tv PBS News Hour PBS April 20, 2016 3:00pm-4:00pm PDT
captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc >> woodruff: good evening. i'm judy woodruff. >> sreenivasan: and i'm hari a sreenivasan. >> woodruff: on the newshour tonight, the road ahead after donald trump and hillary clinton's big wins in the new york primaries. are the party nominations further out of reach for the rest of the candidates? >> sreenivasan: also ahead this thursday, a makeover for american money: treasury secretary jack lew talks about putting women on u.s. currency for the first time in over 100e years. >> woodruff: and how communityo leaders in memphis, tennessee,h are working to break the cyclecl of childhood trauma which can lead to serious health consequences in adults. >> they are out of control, three- and four-year olds!ou and it breaks my heart to see that a child has been broken so early in life.
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>> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. >> woodruff: the top two candidates in the presidential race are feeling pretty good today, after they cleaned up in the new york state primary. now, they're looking to wrap up' their races, in the contests yet to come. donald trump-- fresh off winning big in his home state-- moved on to the midwest, and the indiana primary on may third. unlike last night, when he took a more restrained tone, today he was on the attack. >> i'm a million votes ahead of lyin' ted cruz.
i'm about 300 delegates ahead of lying ted. >> woodruff: but in pennsylvania today, texas senator ted cruz insisted the race for the g.o.p. nomination is far from over. >> there's a reason donald wants all of the lapdogs in the media to say that the race is over. in the three weeks that preceded yesterday, there were a total of five states that voted-- utah, wisconsin, north dakota, colorado, wyoming. in all five, we won a landslide. >> woodruff: cruz predicted a contested convention iss inevitable, telling a philadelphia radio station, "nobody is getting 1,237" delegates to clinch the nomination before then. but, on the democratic side, hillary clinton's double-digit victory last night puts her on track to wrap things up before convention time. >> the race for the nomination is in the home stretch, and
victory is in sight. >> woodruff: clinton campaigned in philadelphia today. there were mixed messages coming out of the bernie sanders campaign after his 16 point loss in new york. last night, senior adviser tad devine said they'll "assess where we are" after next week's primaries. today, he took a different tack: >> i think we have a lot of time. we've got 1,400 delegates still to be picked. we've got huge states like california still in play. only bernie sanders can do something that we need to do to win the general election, bringg in young people. >> woodruff: sanders took the day off from campaigning, and returned home to vermont. h >> sreenivasan: in the day's other news, the strongest aftershock yet rattled earthquake survivors in ecuadorr as the confirmed death toll reached 553. the latest tremor struck some 15 miles offshore, before dawn, bu there were no reports of new damage. meanwhile, aid continued to pouo into the ravaged country.. the peruvian military also joined in to help transfer
victims from the quake zones to hospitals. >> woodruff: there's evidence today of a migrant disaster at sea in the mediterranean. the u.n. refugee agency and the international organization for migration say up to 500 people drowned off libya last week.ee in geneva today, u.n. officials said smugglers tried to put too many people into a crowded ship bound for italy. >> we understand that about 100, 200 people left tobruk, in libya, on the way to italy. and they were being transferred by the smugglers who were in command of their boat to a larger vessel, that was already carrying hundreds of people. and while they were doing this in the middle of the sea, at night, the bigger vessel went down. >> woodruff: the flow of migrants from africa to italy is increasing as the weather warms. but greek prime minister alexis tsipras said today the european union's deal with turkey has sharply reduced the flow to his
country. >> sreenivasan: in afghanistan, the death toll from a taliban attack in kabul more than doubled overnight, to 64. a suicide bomber and gunmen assaulted a government security agency yesterday, nearby the presidential palace. officials now say most of the victims were civilians, including women and children. >> woodruff: president obama arrived in saudi arabia today, hoping to reassure a skeptical ally. tensions were evident as the president arrived, and was greeted by the local governor and not king salman. the two leaders did meet later, and offered smiles and graciousu words. the saudis have opposed the president's outreach to iran and his approach to syria. >> sreenivasan: the u.s. supreme court has upheld a judgment that forces iran to compensate victims of terror attacks. they include relatives of 241 u.s. marines killed in a beirut bombing in 1983. their families will collect from nearly $2 billion in frozenil iranian funds held in the u.s. >> woodruff: the european union
widened its anti-trust battle with google today. e.u. officials accused the tech giant of rigging the mobile application market to benefitet its own products. in brussels, an e.u. commissioner said google uses the android operating system to freeze out competing apps. >> as a result of google's behavior, rival search engines, mobile operating systems and web browsers have not been able to compete on their merits, but rather been artificially excluded from certain business opportunities. >> woodruff: google strongly denied the charges.. >> sreenivasan: back in this country, the tainted waterhe crisis in flint, michigan is now a criminal case. two state regulators and a city employee were charged and arraigned today, accused of official misconduct, tampering with evidence and othernc offenses. in flint, the state attorney general said they manipulated records to make lead levels in the water appear lower.
>> they failed. they failed in their responsibilities to protect theo health and safety of families of flint. they failed michigan families. indeed, they failed us all, and i don't care where you live.t >> sreenivasan: the attorney general also warned more charges are coming, and he said: "no one is off the table." >> woodruff: five former police officers in new orleans pleadedd guilty today in deadly shootings during hurricane "katrina." the case involved the killing of two men and wounding of fourwo others. the officers were convicted in 2011, but the verdict was set aside because of misconduct byco prosecutors. this plea deal means they'll serve far less prison time than they originally faced. >> sreenivasan: volkswagen will spend just over $1 billion to compensate u.s. customers for emissions test cheating. it was widely reported today that v.w. reached an agreementy
in principle with federal regulators. the deal involves diesel vehicles. it's to be presented to a federal judge in san francisco tomorrow. >> the dow jones industrial average was up 42 points.o the nasdaq rose more than seven, and the s&p 500 rose one point. >> sreenivasan: and, in south carolina, a state lawmaker has come up with a tongue-in-cheekp bill on viagra to highlight her opposition to curbs on abortion. representative mia mcleod says men should have to wait 24 hours before buying viagra for a sexual encounter. she'd also require sworn statements from any sexual partners attesting to why theytt need the drug. still to come on the newshour:e donald trump changes his tone after a big win in new york; women make their debut on american money; can you be charged with a crime for refusing a breathalyzer test? the supreme court will decide, and much more.
>> woodruff: as you heard,d, donald trump and hillary clinton celebrated wins in new york lasd night, but the campaign is far from over with plenty ofof important battles ahead. for more on the race for the white house we turn to susan page, washington bureau chief for "u.s.a. today;" and reid wilson, chief political correspondent for the morning consult. and we welcome both of you back to the program. so let's startot with the democrats, susan. where is this democratic race after hillary clinton's big win last night? >>, a scone-point victory, even though bernie sanders spent $2 million more than she did on ads in new york state. it wasta home, sweet home, last night for hillary clinton and it put her on a much steadier track. she lost in wisconsin. she lost seven of the last eight cop tests in states.ta this was a big victory.ic she heads now to state that should also be pretty friendly
territory next tuesday in the mid-atlantic. she could now win the t nomination, even if he doesn't win another primary by keeping it close because of the proportional allegations of delegates. she could see victory in her sights. i think that's pretty accurate. >> woodruff: what did people see in the results for sanders that give them hope?op >> they see both candidates are going to struggle to get the delegates they need to actually win the democratic nomination.o hillary clinton has a significant lead, andhi she's gt a much better path. she only needs to win. a quarter of the remaining dwlgl to be allocated to get to that level with the superdelegate support. the sanders folks, and we heard jeff weaver talk about this last night-- are convinced they can switch superdelegates switch their allegiance to bernie sanders. they are party leaders and elected officials who spent an lot of time in the democratic party and know the work clinton
has done for the democratic party. meanwhile, bernie sanders has not done the same kindan of leg work to try to elect fellow democrats. >> woodruff: susan, it has s been and is even more mathematically difficult now for bernie sanders to get toic that number. >> he's done a remarkable job.ob he's posed a much more serious challenge than i think anyone,y including himself, expected atd the beginning. but at this point, the debate is what does bernie sanders want? i expect bernie sanders to staya in the race. usually candidates don't get ou of the race until they run out of money. he's not going to run out of money. the debate is what is the role he sees for himself going forward, and will he do everything he can to unite the party if and with hillaryar clinton is the nominee.o in the exit polls last night, 25% of sanders supporters said they would not vote for hillarya clinton in the fall. she really needs his help to bring party together if and when she's the nominee. >> woodruff: you ask what he wants. it stowndz like he's still saying he wants to be the nominee. he's not ready to give that dream up. >> the irony is, if hillary clinton becomes president, if
the democrats take back the u.s. senate, bernie sanders is in line to chair a major committeeo remember, he is still an independent. he hasn't been elected to the senate as a democrat. and once again this is a party that remembers the work that its politicians have done to help the rest of the party as well.el bernie sanders doesn't necessarily have to chair this committee if his fellow senators don't think-- >> it's interesting jeff weaver said this afternoon bernie sanders wouldf remain a democrat after this contest.on that answers a question we had had. there's one problem for the clinton people.eo there are two things opponents often want that he doesn't want. he doesn't need help retiring his debt. he is more successful than she is ineration money. he also doesn't want to be on the ticket. >> woodruff: he distribute want to be her running mate. >> he doesn't want to be her running mate.at that makes it more complicated to figure out how to bring him spot fold.ol >> woodruff: lutz looets talk about the republicans.e does the trajectory of the
republican race change because of new york? contest after contest before this, ted cruz was feeling his oats, but after last night, what do we see? >> and donald trump won a substantial victory. he won 26 of the 27 congressional districts withinit new york. ironically, the only one he losl is the one he actually lives in, manhattan. and his path gets a lot easier. he won 90 delegates.at that's a bigger prize than any other state is going to offer until we get to california in june. and he's got some-- he's leading in polls in the five states that will vote next week. and states like pennsylvania and delaware and rhode island and connecticut and what's the fifth? maryland. sorry. all of which he's leading in. so if he's able to win all of the 118 delegates that are up next tuesday, his path gets even more clear. however, he still has to win 52% of the remaining delegates after that. i'm saying his chances are plausible but precaishes.re >> woodruff: it just sounds like, susan, up until now, so much of the talk was about what
happens at the convention for donald trump. t but now, people-- you hear more conversation about how he could actually get to the number he needs before cleveland. >> it's clear he's going-- i think it's pretty clear he's going to get close to the number. for one thing, what can they throw at him that they haven't thrown at him so far? it's not as if his controversial views a mystery to voters. hiss. temperament, people have seen it, and they continue to t vote for him. and i think there's an argument that's pretty effective, the fair play argument. americans unbelievable fair play, and youbl see a significat majority of republican voters saying if somebody has most delegates but isn't quite up to a majority, they still should be the nominee.th i think that is a pretty effective argument. he's not there yet. but after last night and a 35-point victory, you definitely see a path for him to avoid a contested convention.co >> woodruff: it was interested, reid, last night, conversations well donald trump seems to be moderating his tone.
he's not calling senator cruz lyin' ted but today campaigninga in indiana, he was back to the same language. >> this is the dichotomy ofot donald trump. every candidate moderates after a primary election.l trump doesn't have to necessarily moderate on ideological issue. he has to moderate on his personality. he has to appear presidential. his press conference in mir-a-lago after winning primaries in march, and last night a much more subdued, much more stade press conference, asn well as the fact he stayed off the sunday television shows for a couple of weeks in a row after the longest stretch that i can remember of both quintly there.y >> woodruff: susan, what is ted cruz-- or john kasich, who we haven't mentioned yet? >> i think john kasich has a very tough path ahead.. i mean, it's not mathematically possible for him to come intoin the convention with a majority ofit delegation. he's a little out of sync for this party. he's kind of moderate for a very conservative party. and for ted cruz, he is out of his elements when he of we go to
these states, new york, the mid-atlantic states that vote next tuesday. these are not friendly territories for ted cruz. he has won an effective campaign.mp he is very shrewd in terms of the delegate selection process but he really needs something bad to happen for trump's path for there to be an opening.pe >> woodruff: we're going to be watching next week, it's pennsylvania and on to the other states. thank you both.an reid wilson, and susan page.d thank you. >> woodruff: it has been a much anticipated decision, but theooe united states' currency is in for the first changes in a long time, giving new prominence to civil rights and women's history. the familiar greened backs haven't seen a new face in almost niewnt years. and when the treasury department announced last year a woman
might grace a bill for the first time in history, there was jubilation from american women. but a backlash from alexander hamilton fans who were upset over anyone replacing him on the $10 bill. the first secretary of the treasury, hamilton has become a darling of popular culture with the runaway success of the broadway musical named after him. there was plenty of feedback and even some indignation at the suggestion hamilton might be replaced. today, after much speculation, treasury secretary jack lew announced it's the seventh president of the united states, andrew jackson, who loses his spot on the front of the $20 bill. he will be replaced by derek harveyiet tubman, the civil war slave activist and leader of the underground railroad. hamilton stays put on the $10 bill, but the reverse side will now include leaders of the
women's suffrage movement, including susan b. anthony, andd another abolitionist, sojourner truth. and civil rightstr leaders suchs marion anderson, eleanor roosevelt and martin luther ki king. i caught up with secretary lew earlier today. secretary jack lew, thank you for joining us. >> great to be with you, judy.ju >> woodruff: so big decision.io the first time a woman is going on the face of a piece of u.s. currency that's in wide circulation. why harriet tubb man judge when we started the public discussion of this almost a year ago, i said it's been almost 100 years since we've had a woman on our currency and that had to change, and it had to change as soon as possible. we went through a processoo of listening and and i kind of didd it the old-fashioned way.ay we actually listened. i heard from well over a millioi people in one way or another, responses through handwritten note and e-mails and tweets and
retweets. and the amount of support and interest in harriet tubman was quite impressive.ss it showed that the story of harriet tubman means a lot to people of all ages in this country, and it speaks to something very important about american democracy. here, a woman, born a slave, illiterate her whole life, can, after spending countless tripsri going back and forth freeing people on an individual basis, work for the army to help as a spy, help them find their way into battle in the civil war, and be a founder of the women's suffrage movement hour, that cat change our country. and i think it's a tremendous american story. >> woodruff: now, by all s accounts, you changed your thinking here. >> iur did. >> woodruff: there were reports it was going to be a woman to replace alexander hamilton. there were reliable reports it would be susan b. anthony, the leader of the women's suffragefr movement in this country. why change? >> what we defense widen the lens. it became very clear listeningni to the amount of interest and
response, first of all, that the $20 had a special resonance because we all use it so much, because we get it in money machines, that it's the bill where if we wanted to put a woman on a bill that people were going to feel was the bill that thigh use, the $20 bill had a special meaning. and we also-- i came to the conclusion fairly quickly as we were listening that there's a lot more here than just one square inch of one bill. we ought to be looking at the whole series-- 5, 10, and 20. and once you start doing more things, it gives you the ability to tell more stories.ie so, for example, on the back of the $10 bill, we're going to tell the story of women's suffrage. we'll have images of the lead suffrages, five vbl women. we'll have a depiction of the demonstration demanding to give women the right to vote.o on the back of the $5 bill we will have a image of marion anderson. and the steps of the lincoln
memorial were open to her to sing to 75,000 people.0 it tells a lot of stories this series of decisions.ec >> woodruff: so is it fair to say it's more of a focus on civil rights than it is on jerpd? >> at the beginning we said it's going to be a focus on democracy. i would call it a focus on democracy. it's how you use your voice in a democracy to effect change.. you look at a series of individuals and the stories that are going to be depicted. what it says is change in this country doesn't just come by what we do in the halls of washington. it's what individuals do in their actions. >> woodruff: it looks as ifct you were influenced by the success of this broadway musical "hamilton." were you? >> you know, candidly, we decided pretty early on as we were listening to have a broader approach, and i think that it would be an overstatement to say it's a response to that. i heard almost immediately when i made my announcement in june from people who said, "don't take alexander hamilton off of
our money." and i said, "don't worry, he's always going to be on our money." you can't work in this buildingd would feeling that you stand on his shoulders. s and i think what woe came to was a much bigger approach, and one that is powerful in telling a series stories and it involves the the 20, the 10, the 5.. >> woodruff: i ask about alexander hamilton because, clearly, there's another side of the hamilton story it's philandering, leaving his family penniless, and the rest of it. >> i think that the contributions that alexander hamilton made to building our economy and our system of government are legendary, and the loyalty of his wife to preserving his memory is also legendary. >> woodruff: why do you think it's taken so long to get a woman on the currency?ur >> you know, it's a good question, judy. i'm not sure i can answer it. obviously from my perspective ttook too long. that's why in june when we announced we were doing twe hadh to do it on the next bill that's
coming out, and we're doing that. i have been working on this, literally, since i started here at treasury.as the work began before i got here. but it's not something we wasted any time on. and i think it's long overdue. >> woodruff: and when will we actually see this? t i mean, you know women's groups are already saying it's taken so long already.lr now we have to wait years more for this to be in circulation. >> so the plan is in 2020, the 100th anniversary of women's suffrage, all three images, all three designs will be revealed in their final detail.l and after that, the productionn process will begin. i have already instructed bureaucrato of engraifg and printing to work as quickly as possible to make that process go as quickly as possible.bl and i've talked-- the two offices in government that have authority over this are the treasury and federal reserve board. i've talk to the chair of the t federal reserve, and we agree on two things.s. one, have to make sure our money is safe and we should move this process as quickly as we can.an >> woodruff: secretary of the treasury, jack lew, thank youew
very much.uc >> great to be with you, judy. >> sreenivasan: stay with us.us coming up on the newshour: reducing childhood trauma to minimize serious health consequences in adults; the pulitzer-prize winning investigation that traced seafood to slave labor; and npr correspondent barbara bradley hagerty on coping with a mid-life crisis. but first, a dispute over laws in some states to curb drunk driving. over the years, at least a dozez states have made it a crime for suspected drunk drivers to refuse to take alcohol tests. but, does a police officer have to get a search warrant beforean performing such a test? and, do these laws violate the fourth amendment? the supreme court grappled with these questions today, as it considered three cases challenging laws of this sort, in north dakota and minnesota.in marcia coyle of the "national law journal" was in the
courtroom, as always, and she joins me now. so, what's the hassle in getting a swawrpt before you do one of these tests? >>es well, if you are asking the states of north dakota and minnesota, who are involved in this, they say that, one, you don't have magistrates available 24/7 to answer a police officer's call for a warrant.nt it can take a while.hi there are concerns about, you know, evidence being lost.t. but basically, the states are saying here, look, states have a bargain with drivers. driving is not a right. it's a privilege. and when you get your license, you're agreeing-- you're impliedly consenting to certain requirements. and the states feel-- these states-- there are 12 of them now and the federal government-- impose criminal penalties if you refuse it take these tests. >> sreenivasan: so if you-- is
there a distinction between the tests, the field sobriety test versus a blood test?e >> during the arguments today t that really did come out in som of the justices' questioning.ce justice breyer, for example-- b the way, hari, this was a great example of how they play devil's advocate for each side. justice breyer said to the lawyer representing the three men changing these laws, "you know, what's the big deal about a breath test, for example? you blow into a straw that's connected to a little machine that's about the size of a cell phone. you're giving up carbon dioxide that's going to go into the environment anyway.. it's not all that invasive.in not all that intrusive."in on the other hand, then, when w the states lawyers came up, he would say to them, "look, how long disw it take to get a search warrant for these breath tests. wyoming says is takes five minutes, montana says it takes
15 minutes.i how long does it take in north dakota. and if they're transporting these people after being arrested to the police station,n why can't the police officerer make the call on the way, maybea on the cell phone that has a big "w" on it, pristhe button."ut the argument was a lot of fun nsome respects. at the very end, though, justice kennedy asked the obama administration's lawyer, who was supporting the states, "can we distinguish between the breath test and the blood alcohol test?" and the obama administration'sst lawyer said, "well, yes, you can because a breath test is not as invasive as a blood alcohol test. it's faster. you can do it as part of the booking process at the station, whereas a blood alcohol test has to be done at a hospital.ho but he also said he didn't think a warrant was a good fit for a breath test and here's the reason why, he said. police officers use warrants to force compliance, and you can't force somebody to blow into a
straw. but, he said, if you do impose a warrant requirement on breath testses, police officers ares going to start doing blood draws, because you can force somebody to give blood in the hospital under restraint. you can take their blood. so i think the justices are wrestling with the difference between thefe two.wo and three years ago, the court actually dealt with warrants and blood alcohol draws. the decision was kind of fractured. police then argued they didn't't need warrants because this was what-- an exception to the fourth amendment, an exigency circumstance, blood alcohol dissipates quickly. we don't have time to get a warrant. the court didn't buy that entirely. it said, basically, not every time you need a blood alcohol draw is it an emergency situation. courts have to look at the totality of the circumstances.ir but because it was a fractured decision, nothing really was clear. and i think the court took these
three cases, two involving blood alcohol draws, one involving the breath test, in order to try to resolve this-- or clarify the law in terms of the warrant requirement. >> sreenivasan: all right,ig marcia coyle, "national law journal," thank you very much. >> my pleasure, hari. >> woodruff: there is more and more evidence that traumatic childhood events-- abuse, neighborhood violence or the death of a parent-- can lead to health consequences in adulthood, from heart disease td diabetes. now, communities throughout the u.s. are beginning to intervene to try to prevent this. special correspondent sarah varney begins our report from los angeles, which was done in partnership with kaiser healthka news and with support from the solutions journalism network. >> reporter: kimberly cervantes
has spent much of her young life learning to outwit the perils of compton. at 19, she's street smart and savvy. although she had adults shelt could trust in high school, lik teacher armando castro, they couldn't shield her from an assault on a public bus and frequent gunshots outside thee school. in middle school, she witnessed the deaths of two students. that steady exposure to violenc has led cervantes to some dark places-- at times, a crippling anxiety that forced her to misst school and thoughts of suicide. >> there's so many people out there acting out and just drug abusers on almost every corner. it's hard to maintain the whole happy go lifestyle, you know? it's not easy. >> reporter: in an unprecedented move, cervantes and four other students are suing the compton unified school district, arguing that the trauma they've faced makes it difficult to learn. they're asking the federal court to force the district to provide additional support, in the same way schools accommodate students
with autism, dyslexia and other learning differences under the americans with disabilities act. at home in compton, "arthur,"n, whose identity has to be protected because of the pending lawsuit, has struggled with homework. he was rescued by his father from a drug-addicted mother, but because of his outbursts and defiance, he's bounced from school to school. students who've suffered multiple traumatic incidents are six times more likely to have behavioral problems; five times more likely to skip school; and two and a half times more likely to repeat a grade. public counsel staff attorney kathryn eidmann, who is on the legal team representing the students, says research showso that sustained stress alters brain development and, if ignored, can derail academic achievement. >> the children who have been injured, through no fault ofn their own, by these types of adverse experiences, needri intervention and support from the schools in order to be able to learn.rd
>> reporter: the lawsuit is currently pending in federal court. with each passing year, new research validates a pioneering large-scale study from the 1990s that found one in four had growd up in households with substance abuse; one in four had been physically abused; and one in five, sexually abused. these so-called adverse childhood experiences, or "aces," were found to predict ai raft of health and social problems from adolescent pregnancy to depression and heart disease in adulthood. >> as the long term implications of childhood trauma has become increasingly clear, cities across the country are trying to understand the kind of violence happening in their own communities-- along neighborhooo streets and behind closed doors. the next step, local leaders say, is to figure out how to stop those traumatic events froa happening in the first place. in memphis, tennessee-- a cityte rich in music and culture but marked by violence and racial strife-- local leaders who commissioned a survey to measure childhood trauma were stunned al the results:
37% of adults in the county during their youth had witnessed someone being shot or stabbed. 22% witnessed violence between adults. but what could local leaders dod to spare the next generation of similar anguish? >> we know that children are being expelled from um, pre-k more frequently than they are from k through 12. >> reporter: barbara holden nixon, a longtime social worker, founded the ace center tasksk force of shelby county. she's convened a who's who of w state andocal government and community leaders to focus primarily on parenting to try to prevent trauma from the earliest ages.ra >> reporter: nixon turned to robin karr-morse, a well-knownwn expert on childhood trauma. she says parents who themselves suffered wrenching childhoods need help learning better ways to raise their children. >> we're putting no blame on the parents.
the whole idea is just the opposite. it's to recognize that those things have happened to them. it's not what's wrong with you. it's what happened to you? and, then, giving them tools to help offset whatever that is. >> reporter: memphis has started by opening "universal parenting places," free drop-in centers that offer arts therapy that helps children and parents express difficult emotions. >> i rise above. >> reporter: music classes to help stressed families find joy, and individual counseling to help parents understand their own trauma and break the cycle with their children. kimberly lawston sought help after a bitter divorce to explain the break-up to herp children. but the counseling sessions led lawston to reflect on her own childhood. >> my mother was a holler-er,
you know, and i didn't want to be that way, where you were afraid to come to me. >> reporter: now she's learning new approaches to parenting, although she's faced resistance from her family. >> at first it was like a struggle, like a fight, like pulling teeth, because like, "no that's not how we do it. we do it this way. there's nothing wrong with uss the way we raised you. you have to do what i say!" and i was like, "well, it's not your world anymore."w it's mine! and i have to do what's best for me, in order for my, me and my children to heal." >> reporter: one of the parenting places has opened at baptist memorial hospital for women, where doctors can refer parents directly upstairs, for classes and counseling. the next will open in perea pre- school. principal alicia norman says interventions are urgently needed, as the number ofe d, preschoolers being expelled grows. >> they're angry, they are outar of control, three and four year olds! and it breaks my heart to see that a child has been broken soe early in life. >> reporter: in school surveys, norman says parents report
spanking their children, in some cases with belts and electrical cords, up to five days a week. >> for a lot of our families, their first option sometimes, and their only option, is to spank their children, where research shows now the adverse effects of spanking, especially spanking gone wrong, the core of it is the love that they have for the children, they want their children to be the best that they can be, but these are the only tools that they have. >> in terms of law enforcement, we're seeing more and more of the effects that it has onmo children, just violence in thet home. >> reporter: local law enforcement officers say children living in turbulent homes whether they're wealthy,re or poor, are more likely to end up in the criminal justice system. >> twenty years from now, this work could be helping us right-b size our criminal justice system. >> reporter: but stephen bush, shelby county chief public defender and a fervent member oe the ace awareness task force,e, says the ace research is changing how cases are prosecuted here. >> the use of adverse childhood experiences and the language around that has given us a new common language when we're advocating on behalf of kids in front of the courts.s it helps explain some of the behaviors that might not seem understandable if you're just
looking at it without understanding the history of this child's life. >> reporter: support for this new awareness reaches to the top of county government. shelby county mayor markar luttrell, also a task force member, calls the ace research a basic philosophy of county government. >> we've tried to make it the common thread that runs through our public safety agenda, through our public health agenda, through our community services agenda, through our education agenda every portfolio that we have within county government has a component in there for, how do you address the younger generations at that formative stage? >> reporter: no one expects change to come quickly to memphis. it could take decades to figure out if this approach reduces violence in the community. but leaders here say doing away with the stigma of getting parenting help-- and even making it fun and joyful-- is a good start.
for the pbs newshour and kaiser health news, i'm sarah varney in memphis. >> sreenivasan: now, a startling expose about slave labor in thet world of seafood. this week, we're looking at some of the pulitzer prize winners, and the "associated press's" p 18-month-long investigation won the prize for public service. it tracked how slave labor in southeast asia is used in a supply chain that brings seafood to american restaurants and supermarkets. fishermen were beaten and caged, and reporters even hid in the back of trucks for days to pursue the story. since then, more than 2,000 slaves have been freed. martha mendoza was part of that reporting team, and joins me now. martha, what was the catalystt
for the investigation in the first place? unfortunately, we have heard of slave-like conditions in different parts of the world benefit. what made you want to follow this? >> slavery at sea was not a secret, but the stories being told came from rescued slaves. and, there were, there was noo traction because the response was these guys are safe.af this is not really a problem anymore. we set out to do what some people warned us was going to be impossible. we wanted to find captive slaves, and then we wanted to track their catch with detailedt accuracy all the way back to the dinner table to get people who were at the other end of this supply chain engaged.n >> sreenivasan: how do youdo find the captive slaves in thee first place?t >> my colleagues spoke at length and for many months with people who had escaped, as well as human rights activists, who worked with people who had escaped. and theyes had some miss going o place where's this wasn't happening or false leads. but when they heard about this island in indonesia, they had a
pretty good idea there might be labor abuse going on there. and it was a plane trip to a boat ride to a second boat ride, to an island that can only be reached at certain times of year. and that's where my colleagues did, indeed, find a slavela island. >> sreenivasan: so when they get to this island,as obviously, it's not the red carpet.ar i mean, are you hiding throughout this process when you're trying to document who lives on the island, who lives here, what the conditions are?io >> actually, the ap reporterses, thep ap team split up. some were ostensibly interestedt in the fishing operations, and others were at the same time checking outam the other parts f what was happening on the island. when robert macdowell realized a number of men were from burma, she asked estrato fly and make the trip there to burma.. when esther arrived, that's when the story broke open for her because these men wanted to tell their story.to they were shoving pieces of papers in their hands with their parents' names and villams
begging them to tell their families back home that they were alive. when thairpd asked to see more of these men, taper taken to a graveyard with 70 bodieses and false names on the signs above them. >> sreenivasan: so what's trail? what's the paper trail between how that seafood that these slaves are fishing actually gets to a grocery store in the united states? >> well, we videoed and documented the seafood being loaded on to one refrigeratedte cargo ship. that boat had a satellite tracker in it, and that tracker was pinging to a locator, and we watched the boat via the internet. and for two weeks, we tracked it into port.o when it arrived in port, ap met it watched the seafood being unloaded into pickup trucks and followed those trucks to factorieses. we were able to search and find the companies in thailand that were then shipping to the united states, and go to these american seafood distributors to figure out where their fish ends up.p. a lot of time when you're in a supermarket, you're going to see
a piece of fish under a clear plastic wrap with a label to. it's not even going to say which distributor it came from.ro so there was a lot of steps in between. but eventually, we were able to track it to walmart, safeway, cisco, albertson's, products like fancy feast and iam's as well. >> sreenivasan: since youristic more than 2,000re menn have been freed and you were able to document some of those stories of them reuniting with their families. >> yes. so about a week after we finished our story, authoritiest went to the island and began interviewing men.wi they talked to a couple who described their horrific, desperate situation. anding also told thehe authoritieses that they would be beaten and hurt for tellingng their story. and they were told,to no, we're going to rescue you.o word got out on the island and pretty soon they went ahead and made the announcement, anyone who wants to come with us can come and hundreds of people began pouring down to the dock, jumping out of boat windows, running out of the jungle and that day alone close to 400 men
were rescued and yes, it grew to to,000. one man we followed home had been gone for 22 years. his sister saw him walking into the village, and screamed and cried and held him.im and then when his mother saw him, she was actually overwhelmed and had-- she lost her breath for a while.hi it was a very sweet and moving moment. >> sreenivasan: what's the thai government said that they will do or what have they done since this has been published? >> the thai government, prior to us publishing and as we published story after story, kept making commitments to do better. they have made it so that if you are a victim of human trafficking, they say are you no longeryo treated as an illegalal immigrant and simply deported as a criminal.cr they have vowed to make prosecutions more of a priority, and one of the pieces of this we did involved shrimp processing. and the shrimpro sector there in thailand has-- says they're
moving all shrimp processing in house. so they're not going to outsource any shrimp processing in sheds where there is much less oversight. >> sreenivasan: martha mendoza, from the associated press, thank you so much. >> thank you, hari. >> woodruff: now, a new take on coping with the anxieties of middle age. it's the newest addition to the newshour bookshelf. jeffrey brown has that. >> brown: personal disappointment, a stagnating career, feelings of physical decline-- the classic descriptions of a midlife crisis.ns but do we have that all wrong? "life reimagined: the science, art, and opportunity of midlife" takes the challenge of answering that. author barbara bradley hagerty spent nearly 20 years with npr covering law and religion before, well, she changed her own midlife. and welcome to you.u. >> thank you, great to be here. >> brown: first main finding
seems to be that the so called midlife crisis is really a kind of made-up construct? >> it is kind of a made up construct. i mean, we had "passages--" with this kind of cultural transformation, when everyone thought we had to have a midlife crisis.eno everyone thought they had to have a sports car or dump their spouse or something like that. then what happened was, in the t mid-1990s, u.s. psychologistss started to say, "is there such a thing as a midlife crisis? is it common? how common is it?" and when they began to look att this, what they found that only about 10% of people have a classic midlife crisis, thats, existential angst about dying before you achieve your dreams. >> brown: short of that though, everyone does go through stages, right? everyone has turning points--yoy yourself had one. it got you writing! >> i also had one, that's right. in fact while midlife crisis is not all that common, midlife ennui-- that kind of malaise that people have-- that'sat actually very, very common. people, generally, are happy ina their twenties and thirties and then they get discontented in their forties and fifties. then they swoop back up and they're very happy in their late fifties, sixties, seventies.
so there's this nadir at midlife, in midlife generally around forty-five in america. >> brown: you approach this as the reporter you are. you talked to lots of people. what struck you most about the kinds of crises', or let's call it a slump, that you would find from people? what kind of things? well, the most common thing-- >> because this was done shortly after the 2008 recession-- that was the most common trigger toge this midlife slump that people had. basically, if you're fifty and you lose your job, it is really hard to find another one.rd what i kind of found was, 55 is the new 65, that's what people were finding, it was very, difficult. but almost without exception, the people i talked to who were in that slump eventually did find another job and they were much happier. and the point here that was really interesting is, peoplee return to their happiness set- point-- >> brown: happiness set-point, s what does that mean?an >> it just means that people have a certain set point. i'm a little bit happier than mt husband, if something happens to me i will return to my happiness
set point, my average happinessp level. his might be different from mine, everyone has a different one but you return to your norm. >> brown: tell me about the key findings that places like that places like the wonderfullyn named happiness research center in copenhagen. are coming to? >> what they found, what they did is they looked at job satisfaction. this was in denmark, not in the united states but what they found was that the key thing,he the most important thing to job satisfaction is having a purpose, feeling like your job has a purpose.os it could be feeling that your job that personally has purpose or that you're part of an organization, a greater mission. purpose turns out to be like the magic bullet for happiness. >> brown: across the board? >> across the board, not just ao work but having a purpose in life makes you healthier.er it means you stave off dementia better than other people, it means you're much less likely to have a stroke or be sick. it is a wonderful quality to have, this idea that you have
purpose in life, you have ae reason to get out of bed in the morning. >> brown: you also look at l people who have made changes in their lives-- how do you makeave those changes? how do you decide big things, t like changing a job for example? when is it time if i'm not happy at the job, what do i do next? n because that's not easy either. >> right, one thing that career experts say you should not do is leave your job and follow yourur muse-- you're an accountant and you want to be hollywood star-- that usually doesn't work out st well. so what you need to do is think about "what am i really good at? what do i love doing? is there a way to pivot on that so that even within the company that i work for, or the organization i work at, that i can do more of that and less of things i'm really bad at?" you know, if you're an editor who has been put in management and you don't like management, go back to being an editor. so that's one thing, the other thing people can do is while they're exploring what they want to do next, they should dip a toe in the water. and by that i mean, they should volunteer at an organization they might like or they should take classes. one n i talked to, he was an investment banker who went to divinity school at night and nog
he's a minister. so that's another thing you should be careful about-- look deep inside yourself and then take the leap. >> brown: i have to ask you this because, the baby boom generation and to some degree, gen-xers are famously derided for being self-absorbed, full of ourselves. so we're talking about, i don't know, what's in our heads, how can we change?n is this a discussion just for those who either can afford it, those who are a little moreor absorbed with themselves than they should be, who have "first world problems?" >> well, i must say that a midlife crisis is a privileged problem to have. people who are working two jobs, both partners working two jobs and they have kids-- they don't really have a lot of time to look deep into themselves ands wonder if they're existentiallyl happy. so it is really, something for the privileged, people in the middle class or even a little wealthier who can afford to have a midlife crisis. >> brown: and this is, in part, a memoir, right? >> it is. the reason i did it that way is
i wanted people to know that i was going through this too. i looked at all the parts that i think are important in life.t i looked at midlife marriage, midlife brain, midlife friendships, midlife career, that kind of thing. when bad things happen, whatat does resilience research say? so i looked at all of theseat parts of my life that i thought were really important and then i said, how do you thrive?do how do you thrive at midlifeou marriage? how do you make your midlife brain be sharper? that's how approached it. >> brown: and you're doing okayo >> i'm doing great.'m ( laughs ) >> brown: good, because you wane people to buy the book! "life reimagined: the science, art, and opportunity of midlife." >> it's been a pleasure, thank you. a >> sreenivasan: stay tuned. later tonight on "nova," national parks are key to t protecting wildlife, but even the largest preserves are often too small to maintain diversity
and healthy populations. researchers set out to find a solution. >> reporter: another major barrier to wildlife is the four- lane highway. with several lanes of traffic and speeding cars and trucks, these roads can be death traps. many animals are not as lucky as this cub. millions are killed every year. woodley and other scientists at parks canada helped design a road that would protect both humans and animals. forty-four crossing structures now allow wildlife to move safely though banff national park. >> there's two basic kinds of crossing structures; there's tht underpasses, which are dark tunnels, and then there's these large overpasses. when you're on top of them, even when you have a four-lane highway running underneath you,
it seems like you're in theu, forest. there's trees growing on them. and it seems like certain kinds of animals like grizzly bears and wolves like to use those structures. >> sreenivasan: "nova" airs tonight at 9:00 p.m. eastern on most pbs stations. and tonight on "charlie rose:" a conversation with and performance by singer-songwriter ben harper. >> woodruff: on the newshour online: there's less than a week and a half left to take advantage of a social security strategy that can net retirees thosands of dollars. it is called "file and suspend"- - our "making sense" columnist c larry kotlikoff explains how it works. and superhero faith herbert, a.k.a. zephyr, may get noticed for her plus-size physique, but it's her mind, not body, that give her the most power. we talked to the writer and editor of the new comic book series, and you can read that interview on our home page.pa all that and more is on our web site, www.pbs.org/newshour.
>> sreenivasan: and that's the newshour for tonight. on thursday, a devastating looke at the tragic consequences when the mental health care system fails to help a troubled individual on a downward spiral. i'm hari sreenivasan. >> woodruff: and i'm judy woodruff. join us on-line, and again herel tomorrow evening. for all of us at the pbs newshour, thank you and good night. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: >> bnsf railway. >> lincoln financial-- committed to helping you take charge of your financial future. >> fathom travel-- carnival c corporation's small ship line. offering seven-day cruises to three cities in cuba. t exploring the culture, cuisine and historic sites through itsi people. >> genentech. >> supporting social entrepreneurs and their solutions to the world's mostwo pressing problems-- skollfoundation.org.
>> supported by the rockefellere foundation.da promoting the wellbeing of humanity around the world, bye building resilience and inclusive economies. more at www.rockefellerfoundation.org. >> and with the ongoing supportg of these institutions and individuals. >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting.in and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc
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