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tv   PBS News Hour  PBS  April 4, 2016 6:00pm-7:01pm PDT

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captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc >> ifill: good evening, i'm gwen ifill. judy woodruff is away. on the newshour tonight: inside the panama papers-- how one of the largest data leaks in history allegedly shows world leaders using offshore companies to hide their wealth. also ahead, the battle for wisconsin: both party's frontrunners face hurdles, as candidates make a final push before tomorrow's primary. and, with the falling price of oil, one of america's most reliable allies against isis is going broke. >> often people say that peshmergas are fighting on behalf of the international community and the free world. if that is the case then there has to be more assistance. >> ifill: all that and more on tonight's pbs newshour.
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>> ifill: europe moved in earnest today to reverse the human flood spilling into the continent. it took the form of deportations from greece, involving the first of what could be thousands of people. malcolm brabant reports on the day's developments. >> reporter: as dawn broke, the first of more than 200 migrants, mostly pakistanis and afghans, were ferried from the greek islands back to turkey. escorted by officers from the e.u.'s border agency, they were taken to a tented area for registration and health screenings. at the same time, 32 syrian refugees were flown from istanbul to hanover, germany to be resettled. it's all part of turkey's deal with the european union to end more than a year of mass migration. >> greece and turkey are implementing the agreement lawfully and the commission and the agencies are on the ground advising with advice and expertise. >> reporter: the deal aims to
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discourage those fleeing conflict in their homeland from making that perilous journey, as well as bring an end to human smuggling networks. in return, turkey receives financial aid and expedited e.u. membership talks. the turkish prime minister promised all will be done humanely. >> ( translated ): today, as we take back syrian refugees from europe, my request to our police officers is to treat those who consider turkey an embrace of mercy with compassion, and don't distinguish them from our own citizens. >> e.u., shame on you! e.u., shame on you! >> reporter: but dozens of protesters gathered at the port in lesbos, chanting slogans and denouncing the deportations. >> they are being forcibly returned to turkey and turkey is not a safe country. turkey has not signed the geneva convention in full, only syrians are enjoying some kind of protection in turkey, and all the other migrants and refugees are not protected at all in turkey.
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>> reporter: human rights groups also charge the operation lacks legal safeguards for deciding who is to be deported. >> these are individuals who are fleeing horrific scenes of war and the kind of abuses we know from aleppo for example and we are playing some type of ping- pong with them. these people have a right to asylum, to safety, to protection and we need to grant it to them. >> reporter: in all, 50,000 migrants and refugees are stranded in greece, cut off from moving deeper into europe. about 4,000 who arrived after march 20, the cut-off date, and did not receive asylum, are being detained for deportation. but still they come: in the last 24 hours, more than 300 new arrivals made the dangerous voyage to lesbos. for the pbs newshour, i'm malcolm brabant. >> ifill: in the day's other news, it was primary eve in wisconsin, and the campaigning went on almost non-stop. on the republican side, both donald trump and ted cruz predicted victory. and democrat bernie sanders
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talked of scoring a win over frontrunner hillary clinton. we'll get a report from wisconsin, and review the race in general, later in the program. two big state governors signed bills today taking their minimum wage to the highest in the nation. in california, the state livestreamed governor jerry brown's signing of a new law, which by 2022 will raise the wage from $10 to $15 an hour. >> this is about economic justice. it's about people. it's about creating a little, tiny balance in a system that every day becomes more unbalanced. >> ifill: and in new york, governor andrew cuomo signed a bill setting a $15 minimum for new york city and its suburbs by 2021. the rest of the state will rise to $12-50 an hour. president obama today commended the state efforts. he urged congress to hike the federal minimum as well. the supreme court has unanimously upheld a texas law
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in the latest battle over legislative districts. the law counts overall population, not just eligible voters, in drawing districts. challengers said that means some end up with far more voters than others. but the court ruled the method does not violate the principle of "one person, one vote." amtrak trains in the northeast are back on normal schedules, after sunday's collision that killed two maintenance workers. it happened when a southbound train struck heavy maintenance equipment and derailed, outside philadelphia. cnn reported today the maintenance workers were on the wrong track, but it remains unclear why. brussels' main airport ramped up departures today, after partially reopening on sunday. the facility had been closed since last month's attacks. security was tight today, as passengers went through stricter check-in procedures. many said it's about pushing on, despite the terrorists. >> ( translated ): it's terribly sad what happened at the airport
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and my first reaction was not to go on holiday anymore, not to but after a couple of days, i thought that life should go on and that we have to resume all activities and that we have to take the plane again. we have to straighten our backs and go on. >> ifill: 20 flights were scheduled to leave today, up from three yesterday. officials say it will be months before full service is restored. in iraq, a string of suicide attacks killed 29 people. at least 14 died at a restaurant that's popular with shiite fighters in the south. and, in basra, a car bomb in a commercial district left five dead. search teams sifted through the charred hulks of cars looking for victims. islamic state extremists claimed responsibility for most of the attacks. back in this country, a new analysis finds prices of widely used medications have shot up sharply in five years. reuters reports manufacturers of four of the top 10 drugs in the u.s. raised prices by more than 100% since 2011. the cost of six other medicines increased by more than 50 percent in that time.
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among them: the arthritis drugs humera and enbrel, and the asthma drug advair. heart patients have some new developments to talk over with their doctors. findings published this week show anti-cholesterol statin drugs can prevent heart attacks even in patients with only a borderline risk. and for those who don't tolerate statins well, another study finds an alternative is showing promise. it's known as a p.c.s.k.-9 inhibitor. b.p.'s record settlement over the 2010 gulf oil spill has cleared its final hurdle. a federal judge in new orleans today approved the roughly $20 billion deal. much of it will go to state and local governments. in 2012, b.p. reached a similar settlement on private damage claims. and on wall street, the dow jones industrial average lost more than 55 points to close at 17,737. the nasdaq fell 22 points, and the s&p 500 slipped six. still to come on the newshour:
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the panama papers-- a massive trove of documents exposing the secret world of shell companies and offshore accounts. in wisconsin, the final push for votes as polls predict tight races for both democrats and republicans, and much more. >> ifill: the project is called the "panama papers." it represents the work of hundreds of journalists, in dozens of countries, coordinated by the international consortium for investigative journalism, or i.c.i.j. the project exposes the dealings of a panamanian lawfirm called mossack fonseca, and its work in allegedly creating shell companies for the global rich and powerful to hide and launder money, and to evade taxes. more than 11 million law firm documents were initially provided to a german newspaper by an anonymous source.
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among the world leaders allegedly involved in these schemes: the presidents of argentina and ukraine; the king of saudi arabia; and the prime minister of iceland. the papers also detail the elaborate financial dealings of the friends and relatives of both russian president vladimir putin, and syrian president bashar al assad. the real world effect of these deals is shown, in part, in this video released by i.c.i.j. and the pulitzer center on crisis reporting, a frequent newshour partner. >> over the past three years syria's air forces rained death on more than 21,000 civilians. their bodies ripped apart by exploding bombs, missiles dropped on homes, businesses, bus stops, even hospitals. these war crimes have been well-documented. not so the part played by the shadowy world of off-shore finance. behind the scenes, companies using off-shore tax havens were
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accused of supplying fuel to the syrian air force. in 2014, governments including the u.k. and u.s. issued bans on doing business with these companies but now a new global investigation has revealed that a panamanian firm helped these companies operate so the attacks in syria continued. that firm mossack fonseca is a key player in a sprawling secretive industry for the world's rich and powerful used to hide assets and skirt rolls but setting up front companies in injures dictions, more than 300 drilled through millions of records from mossack fonseca to expose the list of clients involved in bribery, arms deals, tax evasion, financial fraud and drug trafficking. behind the invoices, e-mails and paper trails, a real victims. in uganda a company that wanted to sell a pros peckive oil field pay mossack fonseca to help it
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avoid $400 million in taxes. it was sent the paper work. the company's address was changed from one tax haven to another. in a country where one in three people live on less than $1.25 a day, $400 million represents more than the government's annual-- uganda spent years in court trying to force the company to pay its taxes. meanwhile hospitals in the shadow of the oil field lacked funds for even the most basic equipment. patients slept on floors and were asked to bring their own medical supplies like sterile gloves and cotton balls it was a surprise to me because i expected all of this equipment to be at the health centre. all these things are not there, we cannot work on you. at times we are forced to leave and return home unattended to. some women have lost their legs and baby the, uganda ranks monk the worst countries in the world for newborn and child mortality rates due to lack of access to good health care.
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>> ifill: in a statement to the international consortium of investigative journalists, mossack fonseca said it never knowingly allowed the use of its companies by individuals with a relationship to syria. the law firm said it was quick to report suspicious activity. always cooperate with authorities and that it does "not offer solutions whose purpose is to hide unlawful acts such as tax evasion." for more on all of this we turn to gerard ryle, the director of the i.c.i.j. and, shruti shah. she's vice president of transparency international- u.s.a., a watchdog group that seeks to expose corruption globally. so gerard ryle, tell us, explain to us what these folks are doing in these dealings, and what is illegal about it? >> well, a lot of what happens in the offshore world is actually legal but where you have secretary resee which is exkly what the offshore world abides, then you have the potential for wrongdoing. and certainly in the documents that we have seen, there was wrongdoing. i mean it's almost ridiculous to think that mossack fonseca, this company, didn't actually know who the clients were. some of these clients appear on
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lists or they are drug dealers or mafia bosses. >> so when they say it was not our intent to fa till tait-- facilitate anything illegal. >> i think it is the whole system. they are claiming their clients were actually the banks and the account ansi firms that were actually going to them for the end client. it's almost unbelievable to think that they actually dnt know who these people really were. >> ifill: they say it is what is legal that is the crime. >> absolutely right there as well. and what gerard just said was that it is absolutely legal in many parts to farm a company without disclosing who the true beneficial own certificate including right here in the united states. in every state in the u.s. you can form a company without having to disclose who the person is that really controls the company or derives economic benefits from it. and also here you know, people gatekeepers such as real estate agents and others don't have to do any due dill against on
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buyers' identities or the sources of their fund. what he powntded out that the real kruks of the problem, the structure feeds reform. >> ifill: even though in this case, in these sets of documents we haven't seen, or at least i haven't read about a lot of u.s. names or u.s. connections. >> it is the first time we are actually seeing u.s. injures dictions coming out. we are seeing a lot of documents from nevada, for instance, and also from wyoming which we have never seen before. but i mean people think of the offshore world as being some caribbean island some where. it's not it is actually spread around the world. it is in first world places as well as third world. >> ifill: where are the most popular places. >> the most popular place to hide money is here in the u.s. and in britain. a lot of the money flow that we see from russia, from china, from africa is actually coming in to the banks here in the u.s. and to britain. and that's why we're seeing so many banks of the data, they are the users of this world. >> ifill: are you saying it is perfectly fine for people to do that as long as the laws do not account for anything shady?
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>> what i am saying is that it shouldn't be so easy for money launderers, drug traffickers and other criminals from around the world including corrupt public officials to be able to access the global financial system with such ease using anonymous companies and hide their true identities. this ban has to be lifted. we really need to know who the true owners are behind these companies and need to end the secretary resee. particularly as gerard pointed out, delaware is home to thousands of shell companies, nevada which he pointed out, now mossack fonseca has a presence in nevada and it's not by accident. again, it's one of those states that is known for it's business bending corporation laws. >> ifill: is there a lot. >> from the public kaition so far. >> before we even published putin's spokesman came out and attacked us because we had sent a list of questions asking why associates, very close to him, we were seeing in the document,
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almost $2 billion flowed through offshore companies involving people very close to vladimir putin including the godfather of his child. and one of the offshore companies we saw was the owner of a ski resort in russia where vladimir putin's daughter got married. >> ifill: the prime minister of pakistan, his chin have these companies. >> we saw the biggest ever protest in iceland today, in fact. the entire parliament house there was surrounded by people protesting about the fact that they revealed that the prime minister of iceland had a secret offshore account that had millions of dollars in bank bonds. if you recall in iceland, there was a crisis a few years ago where all the banks melted down and he was elected to sort that problem out, without telling the people that he had a secret company that had bonds in the same banks. >> ifill: if you are an ordinary person who has a savings account, checking account, maybe still a pass book, how does this affect you? >> let me explain how it affects you, both in the international stage and right here in the u.s in the international scene when
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you see corrupt people stealing money from their own people, it leads to loss of trust and it creates instability, leads to conflict and really poses a national security problem for the u.s in terms of right here dom es figure-- domestic context you see the real estate boom in places like manhattan and also miami being fueled by these anonymous real estate prmps. which means that ordinary citizens like doctors, nurses, school teachers can't buy houses in these places because they are so unaffordable. that is how i think it really affects us in the u.s. >> ifill: we're talking about more than 11 million documents from one single law firm. >> yes. >> ifill: is this the tip of an iceberg? >> it has to be am we know that even though mossack fonseca is the biggest incorporators of offshore companies around the world, there are 800 others ones, so we are only seeing a small slice of this world. and what is stunning is there are so many politicians, what we saw. there were 12 current and former
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world leaders. there were about 140 politicians in all. and hundreds more of their associates. >> ifill: so how do you get to the bottom of this. >> you need to call for reform. and this is where they have done a lot of good calling attention to this issue of anonymous companies. there have been several past investigations which have talked about the role that anonymous companies play in aiding criminals. i really do hope that this actually leads to actual structured reform. in the u.s. we start collecting nferg on beneficial ownership of shell companies. we do our gatekeepers such as people in the real estate industry to do due dill against and also the responsibility lies with our banks. banks should be required to determine and ver fie who the beneficial owner is of the clients. i think if all of these three things if we manage to do them in the u.s., it would make the u.s. financial system less vulnerable to dirty money. >> ifill: it seems so much easier said than done. what you laid out sounds like a
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high mountain to change. >> i would disagree. two of these things can be done without legislation. with regard to my last point about you know requiring financial institutions to determine and ver fie the beneficial owner of the line,-- proposed a rule in 2014, it still needs to be finalized, 18 months after the rule was introduced it has not yet been finalized. maybe this will give them the push. >> ifill: maybe so, shruti shah of transparency international and gerard ryle, the director of the icij, thank you both very much. >> thank you. >> thank you so >> ifill: stay with us, coming up on the newshour: how the drop in oil prices is hurting a key u.s. ally in the fight against isis. and a look at the intense social pressures american girls face in a world dominated by smart phones.
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but first, john yang has been in wisconsin this past week talking to voters. it's a battle tested state that's seen its share of political turmoil over the past five years. >> team trump pac, make america great again. >> reporter: hours before the doors opened on sunday, people were already lining up outside of donald trump rally in west dallas, wisconsin. >> go trump. woo! >> jim mar low a small business owner got here at noon for the event that began at 7 p.m >> i see strength and i see power and i see somebody who's not afraid to say it like he feels it, even if he potentially is a little abrasive sometimes, you know what, when i'm in my living room, i'm a little abrasive too. >> reporter: leanne and her daughter came from green bay, 125 miles away. >> he may be a billionaire.
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but he feels a lot of the same way us poor people feel. you know, the tax issue, the illegal immigrants, taking jobs, manufacturing going overseas, you know, we have lost a lot. >> reporter: all of that sounds familiar but wisconsin is presenting trump with something he's never seen before. united opposition from the state's republican establishment and conservative media. >> there is clear opposition to donald trump because is he frontrunner and a real effort in the republican party to prevent him from being the nominee. >> reporter: charles franklin is the director of the respected parqu ette huh school poll, his latest survey shows that ted cruz has catapulted into a ten-point state wide lead over trump. >> that's a tremendous increase and i don't think ted cruz's issue position has changed over that period. >> reporter: cruz gained momentum last week with an endorsement from republican
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governor scott walker. >> the notion that donald trump has and that many of the trumpkins have that the politics is involved with smash mouth. >> reporter: in addition, conservative talk show hosts like charley sykes are using the airwaves to rally their audiences against trump. >> ted cruz was not my first choice or my second choice. i'm more anti-trump than i am procruz. so you know, the key thing at this point is to stop donald trump from getting that 1,237 votes on the first ballot of the convention. >> he's actually almost this cartoon version of every stereotype that liberals would have of what they think of conservative, xenophobic, racist, miss only nis particular. but he's not a cartoon, is he the leading republican candidate and it pulls-of-puts into question everything we claim about ourselve, everything we have tried to do. >> reporter: what about the other republican candidate, ohio governor john kasich? >> the vote on april 5th is going to be a buy narree choice, this will be the closest thing you had for a head-to-head
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matchup twoon ted cruz and donald trump and i think it will be the first of the rest of the campaign. >> at a kasich he vn at a madison sports bar over the weekend, brian keith, an accountant from monroe said he's sticking with the man from ohio. >> i think john kasich has got a huge ramp to gup to try to make it. but at the end of the day, maybe there is i a chance that if he gets some momentum here in wisconsin, he will start moving forward and maybe there is something that can happen. donald trump has no character. sorry to say it. and from what i have seen with ted cruz, i'm not sure that he's got the amount of character needed either. so we need better character people running america. and helping america be better. >> reporter: the democratic frontrunners also facing a tough challenge here in wisconsin. polls show hillary clinton and bern yoa sanders in a virtual tie. but the dynamics of that race are very different from the republicans. on. >> on the democratic side it's
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less clear that this is an attempt to prevent hillary clinton from being the nominee. >> reporter: over this snowy weekend at the dain county farmer's market in madison the talk over breakfast, politics. >> they can get behind such extremism as donald trump. >> retired teachers ruby and joe now run a bakery. they like what sanders says but they're voting for clinton. >> reaching too high isn't necessarily going to get very much done. and i think her approach is more realistic and have a chance at actually being implemented. >> i think part of it is her plan to have more fore thought and follow through in them. and i think what she is supposing, she is going to be able to do. and thases' why i'm strongly behind her. >> reporter: but in this liberal enclave home to the university of wisconsin, we found a lot of sanders supporters. mj bowman is a nurse. >> i tell people all the time
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don't listen what people say about bernie. listen what bernie has to say. and you will get it. cuz he gets it. >> reporter: travis is a graduate institute. >> he believes in a lot of the same interests that i do. mainly getting corporate interests out of politics. decreasing the price of higher education. out of the two candidates, he is the choice. >> rachel and alissa are wisconsin juniors. >> i think that like in this cli big money has just gotten too much into politics which is like exactly what politics shouldn't be. because it should be of and by for the people. >> if you look at everything he has been saying over the entire kind of time frame that he has been in politics or around politics, he's been pretty consistent. and that's not something that i am seeing with a lot of the other candidates. >> reporter: polls show this is sanders thing. sanders is doing enormously well with voters under 45, and
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unbelievably well among those under 30. >> voters are telling us in their polls that even young voters are going to go to the polls. now that's the great question for election day, is those young voters really turn out for sanders and give him that enormous vote which is holding him up in the polls right now. >> i like to get rid of the stigma for students. i don't like that. the unreliability. i don't like that. don't think of us as unreliable. think of us as people that are just as interested in this as you are. >> reporter: clinton's strengths are in urban milwaukee. >> among likely voters hillary clinton is winning nonwhite voters pretty substantially. >> at the farmer's market we also met undecided voters like retired forest pathologist alan. >> i was going to have coffee with me friends on monday and we're going to talk about it. so i'll be down to last minute, when i walk in there i won't know until i get to the ballot on tuesday morning.
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>> reporter: it's a dilemma, no doubt, that many voters across wisconsin are facing tonight. for the pbs newshour, i'm john yang in milwaukee. >> ifill: and on the trail today, the republican candidates jabbed at each other in the final hours before the polls open in wisconsin. >> when we get to the convention, they're going to wonder, who can beat hillary? which i consistently do and they do not. and that's why they're starting to trash me. they want to dirty me up, like they've dirtied themselves up. >> he's one and 30. he oughta get the hell out, honestly. he's just like a stubborn guy. he's stubborn. he doesn't want to leave. they asked him the other day: 'are you going to leave? no i'm not going to leave.' let me tell you, he hurts me more than he hurts cruz. cruz wants him out; cruz is wrong. >> our campaign still has a clear path to earning 1,237 delegates before the convention. that is our plan a. that's what we're focused on doing. now, i recognize donald wants to change the standard; he doesn't want the standard to be who can earn a majority. because he can't earn a majority. >> ifill: on the democratic side, bernie sanders touted his chances against his rival in the
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upcoming primaries, while clinton focused her criticism on the republican frontrunner. >> if we win in new york state, between you and me, i don't want to get hillary clinton more nervous than she already is, she's already under a lot of pressure. so don't tell her this, but i think we win here, we win in new york state, we're on our way to the white house. >> there are people who don't believe that the minimum wage should be raised. in fact, donald trump has said wages are too high, and a lot of members of his party agree. right? he's fired? that's funny. >> ifill: for more on what's next on the path to the white house, we turn to politics monday. that's tamara keith of npr, joining us tonight from milwaukee, and amy walter of the "cook political report." okay, so amy, let's start with this count down to wisconsin. what do you expect?
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>> the expectations now and of course they've not always proved to be correct, but the expectations right now, ted cruz ahead in wisconsin, will win wisconsin. and bernie sanders with a very narrow lead, he could still hold on to that but it's not going to be a blowout. >> ifill: are you in wisconsin tonight. what does it look like there? >> there is a little snow falling and i've been to a couple of bernie sanders events in the last couple of days where they had a bigger venue than they ultimately needed. there was an event at a big basketball arena last night, it holds 17,000 people, about 5,000 showed up. tonight he was supposed to be in another big basketball arena here in milwaukee and they moved the event to nearby convention center. now part of that may also be that donald trump has a rally very nearby and they wanted to get a little bit more separation. >> ifill: it's really hard to tell from crowd sizes because he has been getting incredible crowd sizes.
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>> the other thing to point out, bernie sanders gets 4,000 people and that is considered disappointing. hillary clinton gets 2300 and that is a really big rally for hillary clinton. >> ifill: so let's talk about the republicans for a moment. donald trump is goading john kasich to quit. why won't he? >> i think john kasich really believes in what he said in that clip, which is at the end of the day you have two very damaged candidates who are, you know, trailing hillary clinton by a great deal which is donald trump or tied with hillary clinton and has very high negatives. i do not. and i will look like a much better candidate come july and people will turn to me because they'll see the other two can't win. the problem with that is two things. one, what republican primary voters have said throughout this primary is we may not all agree on the same candidate but one thing that 60 plus percent of voters said is we don't want somebody considered an establishment or insider. kasich fits into the steanlt
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insider category. and the other thing that they have been looking for is somebody who is going to shake up the system. john kasich, not somebody who will shake up the system. so it's very difficult for me to believe that even if it gets very messy, which it's going to be, much messier, by the time we get to the convention, kasich still will have a very difficult path ahead of him to be seen as the person who would be picked. >> ifill: and ted cruz has turned almost exclusively to delegate hunting. >> yes. and you know, one fascinating thing watching tv here in wisconsin is that ted cruz is running an attack ad against john kasich. so kasich is right that they are going after him. ted cruz is saying well, maybe we could still get to the magic number but more likely he just wants to prevent donald trump from getting that number. >> ifill: one thing layered over all of this, of course, amy is that donald trump, an we're seeing more and more evidence of this every day is unpopular.
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>> it doesn't seem to matter right now with republican primary voters. in fact, we have been talking about this for some time about his liabilities and yet what republicans, a lot of primary voters are saying they do still believe that is he electable and it's important for them to send a message. a lot of republicans said you know what, in the last two elections, you guys in the media and the establishment said you have to support john mccain and mitt romney because they are the winnable candidates. yes, there may be too moderate, yes, they may be too establishment but they are the only people that can win. and they both went on to lose. a lot of republican primary voters say who are you to say who is lechable. you have been wrong every other time, i think is the more lechable candidate and disswayeding them from that point of view is going to be very difficult. >> ifill: tam, back to the democrats for a moment. there is a remarkable story this
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morning in the "new york times" which read a lot like the kinds of stories you read after a campaign is over in i with the bernie sanders folks were openly on the record mulling over all the mistakes they've made so far. harder in iowa, if only we had done this in new hampshire, does that change, is that an admission am some kind? >> it was sort of a premore tell post more tell. bernie sanders is saying and his campaign staff, not in that article but in other venues are saying absolutely, we still believe we have a path.-i thinke campaign staff have said for a long time that they wish he had gone after her. that he hadn't let her off the hook on the e-mails. that he started talking about the speeches at goldman sachs and other companies sooner. but bernie sanders didn't in part because bernie sanders believes that his brand is his integrity. his brand is not doing the personal attacks in that way. and in recent days he has-- he has been going less hard on
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hillary clinton, though today he did mention wall street fundraisers. but he, in some ways, it almost seems like his heart has never quite been in the attack mode. >> ifill: it should say he is outraising her by a lot, fundraising. >> $44 million in march alone, mostly from small dollar contributions. people giving again and again. hill roe clinton's numbers are just out today and it was $29.5 million in the same month. so bernie sanders is outspending hersigly which means he's not going anywhere. the premortem was a little bit early, bernie sanders can stay in this campaign, can keep running as outspending her on television ads all the way to the california primary on june 6th. >> ifill: and scuf her up a bit. >> maybe. i still think when you look at her numbers, she is still popular among democrats. she and bernie sanders are equally popular. they both have approval ratings
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among democrats in the 70st. democratic primary voters even in wisconsin the latest poll out of wisconsin, voting for bernie sanders also believe hillary clinton will ultimately be the nominee. at the end of the day the best thing going for hillary clinton right now is donald trump. and donald trump is doing more to motivate the kinds of voters that hillary clinton needs to turn out in november than anything she could do on her own. >> there is a scirmish going on right now on the democratic side between hillary clinton and bernie sanders on some issues and over this fight about delegates-- delicates but on the republican side there is a thermal new clear war. >> ifill: which is he had spending more time campaigning in new york than wisconsin, and that is next week. >> she wants to an an exclamation point on herdell gat lead. she is still in the cat bird seat. she's still on track for the nomination based on the delegate koint. -- count. the only way for sanders to catch up is to win wisconsin by a huge percentage and then defeat her in new york.
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he would have to beat her by a big percentage fsm she wins new york by a big margin, the delegate numbers aren't going to add up for bern yoo sanders. at the enof the day, i don't think this is a fight that is problematic for the ultimate democratk nominee. it's the fight that is going on on the republican side that shepping energize democrats. the fact that this fight has not been bloody and messy like it has been on the republican side is a good thing for democrats and quite frankingly, for hill roe clinton to hone in on the message that bern ye sanders has raised about income inequality, stagnant middle class, it is going to be important for her to have throughout the fall. >> amy walters, and tamara keith out there in milwaukee in the snow, thank you both very much. >> ifill: the crash in global oil prices and two years of war are having a real effect on the economic stability of the
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kurdistan region of northern iraq, a main u.s. ally in the fight against isis, just as the battle for the isis stronghold of mosul begins. special correspondent jane ferguson reports. >> reporter: the fortunes of people living in the shadow of erbil's ancient citadel have fluctuated dramatically over the centuries. nowadays, times are tough. the economy in kurdistan is in free-fall. government salaries have stopped, and other work is hard to come by, as foreign investors have fled. in this teashop, men spend their days discussing the crisis, waiting for things to improve. dawood madhi, was a civil servant; he has family on his mind. >> ( translated ): i have three sons and they are jobless, also i am retired and usually i have a small pension which is not enough to buy medicines for my illness. i receive about $150. i am 66 years old and am retired
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already. i am not able to do another job. >> reporter: those protecting these lands are also not getting paid. kurdish fighters, called peshmerga, who defend the semi- autonomous region saw their wages stop four months ago. since isis overran swathes of iraq in 2014, peshmerga forces have pushed them back from kurdish lands. they are now holding a lengthy front line against the group, aided by us airstrikes and intelligence. they are america's strongest ally in the fight against isis, and senators john mccain and lindsey graham are pushing to find emergency funds for the kurds. so far, that money hasn't arrived, and the peshmerga are broke. kurdistan's regional government spokesman safin dizayi fully admits this is a crisis. >> definitely, the peshmerga are fighting a war which is a matter of life and death.
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they will continue to fight even if they continue to be unpaid. but while they are fighting and they are very vulnerable to attack of isil in every form the families have to survive. their kids have to go to school. >> reporter: peshmerga forces are woefully under-equipped, says the government here. >> when we have international delegations and senior people coming to kurdistan they go to the battle front, they speak very highly of peshmergas, they pat on the back, and sometimes unfortunately we have been patronized. we can do without the patronizing. what we need is some more assistance particularly for the peshmergas. and if this war is to be won-- often people say that peshmergas are fighting on behalf of the international community and the free world-- if that is the case then there has to be more assistance. yes, we do appreciate what has been provided so far but this is not
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sufficient. >> reporter: the economy here has largely depended on oil exports in recent years. oil revenues and foreign investors made kurdistan a booming success story from 2003. since then, a crash in oil prices and a war with isis have pushed that boom into a bust. after disputes over oil exports, the baghdad government has frozen payments to kurdistan from the country's national budget. legally, kurdistan is entitled to 17% of all oil revenues from baghdad's annual budget. since those were cut in 2014, it is estimated baghdad owes kurdistan around $20 billion. the oil economy had funded an oversized bureaucracy that included excessive amounts of government jobs. that has become now unsustainable. construction projects were the most visible evidence of the oil boom. until the crisis, foreign investors had great confidence
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in kurdistan. most construction sites we saw in erbil had halted. half-finished highways circle the city. for local businessman rizgar kadir, who's construction company has a contract to build a kempinski hotel here, business has been effected by isis. >> when isis took over mosul some indian worked were kidnapped by them. the indian government started to take back all the employees, they opened an office in erbil and they took back indians. we lost around 800 employees. now we have around 200 of them back. we are working on the project but very slow. >> reporter: as the sun falls over erbil, the city's streets become busier. young men gather in this market. many are putting off marriage and a family until times get better.
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at least here they can meet friends, and enjoy a cheap meal. rivan is a teacher who hasn't been paid in four months. "yes, it's tough," he says, "but people here believe if their military can fight isis, or deash as they call the group, without a salary, they should be just as stoic." so you haven't received a salary for four months? >> four months, yeah. >> reporter: so how do you survive? >> what shall we do? we are just living and for another side we have armed forces, peshmerga. they battle daesh without any money. we have to live without any money. >> reporter: it's a time of survival and sacrifice for everyone here, testing the endurance of kurdistan itself. for the pbs newshour, i'm jane ferguson in erbil, northern iraq.
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>> ifill: in the eight years since apple unveiled its first smart phone, an entire generation of young users has spring up who never knew a world without a device in hand. that's the starting point for the latest addition to the newshour bookshelf: "american girls: social media and the secret lives of teenagers," by journalist and author nancy jo sales. she recently sat down with hari sreenivasan. >> sreenivasan: joining me now is author nancy jo sales. what are the challenges that american girls are facing today that are different from the ones they've always faced? >> girls use social media a lot- - they're on their phones a lot- - and i think most parents are question is what is happening there and how are these some regrettable trends that we've seen happening for some time. just the sexualization of girls,
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the bullying, how are these moving on to phones and on to screens and what is this environment doing to the lives of girls and boys? >> sreenivasan: you paint a picture almost of these young girls at this kind of intersection of the existing angst that a teenage girl has combined with this technological leap that we're all taking together combined with pornography. >> yeah, i think the kind of elephant, maybe dinosaur in the room, right now is pornography. pornography has been available online for some time, but i don't think we've really begun to have a conversation about what that is doing to kids. and we know that they're watching it, they're teenagers. they're going through puberty. they're curious. they're watching pornography, but this tends to be more and more violent pornography that is also, one could reasonably say, very degrading to women, and this is where a lot of teenagers now find their sex ed and porn
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is also, the porn aesthetic is also really engulfing social media, you know? and social media is just full of really explicit sexual content and whether or not your child wants to see it or intends to see it, they are likely to see it. >> sreenivasan: what happens to all of us when there's on the one hand kind of hyper- sexualization, hyper- masculinization on the boys' side and the girls' side and if this is the new sex ed, they've really reduced the female body down to this thing they can swipe across. >> yeah, i mean i think it's really challenging for girls especially to have an expectation to produce images of themselves in order to get validation, the validation that everyone seems to want of likes and friends and followers. it's very challenging to them i think to have an expectation to produce images of themselves which are sexualized and they look "hot."
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and also to have to navigate through all these emotions that come through comments that may be on these pictures that are just about how hot they are or not hot they are. >> sreenivasan: you capture a lot of different conversations and there seems to be this conundrum where you ask them well if this is all the stress that's associated with making sure you're checking up on your likes and pictures and who liked you and what did they say, why are you on it? and they seem to say, well, i can't get off it. i don't get that. >> yeah, i talked to more than 200 girls in 10 states over 30 months, and one of the things that struck me the most is how self-aware they are, how articulate they were, how analytical they were about this very thing they were engaged in so much of the time. and they're quite aware of the ways in which it's really toxic. and yet, they can't leave it because this is, this is the swamp they're swimming in. this is the world they're meshed in where you have to be on it or you're not part of the conversation, you're not part of what's happening. a girl in new jersey described
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it as a second world that we live in. you know, there's the real world and then there's the second world that we're simultaneously in, kind of all the time. >> sreenivasan: and this is also affecting just their relationships with one another even in a non-sexualized way-- who's my best friend and what's my best friend allowed to say or do to me? you know? it's just different than the conversations that i had growing up and deciding who to hang out with. >> it's different to communicate from behind a screen and this is true for adults as well. i mean, we know this from multiple, multiple studies that when you communicate from behind a screen, you're more likely to say things you wouldn't face to face. you're more likely to become aggressive and even some studies say unethical. now, think about that. we have children now growing up on phones, learning to communicate with each other and be people, from behind a screen, and in an environment where it's okay to do stuff that you wouldn't do if you were with the person. i think that's really something that parents need to think about
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when they think about how they're kids are growing up now. you go on august these trip, you talk about this, you c ome back, and then what? >> we talk about it all the time. like on a daily basis. because to talk to her about what is going on in her life is to talk to her about what is going on on social media. so i just try and have it be an ongoing conversation as if i was asking her about what happened at school today, you know, and try to find out what's going on with your friends. and sometimes really dramatic things come up and i think a lot of parents have seen that, >> sreenivasan: what surprised me, and i'm wondering what surprised you during the reporting of this, but you had stories about women, young girls, that were getting plastic surgery so they can look better in selfies. but when you went across all these different young women, what shocked you?
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>> the way you know comments on pictures were so very sexualized, like, almost like catcalling which if this happened in the street, we would say, well that's really insulting. but on social media, the culture of social media is such that you're supposed to say oh, thank you, an emoji with heart eyes, like, you said i'm hot. and i'm just really concerned as a parent and as a woman about what this is doing to a generation of girls, what this culture is doing. for example, the book, it opens with a girl being asked to send nudes. a boy that she doesn't know very well, says to her, really demands of her really, "send nudes." he's not her boyfriend. and so you know all kinds of thoughts start to go through her head. like wow, should i be flattered? should i be outraged, should i be insulted? is this, should i do it? should i not do it? well if i did it what would it look like? these are new kinds of things for anybody to have to think about, especially 13-year-old girls. >> sreenivasan: alright, the book is called "american girls: social media and the secret lives of teenagers." author nancy jo sales. thanks so much for joining us.
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>> thank you. >> ifill: on the newshour online, a couple of weeks ago, we introduced you to the "bubble quiz," a series of questions that attempts to reveal how connected we are with the culture of middle america. he's written a follow-up that uses data from the answers to the quiz so far. see what he found, and take the quiz yourself. you can find it on our home page, pbs.org/newshour. in a weekly poem a poem on identity and expression, you can listen him read one of his latest works. all that and more son our website pbs.or tbrks/newshour. on "independent lens" tonight, the struggle a north dakota hamlet faced when a white supremacist moved to town. "welcome to leith" details the story of craig cobb, who in 2012 bought property and sold it to
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fellow white supremacists, sparking tension as locals resisted his attempt to form a majority and take over the local government. (booing) >> okay, thank you all for coming. we're going to get about 20 here to be in charge of the civic government of leith. in the interim, i wanted to thank the-- (screaming). >> you know it's really funny because millions of whites have been driven out of their
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neighborhoods and cities by violence. an here we just have democracy. >> you represent a dying cause. >> you have got one thing to say. >> go home, go home, go home! >> ifill: "independent lens" airs tonight on most pbs stations. and that's the newshour for tonight. on tuesday, a report on the challenge of keeping students' data private in the digital age. i'm gwen ifill. join us online, and again here tomorrow evening. for all of us at the pbs newshour, thank you and good night. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: >> lincoln financial-- committed to helping you take charge of your financial future.
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>> and by the alfred p. sloan foundation. supporting science, technology, and improved economic performance and financial literacy in the 21st century. >> supported by the john d. and catherine t. macarthur foundation. committed to building a more just, verdant and peaceful world. more information at macfound.org >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc
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captioned by media access group at wgbh access.wgbh.org
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this is "nightly business report" with tyler mathisen and sue herera. >> offshore bombshell. leaked documents from panama show how some of the world's power players use offshore accounts and the fall out goes global. product or profit? should investors buy companies based on a hot product or can hype get in the way? how one man took his passion for america's past time to a whole new level. all that and more on "nightly business report" for monday, april 4th. good evening, everyone. welcome. tyler mathisen is on assignment this evening. tonight we begin with a story that continues to unfold, and is having ripple effects around the

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