruff: but, fred krupp, there is no requirement that countries do that. is that correct? >> there is no requirement that countries use nuclear, no. they're free to use whatever technology they choose, but some countries are pursuing nuclear, and that's allowed. it turns out, judy, that the cost of solar panels in the last five years has dropped 80%, so if panels are cheaper than nuclear, why should the agreement require countries to use nuclear? nuclear may end up cheaper, that remains to be seen. right now the plants being built in the united states will substantially raise the rates of rate payers in the jurisdictions where those are being built because, right now, it is an expensive technology, at least
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here in the u.s. >> woodruff: robert bryce, why isn't it sufficient? even the advocates of this agreement are saying it's not perfect, but why isn't it sufficient that countries are now saying they're going to move in the direction of not necessarily only nuclear but the other allearntives. >> sure. we've heard about solar and wind. i'm pro-solar. i have solar panels on the roof of my house. i'm not bullish on wind because it takes up too much land. the problem of the developing world is they're not turning to solar and wind in a big way, they're turning to coal fired capacity. numbers by sierra club and snow swarm two, critics, they point out there is 276 gigawatts of coal fired capacity under construction now, roughly equaled to the entire coal-fired capacity of the united states. mr. crupp says we have to make nuclear safer and chipper.
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no question. but we have to have strong government leadership. i had a piece in "the los angeles times" a few days ago, the united states could be taking a leadership position in making nuclear energy safer, cheaper, developing reactors that are passive, but we don't have the support that's chi of the main environmental groups including environment de enviroe fund -- >> woodruff: let mr. crupp respond. >> we're not opposed to nuclear energy. the the statistics of 276 plants, those were statistics from a few years ago and that was planned, not under construction. but we had a lot of plants planned in the united states just a few short years ago, and they've almost all been scrapped. so india's plans to build coal fire plants, change will come to india because it's in their own national interest. they have to help people out of
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poverty, they need electricity and economic development but also clean air. right now they have more opportunities than ever before to create jobs with renewable energy and to have clean air. the air pollution is killing hundreds of thousands of people a year in india, so all i would say, mr. bryce, to you is that no one predicted how fast natural gas came online in the united states. it was a big change. the change we're seeing now that i think will surprise a lot of people is how fast the cost of these clean energy technologies are coming down. >> all right, gentlemen. big subject. we are clearly going to be coming back to it a lot in the future. i want to thank poet of you, fred krupp, robert bryce. thank you. >> thank you. >> ifill: it's politics monday, and we have two takes this week on an increasingly competitive presidential race.
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as republicans prepare to debate tomorrow night in las vegas, religion and immigration have emerged as running themes. but are g.o.p. candidates, led by frontrunner donald trump, doing more harm than good when it comes to expanding the party's base among a growing subset of hispanic voters? william brangham traveled to washington state recently to explore one effort, bankrolled by the billionaire koch brothers, to recruit hispanics into the g.o.p.'s tent. >> brangham: it's election night, and avina gutierrez just made history. for the first time ever, voters in yakima, washington elected a hispanic candidate to their city council. not just one, in fact, three latinos won seats tonight. this, in a city where 40% of residents are hispanic. the 35-year-old democrat says tonight's victory is just another sign of the growing presence of latinos in politics. >> tonight means that i'll be able to provide an example for other latinas to see that they do have a seat at that table.
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>> brangham: her election is part of a national trend. the latino population of the u.s. has been steadily rising, while the white population has been declining. by 2065, the u.s. is projected to be a majority-minority nation, with whites making up less than half the population. politically, this trajectory has been great news for democrats like gutierrez. in national polls, latinos lean democratic more than two-to-one over republicans. and in 2012, latinos overwhelmingly picked president obama over mitt romney, whose remarks about latinos needing to "self-deport" didn't sit well with many. in its own political autopsy of that election, the republican national committee openly acknowledged that if the party couldn't figure out a better way to communicate with latino voters, it would spell electoral doom for the g.o.p. "it does not matter what we say about education, jobs or the economy; if hispanics think we do not want them here, they will close their ears to our policies."
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>> brangham: and that's where daniel garza comes in. he's the head of "the libre initiative." it's the largest conservative hispanic political group in the country. he's just been given $16 million from the conservative billionaire koch brothers to try and convince latinos that conservative ideals and latino ideals are one and the same. >> we are driving a conversation with in the latino community about the virtues of the free market. whether it's engaging them on policy issues or on cultural issues. so for example, we believe strongly in self-reliance, in personal responsibility, in that hard work ethic. the american rugged individualism. >> brangham: garza served in george w. bush's white house, and now regularly hosts forums with today's g.o.p. candidates. but his story begins much more humbly. here, in the agriculturally-rich yakima valley in central washington. the hispanic population has exploded here in recent decades, as migrant families like garza's, who once just came through to pick apples and cherries during the harvest,
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decided to stay and put down roots. garza showed us the hops fields -- they're now out of season -- where he and his family used to work. >> backbreaking work, working in the elements, making hardly anything and you were powerless. i don't know of any mother who says i want my child to grow up and be a farm worker. but it's noble work. >> brangham: they led in nearby toppenish, washington, population 9,000. in this little house with no running water. >> the idea, as farmworkers, is you rent the cheapest home you can. >> brangham: it was admittedly a tough life. but garza's dad was able to save up his money and eventually buy this small motel in town. >> brangham: it was with this step up the economic ladder where young daniel began finding his political beliefs. he became a cop. he took a job working for the hard-charging republican congressman doc hastings. he was a huge fan of william f. buckley on "firing line." it all made sense to him, and he became a card-carrying member of the republican party.
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>> you know, i sort of was taken by ronald reagan's approach to governance and sort of embraced it. >> brangham: i mean reagan famously said that hispanics are conservatives, they just don't know it yet. do you believe that? >> i do. i do believe that. i've always believed that they embrace the ideals of the free market. >> brangham: and that's the message the libre initiative is pushing today, with slickly- produced videos starring garza, using his rags-to-riches story as a symbol of conservative latino empowerment. >> my father never took welfare because he didn't want to depend on anyone or lose his dignity. >> brangham: they're also spreading their message in more subtle ways. this is actually a driver's education class run by garza's group. this one's in las vegas, but they do these in swing states all over the u.s. the idea is, you draw latinos in for useful classes like these
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teach english language and help prepare tax returns, and while they're there, attendees get a little dose of conservative politics on the side. >> there's a little trade-off. obviously, we use that opportunity as a platform for ourselves to drive our ideas. to talk to folks and connect with them. and then, you know, if it resonates with them, then they join our effort and they stay connected with us. >> brangham: garza's group collects contact information at these events for themselves, which it then shares with a group called i-360, a massive voter database operation funded by the koch brothers network. for libre, the hope is that these events, with their focus on economic liberty and family values, will resonate with latino voters. >> when you're going out directly to them and tailoring your message to them, you're earning their trust and their respect, because you're connecting with them. and they matter. and that's what voters need to feel. that my life is going to be better if i vote for that person or that person. >> i don't think they're going to buy that. >> brangham: ninfa gutierrez hosts a popular call-in radio
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show on kdna, yakima valley's spanish-language public radio station. she says that -- with the presidential election nearly a year off -- right now, there's only one thing her listeners associate with conservatives or republicans. >> they're bringing drugs. they're bringing crime. they're rapists. >> the first call that we got in one of those programs said because that clown that is saying all these things about the spanish people... >> brangham: donald trump, they're talking about. >> yeah, donald trump. he doesn't know what he's talking about. he doesn't know us, who we are. because he's saying that we're all drug dealers, we're killers, we're this and that. >> brangham: and the leading g.o.p. frontrunner isn't showing any signs of backing down from his tough stance on illegal immigration. >> the wall works, believe me, properly done. believe me. ( applause ) >> brangham: while none of the republican candidates support president obama's executive actions allowing undocumented immigrants stay in the country, some argue massive deportation isn't feasible.
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other candidates argue that the g.o.p.'s harsh words about immigrants will be a boon to the democrats. >> even having this conversation sends a powerful symbol. they're doing high fives in the clinton campaign when they hear this. >> brangham: indeed, super pacs supporting democrats are already out with ads, with latino voters quoting the g.o.p. candidates. >> they're rapists. >> criminals. >> anchor babies. >> brangham: garza, who spoke to an auditorium of seniors at his old high school, acknowledges that the g.o.p.'s current stance on immigration is driving latinos away from his party. and he's been vocal about the need for them to knock it off, and to embrace comprehensive immigration reform. but, as he told these students at a school that is 86% latino, he hopes voters focus on more than just the one issue of immigration. >> republicans are calling that we should now empower the individual, that we should focus on growing the private sector, much more than growing the government. >> brangham: afterwards, garza got the rock star treatment, with students swarming around, jockeying for selfies and autographs. but did his message resonate?
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we sat down with a smaller group of students from the school to find out. whatever the issues, are it seems like this is my ideal president, but they didn't agree with you on immigration reform, could that person still vote? >> no. >> i wouldn't vote for him. my pride is where my family comes from, so i could agree with him on everything else, but if he doesn't benefit my people in the immigration reform, i would not vote for him. >> brangham: do you see it as a challenge to your mission that many leaders of the g.o.p. come out and seem to really say things that drive the latino population into the arms of the democrats? >> so our objective is to get latinos behind free market ideas. the principles of limited government. that's our objective.
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whatever happens politically, we can't control that. we can just help to drive a conservation within the latino community. >> brangham: every 30 seconds, another latino turns 18 in this country. most of them are american citizens and eligible to vote. if these students are any reflection of the broader population, daniel garza has got his work cut out for him. for the pbs newshour, i'm william brangham in toppenish, washington. >> ifill: for more on where the race stands, including some surprising new poll numbers, we turn to our regular monday night duo: tamara keith of n.p.r., and amy walter of "the cook political report." welcome back. >> thank you. let's get to the numbers. very interesting. we saw des moines register poll, the iowa republican poll, the gold standard and, in it, we have cruz at 31%, up 21% from the last poll in october where he was only at 10. trump at 21%, essentially where he was before, but today a new quinnipiac, iowa poll, in which basically it's a tied. trump 28%, up 3% from 25% the
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last time they went in the field and ted cruz is 27% up 4%, so neck and neck, well within anybody's margin of error. what's this cruz surge? >> cruz has benefited from couple of things. first, the decline of ben carson. that wasn't on the poll chart that what you would see is ben carson plummeting in follows. >> he went from 28% to 13% in the des moines poll. >> and you saw a dropoff too in the quinnipiac poll. so he dropped off and that benefited ted cruz most significantly. the other thing trues has been able to do is put the three most important legs in the stool together for iowa. he has evangelicals, very conservativive voters. i'm going to forget the third one, of course. the evangelicals and people who are tea party supporters. >> i need to go to my notes but
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i knew there were three. he's getting strong you want from all three groups, those are the groups who determine who the winner of iowa would be. >> ifill: does he also do well among people who hate washington? he came to washington, but then immediately went to oregon. calls it the cartel. >> he came to washington, joined the senate and proceeded to help shut the government down. he led the government shutdown and then, interestingly, and thinking about ted cruz reminded me of this. less than a month after the government shut down, he went to iowa and he gave a big speech at the republican party statewide dinner and he has been building the groundwork in iowa since before the government shutdown. he came to washington to have raise his profile, and he did with things like the government shutdown, and then he goes to iowa years before an election and has people text in to join ted cruz's army, and he as a
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huge infrastructure, a huge ground game especially in iowa but also southern states which will be key after iowa. >> ifill: one interesting detail, last week before this latest round of polling came out, donald trump immediately started trashing the poll in advance possibly anticipating -- i don't know whether he's doing his own polling, but things were not going as well. so what we were all holding our breathing, what will trump say about cruz who is taking pains not to publicly criticize donald trump? and quickly yesterday i believe on fox news sunday, this is what he had to say. >> you look at the way he's dealt with the senate where he goes in there like -- frankly like a little bit of a maniac. you're never going to get things done that way. i built a phenomenal business. i'm worth many billions of dollars and some of the greatest assets anywhere in the world. you can't walk into the senate and scream and call people liars and not be able to cajole and
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get along with people. he'll never get anything done and that's the problem with ted. >> that is the argument against ted cruz is that he led the fight to shut the government down, that he leads a lot of fight but doesn't have a lot of victories and, yet, coming from somebody who is more than happy to take on the establishment and tell them where to stick it, i don't know that this is the guy that's going to be able to unit america either. >> ifill: donald trump has been an interesting character in all this. he has been the nay car -- naysr and looks like behind him ted cruz has been waiting to take that mantle away. >> the "new york times" had an interesting piece of audio of ted cruz at a closed door fundraiser saying he was going to hug donald trump and ben carson until they -- you know, until gravity took hold of their campaign which h he fully
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anticipated gravity will take hold and then he will be there just waiting to scoop up -- >> ifill: and raised questions about their judgment. >> absolutely. well, because he was behind closed doors so he didn't have to hug quite to tightly and then the audio go out and that is in part what prompted donald trump to really pick a fight and start the tweet storm, which ted cruz was i'm not taking the bait. >> ifill: tomorrow night yet another in a series of week nights spend watching -- spent watching debates for the three of us. they're gathering in las vegas. there are a lot of people we didn't mention in the polls who are struggling as well. >> i don't think this debate will change the trajectory in this race. i think we've seen the race basically come down to three, maybe four people, and it's donald trump and it's ted cruz and it's marco rubio. the one person sort of on the bubble is chris christie. he's going better in new hampshire, and i think this environment one where terrorism
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and security is at the top of the minds for voters, especially republicans, plays well to christie's strengths and i think he will be making that case a lot tomorrow night and making that distinction between himself, governor in new jersey, been around during during terrorism strikes, i know how to deal with this, these other guys don't know what they're doing. >> ifill: how does marco rubio distinguish himself in that kind of field? >> i think there is more pressure on marco rubio heading into this debate than past debates. he's continually had a strong debate performance, but now people are sort of expecting him to have a strong debate performance, so i think a lot of people will be watching him for that performance. the question is, though, he h these good debate performances, and then there is this buzz and then he doesn't have the big surge ted cruz has, in part because ted cruz is competing on the anti-establishment, tea party, evangelical side, and marco rubio is competing on the
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other side of the republican party, the establishment side which is a very crowded neighborhood now. >> and i think ultimately the winner will be the person like ted cruz who is an establishment candidate but puts themselves as anti-establishment. ted cruz a member of the senate, part of the bush administration in the past but is running against -- >> ifill: i will be watching ben carson to see if he can break out or anybody else. i think it will be very interesting. >> it will be. amy walter, tamera keith, thank you very much. >> thank you. >> woodruff: now to overseas. greek prime minister alexis tsipras says he will not allow his country to become what he calls a "warehouse for refugees", and europe's border agency is expected to send agents to greece soon in an attempt to stem the inflow of
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migrants. currently, refugees from only the conflicts in syria, afghanistan and iraq are being permitted to transit greece to countries farther north. but as special correspondent malcolm brabant reports, there's now a roadblock on that trail: leaving many migrants from other countries with some tough choices. >> reporter: spanish lifeguards respond to a call from volunteers scanning the horizon on the cliffs of lesbos. they're heading out to the channel to shepherd the flimsy inflatables to safety. after several rough days prevented crossings from turkey the seas are calm. a flotilla of overcrowded rubber dinghies is using the shortest crossing between the two countries. the occupants have paid $1,000 a head for the journey. in the distorted economics of the migrant trail, safe arrival represents value for money, especially for syrians like hamza hussein.
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>> reporter: in the middle of the picture, you can see a lifeguard trying to help a refugee who has plunged into the sea fifty meters off shore. mohammed asti mimi is an iraqi, given priority by europe in the new two tier migrant trail. >> reporter: having secured a foothold in europe, the syrians, afghans and iraqis are assured of a relatively swift passage to the destination of their choice. but all other nationalities on this beach have arrived as the gates have shut, after greece's neighbor, macedonia, said they would only admit people from these three conflicts. farmer costas bayotis, who helps the refugees ashore and salvages the rafts' components, disapproves of what he believes
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is a discriminatory system. >> ( translated ): in my opinion, all the world is suffering. if they're from afghanistan, iran, iraq, or bangladesh, they are all in the same situation and must be helped. they've all got souls. the politicians are more educated than we are, so let them try and come up with a solution for a better tomorrow for these people. the best possible. >> reporter: dawn at the next step on the migrant trail, piraeus, the country's key port on the mainland, where daily, ferries arrive carrying thousands of people aiming to pass through greece as quickly as possible. the intention of most is to travel more than 300 miles north to macedonia. at the ramps, scores of travel agents offer bus tickets to the border. >> macedonia, macedonia. >> reporter: but this is the ultimate destination for those who are not syrian, iraqi or
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afghan: a fenced off former olympic martial arts stadium in athens. all other nationalities have been transported here after last week's closure by greece of a camp at idomeni on the border with macedonia. food is in short supply and volunteers have struggled to pacify the newcomers. >> we are here to help you. help us. don't push. don't push. >> reporter: it's been a venue for violence, stabbings, protests and arrests. >> reporter: outside the stadium, we met 22-year old tassdaq hussain from pakistan, one of those deported from idomeni last week when greece acknowledged that macedonia wouldn't compromise over its wide ranging ban.
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>> reporter: in common with other excluded nationalities, hussain's options are to seek asylum in greece, leave the country within 30 days, or be repatriated with a small financial grant. if the government gives you money to go back, will you go back?
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>> reporter: in the greek parliament, prime minister alexis tsipras, once a supporter of open borders, made it clear that times have changed, as a result of macedonia's ban, and european pressure. >> ( translated ): it is true that if this influx continues there is a danger for the country to be turned into a warehouse for immigrants. well, the country must not and will not become a warehouse. we welcome the establishment of a european coast guard. it is welcome and the greek forces will contribute. >> reporter: europe's reinforcements will arrive at a time when turkey is supposed to be stemming the flow of migrants in return for more than $3 billion, and a promise to speed up the process of joining the e.u. but the large number of boats landing in lesbos has left some analysts like ioannis papageorgiou wondering what
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turkey is doing for its money. >> i think it's a disgrace that we have to suffer blackmail from turkey as the european union, but it's real politic. i'm not sure they'll be able to fulfil their side of the bargain. and i'm not sure that the european union will fulfil its side of the bargain either. many people arriving in lesbos face real frustration because looks like it's been severed. bulgaria is blocked and the only other possible available by land is albania. that nation is mountainous, freezing in winter, and overall much more perilous than the other balkan nations. but the traffickers are now said to be considering albania as the next option, well aware that ill equipped, vulnerable people could die there. but having survived the game of
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russian roulette that is the sea crossing from turkey, the refugees have become used to making calculated risks. the hope of finding safe haven and relative prosperity keeps driving this historic movement of humanity. for the pbs newshour, i'm malcolm brabant in lesbos. >> ifill: next, olive oil is a staple in many of america's kitchens, and much of it is produced in italy. but a mysterious infection is now threatening that industry, and a way of life. jeffrey brown recently traveled to the olive groves of southern italy. >> brown: it's the heel of italy's "boot." the salento region may be less known than the country's more famous tourist areas. but it boasts beautiful port towns and idyllic country roads lined with ancient farms, vineyards and, most of all, its
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renowned olive groves, some thousands of years old. >> ( translated ): for us, these are not only trees that produce olive oil, but it is the salento landscape. without these trees, salento will no longer exist. >> brown: a deadly bacteria -- dubbed "an olive ebola" -- has infected some one million trees so far, about 10% of the trees in the larger puglia province. some of those olive groves have been in families for generations. that's the case for giovanni melcarne, a grower who believes 500 of his 5,000 trees are now infected. you're fairly certain that all of this will be lost. >> ( translated ): by what we have s so far, in the past few months, yes. >> brown: the bacteria is xylella fastidiosa, and for years has been found in a variety of plants in brazil and california. it is commonly known as pierce's disease. but this strain was discovered two years ago in italy by donato boscia, a virologist at the national research council in
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bari, while he was visiting his father in law's farm. >> brown: the first signs of infection are dried-out leaves, known as leaf scorching. eventually the whole tree withers. it's thought to have come to italy via costa rica, hitching a ride on a decorative coffee plant. insects spread the bacteria by feeding on tree tissue. boscia's team is monitoring that spread by confirming samples, studying its carriers, and testing the live bacteria on various olive subspecies to see which might be resistant. >> brown: italians take their
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food very seriously, and on nearly every table is a bottle of good olive oil. on average, italy trails only spain oil production, responsible for 15% of the world's virgin olive oil and half of u.s. imports. in an industry that pulls in more than $2 billion a year to the country. its popularity has only grown as it's been touted for a range of health benefits, including reducing the risk of heart disease. with so much at stake, for italy and the rest of europe, the european union earlier this year established a buffer zone to contain the bacteria to one province in the south. a controversial move that left many growers angry. >> ( translated ): we are very dissatisfied. the e.u. is only interested in blocking the advance of the bacteria to the north. this area, the area of the breakout, has been left to its fate. >> brown: the measure required the cutting down of infected trees and even seemingly healthy ones nearby.
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>> ( translated ): my job would be a lot easier if not for all the misunderstanding. every group has different thoughts on how to tackle the problem. >> brown: giuseppe silletti, regional director of italy's forestry service, is the man tasked with implementing that plan for the italian government and e.u. but he says he's not getting the help he needs from farmers. >> ( translated ): i have news that the owners do everything they can to hide the disease. if they have a tree with symptoms, they prune the plants so they look healthy. this is very bad because it prevents us from being able to identify how much the disease is spreading. >> brown: in fact, many farmers and activists are skeptical of both the government response and the scientific research on the bacteria. virologist donato boscia was even accused of introducing the bacteria into italy.
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>> brown: some, like olive grower roberto polo, believe a variety of factors, including pesticides, are to blame. >> ( translated ): i believe that it is not only the bacteria to blame for the rapid drying out of the olive trees, but a combination of causes which have compromised the immune system of the trees. in practice, we've seen a reduction in the ability of the trees to defend themselves from external attacks of any kind. >> it's a matter of time. it will come. >> brown: polo's neighbor, roberto ziletti, owns the antica masseria del fano, an old farm that's been converted into a bed and breakfast with its own prize-winning olive oil production. >> historically, there are people that believe that these things always happen, that it will, as it arrives it will go away, alone. >> brown: just naturally. >> naturally. i don't know if this isrobably true, but the matter is that these days the problem is very, very big. >> brown: the government has been attempting to enlist more cooperation from farmers by
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paying them to cut down their own infected trees. that plan was dealt a blow last month, when an italian court temporarily halted the removal of trees until the bacteria could be proven as the cause of the disease. >> brown: also unknown is the incubation period, meaning many more trees could be infected and not yet symptomatic. >> ( translated ): in italy, we have 100 different opinions. but what is certain is that these plants are dying, that these plants are drying and we don't know what the future will be and we don't even know that there's a solution to this situation. >> brown: and there are already signs the bacteria has spread farther north, and even to france and corsica, though not yet infecting olive trees.
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suggesting this problem isn't going anywhere anytime soon. from the "boot" of southern italy, i'm jeffrey brown for the pbs newshour. >> woodruff: now we return to another one of our "newshour essays." tonight, julie lythcott-haims, a former stanford university undergraduate dean and author of the book "how to raise an adult," shares ideas on her belief that the job of parents is to put themselves out of work. here's her perspective on why it is important to get out of the over-parenting trap. >> we parents seem to have forgotten a simple, unassailable fact: we're mammals. sure, we may be mammals with clothing and cell phones, but like our counterparts in the
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wild, our job as parents is to put ourselves out of a job and raise our kids to be independent adults who can raise their own offspring one day. if you think about it, it's how we evolved to this point as humans. but these days, too many of us feel our child simply will not be successful in life unless we constantly protect and prevent at every turn, hover over every happening, micromanage every moment, take care of every little thing. yes, we can help our kids get a short-term win such as the better grades that come when we remind them to put their homework in their backpack, or bring it to school when they've forgotten it, or outright do some of the work for them. and our over-involvement certainly makes life more pleasant for them. often, we let them off the hook for doing the mundane tasks of life, such as chores and instead we prioritize their homework and enrichment activities over all else. this leads to young adults who can't do the basic tasks associated with living life on their own.
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a fellow college dean on another campus told me of a kid whose parents installed a webcam in the dorm room in order to wake their kid up each morning. a student told me of a friend whose parents always filled the car with gas so she never learned and then while driving one day she noticed her tank was low on fuel and ended up filling the car with diesel instead of unleaded. and some parents are so accustomed to arguing over grades in high school and college, that they expect to do the same in the workplace; a manager at a prestigious company told me of hearing from parents of an employee who were dissatisfied with their "child's" performance review. do parents do that? yes, parents do. look, we love our kids with a driving force we can barely comprehend. i think of it as an aching, fierce, terror, joy. of course, we want the very best for them. we love to be needed, and we
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feel a great deal of satisfaction when we ensure their needs are met. but over-helping can come at a significant long-term cost to our kids. it deprives them of the chance to build self-efficacy, a critical aspect of psychological wellness that comes from seeing that one's own actions lead to outcomes. one's own actions - not one's parents' actions on one's behalf. we end up raising kids who fail to launch, who don't have their own wherewithal to do for themselves, who still need us to act as the adult in their lives. no matter how impressive our kid's childhood g.p.a. or resume may be, we've not done right by our kids, our society, our species, if they're reached the age of chronological adulthood but don't have the skills, habits, mindset, and confidence to do for themselves.
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>> ifill: on the newshour online, a film about tyrone west, who died in baltimore police custody in the summer of 2013. the officers were cleared of all wrongdoing, but the case is receiving renewed attention in light of the death of freddie gray. you can find that video on our facebook page, and our home page, pbs.org/newshour >> woodruff: and that's the newshour for tonight. on tuesday, we'll look at the future of energy. on the heels of the paris climate change agreement, miles o'brien offers a reality check on the limits of renewable energy and what it will take to create a long-lasting alternative to fossil fuels. i'm judy woodruff >> ifill: and i'm gwen ifill. join us online and again here tomorrow evening. for all of us at the pbs newshour, thank you and good night. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by:
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>> and by the alfred p. sloan foundation. supporting science, technology, and improved economic performance and financial literacy in the 21st century. >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc
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captioned by media access group at wgbh access.wgbh.org
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>> announcer: this is "nightly business report," with tyler mathisen and sue herera. fed fixation. wall street is laser focused on the federal reserve this week as the central bank could raise interest rates for the first time since 2006. we'll look at what it all means. fund safety. the company that blocked investor withdrawals from its junk bond fund and rattled the markets last week fires its ceo. so how can you tell if your fund is safe? and force fed. how companies are lining up to get a piece of the multimillion-dollar pie the new "star wars" movie is expected to reap. all that and more tonight on "nightly business report" for monday december 14th. good evening, everyone, and welcome. i'm sharon epperson in tonight for sue

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