tv PBS News Hour PBS April 26, 2016 3:00pm-4:00pm PDT
captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc >> woodruff: good evening, i'm judy woodruff. >> sreenivasan: and i'm hari sreenivasan. >> woodruff: on the newshour tonight, voters in five eastern states hit the polls today. what's at stake as candidates fight for some of the largest delegate hauls left in the race. >> sreenivasan: also ahead thisn tuesday, today marks 30 years since the worst nuclear disaster in history. a look at how chernobyl's effects can still be seen. >> woodruff: and, how chicago artist, theaster gates, is breathing new life into theth city's south side by transforming crumbling buildings into spaces for creativity. >> poor people have a right to beautiful things, but peoplebu have the right not to be poor anymore. i think that that feels like it's worth making art about. and fighting for. >> sreenivasan: all that and more on tonight's pbs newshour.
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>> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting.og and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you.th >> woodruff: five more states, five more wins. that's what donald trump and hillary clinton are looking for, in this latest super tuesday of the 2016 presidential race. voters turned out today in connecticut, delaware, maryland, pennsylvania and rhode island. the frontrunners hope to run up big margins, and big delegate numbers.th republican trump went into theru day with 845 delegates. it takes 1,237 to win the party's nomination. on the democratic side, clinton already has 1,946 delegates. she needs 2,383 to be nominated. even with a good night, and a delegate sweep, trump could still face a contested g.o.p. convention.
clinton aims to make ama democratic victory all but inevitable tonight. we'll take an extended look at what's at stake tonight, after the news summary. >> sreenivasan: in the day'say other news, opponents of north carolina's voter i.d. law said they'll keep up their court fight against it. the statute requires voters to show a photo i.d. a federal judge upheld it on monday, saying the state has a legitimate interest in trying to prevent voter fraud. opponents argue the law targets minorities.t >> woodruff: a major storm system is sweeping through the great plains states this evening, putting some 50 million people at risk. tornado watches are up for parts of kansas, nebraska, oklahoma and texas. earlier, high winds, rain and lightning whipped across kansas city. and, pebble-sized hail pelted airliners at the city's airport.
>> sreenivasan: in iraq, parliament approved a partial reshuffling of the cabinet, under pressure to adopt reformso before the vote, shoutingfo matches broke out on the parliament floor. and that came as thousands of followers of an influential shiite cleric protested in baghdad, demanding an end tote corruption. >> woodruff: thousands of so- called junior doctors in england walked off the job today in a contract dispute, leaving senior counterparts to fill in. the all-out strike by the british medical association was the first ever against the national health service. victoria mcdonald of independent television news, reports. >> on any other day, the ambulance would be bringing its patients back to the junior doctors. instead they were here on the picket line, again. this time, all emergency was withdrawn. >> each doctor had to think long and hard about taking this position. unfortunately, the majority of us havert realized we've got no option left.
>> reporter: emergencyte coverage was, of course,ve provided in hospitals but by other staff, includings consultants. despite the fact this all-out strike is unpress departmented,a all the planning does seem to have paid off.. hospitals have coped just fine.s but the question is what next? apart from tomorrow's action, the b.m.a. doesn't doesn't have anything else planned, and the health, is the well, he is showi no signs of backing down. >> total refusal of the b.m.a. to negotiate on a perfectly straightforward matter of weekend pay is, i think, sadly driven by some elements -- not the majority but some elementss within the b.m.a., who are looking at this as a political battle with thes government. >>e they've been briefing the media over the last 24 hoursou that the b.m.a. wants nothing more than to bring down the government. completely ridiculous. >> reporter: in the meantime, 125,000 operations and outpatient appointments haveie been postponed or canceled over the two days of the strike. and yet, there is still no sign
that either side will blink first. >> woodruff: the contract dispute involves plans to expand care on weekends. c >> sreenivasan: in economic news, apple reported its revenui fell in the first quarter, for the first time in 13 years. the company was hurt by falling sales of iphones.sa and wall street had a quiet day. the dow jones industrial average gained 13 points to close at 17,990. the nasdaq fell seven points, and the s&p 500 added close to four. f >> woodruff: and, the olympic flame visited a refugee camp in athens, greece, today, carried by a syrian swimmer who's been granted asylum there. ibrahim al-hussein lost part of his leg in a bombing. he carried the flame through a camp that holds around 1,500 people. he hopes to compete with the greek team, at the summer games in brazil.o >> sreenivasan: still to come on the newshour:l. how today's elections will shape the final leg of theec presidential primary. chernobyl's impact, 30 years later. practical advice on preparingti for life after college, and much more.
>> woodruff: there was no last- minute stumping today on thete republican side, as voters in five mid-atlantic states cast their presidential primary ballots. mal it was different, however, for the two democratic contenders. vermont senator bernie sanders, the underdog in that race, wase courting voters today in philadelphia. that was after he insisted, on abc this morning, that he'll keep on campaigning, at least into june. >> the election is not over yet. we are here today competing in five states. we have ten more states to go, after this. we are going to fight through california, and then we see what happens. a >> woodruff: meanwhile, the democratic frontrunner, hillaryt clinton, paid a visit to a steel factory in indiana, which votesi next tuesday.
there, she backed away, once again, from attacking sanders, and instead turned her fireed against two of her republican rivals. >> i'm just bewildered, when i hear the republican frontrunner donald trump actually say that wages are too high in america.to that's why he doesn't support raising the minimum wage. ted cruz has called for a national right-to-work law. well, right-to-work is wrong fow workers and its wrong for america. >> woodruff: for more on tonight's northeast primaryhe contests, we turn to amy waltery national editor of the "cook political report," and in philadelphia, dave davies, senior reporter for whyy. and we welcome both of you to w the newshour. so, amy, start us off, and let's talk about theet republicans. remind us how many delegates are up tonight, and what are we going to understand after tonight's resultses? >> we have 172 delegates at stake. the biggest of those is pennsylvania, although theth majority of those delegations actually are not bound to the
winner. we can get to that later on, but the bottom line is there are a lot of big states in the northeast up today, and donald trump is the favorite in all of these states. he can come out of this with a pretty big delegate haul. now, this isn't going to close the door on any attempt to oust him from the ability to be the nominee, but it's going to get really close to the door coming close to being shut. and then we're going to focus next on indiana to see if the momentum that trump-- if he does as well as the polls say he's doing right now-- if that momentum carries him to another victory in indiana, and then ian think we can pretty confidently say that donal trump is probablg to get to the 1237 we need before we hit cleveland. >> woodruff: so dave davies, take us a little bit closer to what's been gog in pennsylvania. what kind of campaign have you seen there? and is the fact that most of these republican delegates being chosen tonight are not bound too any candidate. has that affected the campaign? >> oh, yeah, it's created a lot
of confusion. you know, pennsylvania has aa pretty peculiar system. there are really going to be two elections today. one will be the election for the popular vote and the winner of that will get 17 of those delegates on a winner-take-all basis. but the others, most of the delegation will go to cleveland uncommitted. they will be elected directly by voters, three per congressional district, and they'll go uncommitted to the conventionhe but in fact many are privately, deeply committed to candidates. many were recruited by the trump or cruz campaigns. c the tough thing for voters here is that nothing on the ballot tells them who is for whom you may want to vote for trump delegates but you can't tell for the ballots. so we had this crazy period where the campaigns have beenve distributing lists through e-mail and robocalls and even lawn signs. and what's likely to happen is we're going to end up at the end of the day with a lot of confusion. zeal some trump delegation elected out of those 54, some cruz, and then a lot will be
party regulars, some of whom say they will abide by the popular vote. some of them say they're goingth to make their decision later. l in any case, we'll have 10 weeks in which any of them may be persuaded to change their minds. >> woodruff: amy, how did the system get to be so crazy? this is supposed to be an election. you go, you vote. but instead, as we just heardea from dairveg i mean, some of these rules are really hard to understand. >> well, every state-- i mean, this is what we're learning again. every four years we get a reintroduction into how theo process really works. and what we're learning in this stage is the republican primary process is really a craz patchwork qiment. everyhw stayed statehas its own rules. every state, like pennsylvania are, unbound, but they know who they're supporting. it's in parentheses next toes their names.r but i think david brings up a very good point. there will be a ton of confusion. these delegates are also going to get a tremendous amount of pressure. and we forget these are actual
human beings who have to go back to their communities once the primary season, one the convention is over. so while they may be declaring who they're supporting org telling reporters what they're going to do, they're going to be getting a great deal of pressure, just from the people in their own lives to figure ot what they're going to do. >> woodruff: dave gahead. >> in pennsylvania, the presidential candidates are note in parentheses next to the delegate names. >> that's right, that's right. >>ri they're only under their on names which is really confusion. the way this happened in pennsylvania, years ago, the, party leaders decided we come so late in the primary process in april, we usually don't matter. if we have the public elect our delegates, but they're reallyaur own people, we'll go to the convention th 54 uncommitted delegate so if there's a fight about anything-- a platform p plank or whatever-- we've got leverage. well, this year they might have some leverage on something muchc more important if, if indiana goes differently.go as amy says we could be at a point where this thing could be over soon. >> woodruff: and it does add
credence to that argument we hear from candidates, and specifically, donald trump, amy, this this process isn't always on the level. so let's switch over to the daernlings amy bhap are we looking at between bernie sanders and hillary clinton?in >> we're look at another big hall with pennsylvania, maryland, two of the biggest states, hillary clinton up iny both of those states. for bernie sanders, this really could be the end of theie line. it's going to be almostl impossible for him to catch up if she does as well as predicted by the polling. and the question i think we're going to be talking aboutg tomorrow is where does bernie sanders go now? we've been hearing the questions about what is his off ramp? what is he anything to do aftera it becomes clear that he can't catch hillary clinton? is his stone toen going to change? is his focus going to change? what is he going to be spending the rest of his doing, and how is he going to get those people who so fervently supported him turn and support candidate he'sh
been attacking pretty strongly s throughout this campaign. >> woodruff: dave davies, how you have seen that play out in pennsylvania? what have voters been looking to sanders and hillary clinton to tell them? >> hillary is enormously popular here, andn her campaign has poured it on. we have seen hillary and billl and chelsea and the countless surgats and field offices and commercials. i think she wants to get a hugeh win here. sanders is simply not so well known to people, particularly in the african american community, make it harding to for him to rack up a respectable total. i dong what he and his people are about goes beyond an election cycle. i think they really do believe that we neez nooed transformational change in the country, andsf they think that using the rest of this election campaign to raise that issue,u just as strongly as they have,av is what they want to do, whether or not he has a good showing at the convention. so i kind of don't think it's going to change that much. and i think-- eventually, i think he will support hillaryla
and a lot of his supporters wilt follow her. but i wouldn't expect the tone of things to change that much before the convention. >> that's a really good point. because let's remember, bernie sanders is not a democrat. he is the only just recently announced his allegiance to the party. these primaries aas we'ree' learning now, they are all about the parent trying to exert some control over the process.r and that at the end of the day,y the thinking is everybody is a member of the party, they want to help thea party, and help the party's nominee. that only goes so far. and in this case, of course, you have a candidate who, i agree with david, that he is much more about a movement than he is about protecting the party. now, he's obviously going to want to do anything he can to stop the republicans from winning, but that's very different from marshaling his forces andar embarrass the front-runner on the democratic side. >> woodruff: in just a few seconds, we're also going to beb throok see, you mentioned, we're going to be throok see what bernie sanders does. we're also going to be looking to see what hillary clinton does
from hereon out.n does she change her message? she has to make the argument shm speaks for the entire democratic base but also that she can win over the independent voters who right now are giving her very high negative marks and losingos the independent-leaning democrats to bernie sanders. >> woodruff: amy walter, dave davies, with whyy, we thank you. >> sreenivasan: now, 30 years on from the chernobyl nuclear 3 disaster. the fallout from that fateful day still haunts europe as a somber anniversary is marked. bells tolled 30 times in kiev, once for each year since the world's worst nuclear disaster. the president of ukraine spokesa at chernobyl itself.
>> ( translated ): the chernobyl accident will for a long time remain an event of a worldwide scale that is a challenge to the whole of humanity. such catastrophes do not respect state borders. >> sreenivasan: the city of pripyat, where the nuclear plant was located, is now a ghost town.he it sits in the middle of an. uninhabitable exclusion zone, where hundreds of towns and villages in ukraine and belarusd were forced to evacuate. ukraine was still part of the old soviet union whenvi chernobyl's number four reactor suffered a catastrophic powerop surge on april 26, 1986. that triggered a meltdown and explosion, spewing huge amounts of radioactive material into the atmosphere. millions of people across eastern europe were exposed to dangerously high radiation. but it took two days for sovietv authorities to acknowledge the incident publicly. some 600,000 troops and volunteers were sent in to fight the fire and clean up
contamination, and 30 died fromp radiation poisoning. >> ( translated ): i went in there when everyone was fleeing. we were going right into thery heat. and today everything is forgotten.te it's a disgrace. >> sreenivasan: the stricken reactor was encased in a concrete sarcophagus. work is now underway on a steel- clad structure to enclose the site and prevent further radioactive leaks, at a cost of more than $2 billion.. the human toll is less clear, but the world health organization estimates long-term radiation effects will claim at least 9,000 lives. some further perspective on the impact of chernobyl. first, more on the science, consequences, fears and risks of nuclear power from our science correspondent, miles o'brien, who's done extensive reportingve in chernobyl and at the more recent accident site inmo fukushima, japan. miles, you're one of the few people t who have gone to both f these places. you were reporting there
chernobyl four or five years ago. put this disaster intoas perspective. >> well, hari, chernobyl, by any measure, had a greater impact. i think the radiation released from chernobyl was about six times greater than what we saw released from fukushima.ro both of them were so-called level-seven accidents which is the worst kind ofn accident oni the scale the international community puts upon them. but chernobyl, because it had an explosion and a fire, caused the spread of radioactive material over a much broader area. much of europe was affected by it. and so it had a tremendous t impact, the noonly potentially health-wise, but also politically and emotionally, and had a great impact on how people viewed nuclear power. >> sreenivasan: americans were three mile island but chernobyl was important in the timeline oe how the world perceives it. >> american americans had made r mind about nuclear power already. we made up our minds in the
mid-70s, the china syndrome and three mile island. in the case of chernobyl, there was no containment vessel what soever. so there was a big amount of radiation which came out. and it really laid the groundwork for the reaction that many europeans had toward fukushima 25 years later. you saw the germans, most notably, pulling the plug on their nuclear program. a lot of that has its roots in r the fact they were under a clowz cloud of cesium 13730 years ago. >> sreenivasan: that sarcophagus you mentioned wason only supposed to be there 15 years. it's still there now and it's still leaking. >> it the, and seeing ift with my own two eyes five years ago it was pretty scary, frankly. it looked like something from "mad max." it was hastily built, to say the least, by these liquidators, true heroes who went in there and shoveled for short periods of time, many with devastating
consequences later in the form of cancer. it is still there. it is not safe. and this new structure which eventually will cover it had been an improvement for sure. >> sreenivasan: where iswh nuclear right now, five years after fukushima, 30 years after chernobyl. >> it's interesting, hari, things have changed a little bit on people's perceptive on nuclear. it's easy to take chernobyl out of the mix. it was a bad reactor design. there are still 11 of those types of reactors running inrs russia now. but the west never acoptd this type of graphite moderated reactor. so what has happened, interestingly, even five yearsgl after fukushima, is a lot of people are coming around to the conclusion that in order to truly fight climate change, the type of baseload power, power that stays on all the time at night, that is zero carbon emission, is in fact nuclear.uc so there's interest in thees business community in this.
a d.c. think tank recently conducted a study. they found 50 start-ups in the u.s. in the nuclear space attracting $1.5 billion in investment. it's kind of an odd outcome, actually. >> sreenivasan: science correspondent miles o'brien joining us from boston tonight. thanks so much. >>. you're welcome. >> sreenivasan: now an on-the- ground look. we get that from michal huniewicz, a polish photographel living in england. he visited chernobyl last year and documented the effects of the radiation on surrounding villages, plants, and animals.yu this was personal for and you your family. tell me a little bit about how they were affected after the blast. >> i was two years old when it happened so, i don't remember a great deal. but what i do know from my parents was when i was two years old, someone knocked on our door in the middle of the night and woke up my parents.a and they had to wake me up and give me something to drink, which was called the lagol solution, and we didn' know what it was at the time.im
they didn't offer any explanation to my parents, except there was an environmental problem, and yourd son has to drink it. after that, they disappeared because they wantis thaid toth distribute it to other children. it was only for people who were very young because when you're done your thyroid is unable to handle large doses of radiation so it was distributed to children like myself. >> sreenivasan: tell me about some of the pictures that standt out for you. i'm look at a photo of a piano that was left if the same place. it looks like a hospital infirmary. >> that was in a place calledce the piano shop. it wasn't actually a piano shops in reality. that was a nickname the placehe was given. it's one of those places which contains objects which were never taken away. there are a large number of pianos that you can still play, although i suspect they are are out of tune by now. the hospital that you mention is probably the most eerie place because we coknow for a factac because we know that is where w the firefighters were taken
right after the accident when they felt sick. they were taken to the moscow hospital, number 6, which specializes in radiation poisoning, acute radiation poisoning. but the gear that those firefighters were wearing was dumped into basement of the hospital. that basement is pretty much freely available.ee it's probably one of the most contaminated places on the planet and you can just walk in there. a piece of head gear was cragdra up from the basement to the lobby of that building by someone. and it's lying on the ledge, ask it's very highly radioactive so, there is a picture of my hand with a dosing meter getting g closer to that piece of head gear. i was really distressed becausee the meter of very loud, telling us don'tte go any nearer. it was very highly radioactive. so that's one of the most memorable moments for me because it was my hand close to that object.
>> sreenivasan: finally, itas looks like mother nature is winning. i mean, everything that's unclaimed is being taken over by plants. >> that's right. you would imagine that this zone would be destroyed with nuclear fallout, but actually, it'su become more of a sanctuary for wildlife. therthere are the horses brought after the accident, and half of them died. they did not adjust.d but the other half has lived and they remain in the zone. they live wild.. people don't hunt them but they're more or less allowed to live undisturbed. and, indeed, the number of those animals has been growing, and they are doing perfectly well. i spoke to a scientist who worked in the zone trying to establish what the impact was of radiation on those animal species. and he told me it was min stiewl. there was nothing that he could detect. so the animals and the plants live there without any problems. they are much better off without
humans. as you said, they are taking over the zone. there are trees growinged in of buildings. so i suspect within a few decades there will be not much left of the zone other than the nuclear plant. >> sreenivasan: all right photographer michael huniewicz joining us from london tonight. thank you so much. >> thank you for having me. >> woodruff: stay with us, coming up on the newshour: technology that helps farmersou reduce their carbon footprint. burundi refugees hunted down by their own government.du plus, an artist's vision to reshape and revitalize chicago's south side. now, how life after college can be influenced by choices made before students even enroll, and why it's crucial for their financial futures.ol it's part of our weekly education segment "making the grade."ar william brangham has our conversation.e.
displil it's a big week for high school seniors across the country. they've got to make those final decisions on wherehe they'll goo college next year.e to celebrate, celebrities and athletes joined first lady mechelle oh,d balma for a signig day ceremony. what path any of us on the stage took to our success, we all know completing your education past high school is h the most important thing yu can do tort reach your dreams. that's why we're here. so while you all might be in off us, let me tell you, we are in awe of you. >> brangham: hoolers andan their parents are obviouslyus focused on what school they'lloo go to, but a new book argues there are more important things tthingsto consider. the book is called "there is life after college." jeffrey selingo is the author. i talked with him yesterday. jeff, if i could discern a basic thees frist your obamacare it's' not so much where guto college but it's what you do while you're in college. is that right? >> that's right. it used to be as long as you had
a bachelor's degree if a college, any college, really, you would be golden in the job market. it was really the way that you got jobs years ago. but now the fact of the matter is that there's a lot of noise around the signal of a bachelor's degree. so it's really important whator you do while you're there, the experiential learning that you get-- internshipses, projects,ps study abroad, and activities like that, cocurricular activities, whether it'swh athletics or clubs. and most importantly, you don't take on too much debt. the more debt you take on in college, the fewer options you have after college to sake essentially any job you wanto anywhere in the country which would be good for your career, and instead you're basing your kear decisions on how much monem you're going to make. >> brangham: you characterized graduates afterte college into the sprinters, wanderers, and stragglers. what do those delineations tell us about postcollege life today? >> it used to be, again, as long as youi went to college, you wee a sprinter.a you would come out of college and you would have a job. you would usually work in one
occupation, sometimes for onene employer, for most cases.as t the fact of the matter is,is only about a third of students now launch from college in that way. so two-thirds are either wanderers or stragglers.or they take half their 20s to get going in careerses. in some cases those are wanderers and in other cases they're stragglers, they take most of their 20s. what are the markers. sprinters intern at least 80% of the time in college. >> brangham: while in college? >> 80% have at least one internship while in college as opposed to the wanders.a only about 50% of them intrn, and the stragglers only about 20% of them intern.in the other big marker is debt. sprinters have less than $10,000 of debt when they come out of college. the average today is 30,000. the more you have the fewer options you have after college.o the other marker of straggers, they have some college credit
but don't yet have a degree. 70% of students go right on to college after high school, butoo only about 50% of them end up graduating. so we have a number of millennials now with someo college credit and no degree. and in fact, they make up the bulk of people today in the united states who have someo college credit and no degree to show for their efforts. >> brangham: you report that a lot of employers feel like colleges are not doing a very good job of preparing graduates forte the work world. you quote one employer saying that these student have been syllabussed to death. what does that mean?n >> it means college has a certain cadence to it.ce you start in september, end in may, you get a syllabus and course catalog at the beginning of theog semester that lays outt when things are do. it's essentialily a recipe to get an "a." you have plenty of breaks. then the student get into thehe workforce, and the workforce is a mash-up of activities. you know,f it's not task based anymore. it used to be jobs, you would
get a list of things to do every day, clock in at 9:00 and clock out at 5:00. no job works like that anymore but yet our education system is still very task based in that way. >> brangham: you write employers as a whole often feel colleges should be doing a better job of this, but colleges push back andol saying the companies are offshoring and making us job train them when that should be their job. where should the responsibility lay? >> thesi responsibility lies wih all three groups. it lies with colleges to give people both the broad skillski they need to succeed not only in the workplace of today but tomorrow. but also to give them some opportunities for hands-on training. and also lies with students to s go out and get that. many students sleep walk through college. they go there and think collegeo will happen to them. and it's also the role of the employers. and many employers, they confuse students on this front. in other words, you have the c.e.o.s of some companiesm saying go out and get a broadr liberal articles education andon
we'll train you when you get here. about the the people hiring, either the line managers ors chief h.r. officers are telling students we need specifice skills. >> brangham: if you were to b build a recipe for the thingsh college students really need to be foxed on to succeed in however up to the categorize success, what are some of those things. >> when students are pick ak college, they should pick a place, a campus or a city, urban area, where they will get hands-on opportunity. and if they go to a faraway place they should think how aree they going to get hands-on experience. second, don't take-o on too much debt. make sure go to a place where you're gog grawrkt hopefully iny four years and not take on toon much debt. and the third piece is pick a major. in some ways it doesn't mattere what major you pick because most careers are not related to majors but shupick a major where you're going to work hard, where you're going to read a lot, where you're going to write a
lot, where the homework will be tough, why whereyou'll meet the best professors and where your classmates will push you. >> brangham: when you'rera trying to figure out where your career will be, and to be one of those sprinters, is there a risk we lose some of the richer experiences of college-- tole learn how to think, to open your mind, to exploark to simply grow up into a human beak beag? >> it used to be that college was for exploration.x the idea was you would go to college, explore for four years, get the broad education, and move into the workforce and get specific training. now, much of that is supposed to happen in those four years of college. the problem with exploring too e much in college it's very expensive. the cost of college has gone way up. half of students don't end up graduating. a third of student end up transferring institutions. soan there's a lot of friction n the system we have today. that's why a the love thishi explore aches, trying to figure out what you want out of life, trying fig outer a career, should actually happen outside of the wallsct of college. this idea of taking a gap yearea between high school and collegen
or even taking time off in college to try to find yourselfl to try to find a career. because the more that happens in college, the fewer experiences you're going to have outside the classroom because you're goingus to be focused on those inside-the-classroom experiences. >> brangham: all right jeffrey selingo, the book is "there is life after college." thank you very much. >> it was great to be here,s thank you. >> woodruff: later tonight, pbs's new debate program program, "point taken" asks: ise a college degree worth the pric tag?de check your local listings. >> sreenivasan: even with advances in technology, farmers are continuing to look for ways to cut energy costs. part of farmers' energy needs are fuel and electricity, but there are other energy costs such as fertilizing soil. from harvest public media in nebraska, grant gerlock explains the many ways farmers are trying to keep fossil fuels off theng cornfield.
>> reporter: greg and sandy brummond live and work on their farm in northeast nebraska, just outside the town of craig. >> this is our shop, that we do, most of our repair work and just literally about live up here for ten hours a day, it seems like. >> reporter: this shop is the epicenter of the brummond farm,e and its energy use. with the lights, machinery for equipment repair and other implements, it uses more power than their home. in fact, sometimes it is their home. >> we actually added an office and a kitchen, so we don't even have to go back down to the e house. t we can fully function up here. >> reporter: it's like havingep your house on top of your shop and everything. all that stuff that uses power that you would think of.ou >> oh yeah, is in here.. >> reporter: the shop and its high energy needs are why the brummonds made a recentgh
investment in solar energy. >> we've got 36 panels down6 there. the angle was good for the sun. >> reporter: these panels are capable of supplying ten kilowatts, enough power for all those lights and machines in the shop. they were put up a few months ago by graham christensen, who runs a small business installing solar panels. >> you can see even on today, which is a cloudy day outside, we're still producing 506 watts of energy currently. we'd like to see it more up around that seven to 12 points. >> reporter: christensen grew up on a farm in burt county, not far from the brummonds. today, he's back in the area with an electrician to survey another farm looking to cut energy costs. >> down this side of the lane, we might put in some geothermal wells. >> reporter: kevin anderson would like to install enough solar panels to generate 25 kilowatts.d >> basically, with 25 kilowatts it would get soaked up right into these buildings. this grain elevator. all the fans on the grain elevator. the dryer that they have
connected there, all the out- buildings around, as well ass their home. >> reporter: federal tax credits, and government grants are making renewable energy more affordable.nd solar is the popular choice for farmers looking to cut energy expenditures. according to a 2013 u.s.d.a. report on agriculture and energy, 93% of farms thatt produceenewable energy use solar. anderson wants to take advantage of the financial incentives i while they are available, but that isn't his only motivation. >> it seems like as you get a. little older, you get a little more concerned about it. what kind of a legacy we're leaving our kids and what type of environment they're going to live in.ds grandkids, their kids. i think it's the right thing to do.gr >> reporter: back on the brummonds farm, they've got hopes of adding more panels and using less energy from the local utility, which generates power mostly from coal. >> i flew over gillette, wyoming-- that's where a lot of
our coal comes from. to get that perspective of looking over those humongous holes in the ground where the coal is taken out. i was like, wow. i wonder when this is going to run out.s >> reporter: u.s. agriculture used around 1,600 trillion b.t.u.'s of energy in 2011,cu enough to power the energy needo for a state the size of iowa or south carolina for a year.r most of that energy is for direct uses, such as electricitc for buildings or gasoline for tractors.to but farms also use a lot of a energy in indirect ways. for instance, farmers apply synthetic fertilizers containing nitrogen to keep plants healthy, allowing crops such as corn to show big yields every year. but most nitrogen fertilizer production comes from naturalrt gas. after fuel for trucks and tractors, fertilizer is the second largest energy component on farms-- and one of the biggest expenses for farmers. in bladen, nebraska, keith berns and his brother brian have
developed a business selling seeds for plants that can restore soil health and curb a reliance on synthetic fertilizers. >> we can produce, you know, anywhere from 100 pounds to 200 pounds of nitrogen from a cover crop. >> reporter: what are cover crops and why are they called that? r >> cover crops are basically crops that a farmer would planto in-between periods of their normal cash crop.no we're taking that carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere and we're putting that carbon into the soil through the photosynthetic process and that carbon thatat gets put into the soil is what become an immediate food source for all these micro-organisms.th this is a winter oats and i pulled up a chunk here, just toi show you the roots. >> even without any scientific equipment, you can take a good, healthy soil, and you can smell it and it just has that really good, earthy smell. >> reporter: instead of yieldst: above the ground, the bernse
brothers point to a harvest taking place below the ground-- carbon transferred from the atmosphere, nitrogen fixed in roots and in soil.on >> this whole thing is full of nitrogen. when it decomposes in the spring it will release quite a bit of nitrogen from my corn crop. >> reporter: with the right r cover crops, farmers can grow more fertilizer for themselves, which means that much less needh to come from fossil fuels. >> there's a lot of petroleum,eu you know, a lot of oil needed to make any type of fertilizer. so anytime we don't need it to produce it, we don't need it to haul it, we don't need it to apply it-- if we can grow it naturally through a cover crop. >> reporter: for farmers across the country, finding energy savings from solar panels andol cover crops, means it could take fewer fossil fuels to get food to your dinner table.s, for the pbs newshour, i'm grant gerlock in bladen, nebraska.
>> woodruff: it has been one year since burundi's president pierre nkurunziza nounced he was running for a third term, a move widely-consideredfo unconstitutional. his announcement triggered a failed coup, a questioned election, mass protests, and a violent crackdown on the opposition. since then, at least 400 people have been killed and 3,500 arrested. more than 220,000 people fled the country. divisions between hutu and tutsi ethnic groups have characterized past violence in burundi, but on sunday, marguerite barankitse was honored for her work helping burundian orphans and refugees, regardless of ethnicity. she received a million dollars from an armenian group. the money will be donated to the organization of her choice. still, ethnic identity can be a matter of life or death for
burundians, even those outside the country.th special correspondent nick schifrin found burundian refugees 900 miles from home, in nairobi, where they thought they'd be safe. but their enemies have tracked them down. >> reporter: it's just past midnight, we're in nairobi,, kenya, and this isn't only a cornfield. this is a kind of protection because right behind me there's a house full of men, and all night, every night, two of them are in the field standing guardr using old weapons like a crowbae and a rusty knife. they are too scared to sleep, and too scared to show their faces.le they are burundian refugees who say they're being hunted. the men who are guarding the house, can they really defend you from the people who are hunting you?e, >> ( translated ): the weapons you see here can only be usede against the dogs you hear barking.
if there were an enemy coming here with a grenade or a machine gun, we wouldn't be able to resist.ch >> reporter: 25-year-old arnold is a burundian refugee. he lives in this tin shack with seven other refugees. it's a 150-square-foot, church library. >> ( translated ): we have no mattresses, no food. as refugees we n't find jobs, and we are scared of being arrested and sent back from where we were. b >> reporter: where they were wat burundi's capital bujumbura. a systematic campaign targeted the government's political opponents, leaving some of their bodies in the street. the u.n. warns president nkurunziza is helping lead the country to a second civil war by transforming politics into ethnic conflict between hutus and tutsis.it it's the same ethnic divide in rwanda that sparked the 1994e genocide. in the last year, 225,000 burundians have fled the violence to cities they hoped
were safe.ia but even here, they hide their faces.af today here in nairobi, which of you is afraid? all of these men escaped from burundi. kenyan activist tom oketch brought them together to discuss their rights, and try to calm their fears. >> reporter: and on new year's day, that violence arrived in kenya. burundian refugee juma says this is where he found the body of jean de dieu kabura, a member on burundi's opposition. >> ( translated ): he was naked and his body had cuts all over. then he spoke and he said, juma, they have killed me.s >> reporter: jean identified his killers before he died. those killers accidentally left behind their hit list-- i.d.'s of burundian refugees they were hunting.>>be t >> ( translated ): these are some ids of the men. this one is stained with his blood. a i >> reporter: you were supposed y to look for members of the
opposition, is that right? this 23-year-old hutu says the government sent him to follow the tutsi opposition members, and kill them.t >> ( translated ): first we were supposed to establish relationships with these people, and after becoming friends with them, we were going to use w poison.se >> reporter: pierre was a medical student, conscriptedri into the government's youth militia, known as the imbonerakure. the name translates to "those who see far."re so when you got to nairobi andt you realized what your job was, why did you refuse to do it? >> ( translated ): when they showed us the list, i saw a person i knew. he was actually a friend. i was in a political party different from his. but for me that does not mean i should hate this person, or kill him. >> reporter: albert is a burundian journalist. he covered clashes between the
government and opposition protesters. >> reporter: in kenya, these men went to the local police, andpo say they were ignored. police spokesman charles owino denies that.ig >> reporter: that reassurance holds even less comfort than sleeping in shifts, and cooking cornmeal in a donated bedroom. do you miss home? >> ( translated ): before the crisis in burundi, we had enoug resources to have a better life. we are here because we have nowhere else to go.el >> reporter: for the pbs
newshour, i'm nick schifrin in nairobi.ob >> sreenivasan: from clay pots to entire cities, a most unusual and influential artist. jeffrey brown has this profile from chicago. >> this is the ceramics studio. >> brown: when you make a pot,a the artist theaster gates told me recently in his studio, you think about the material and how to shape it.in >> if it's clay, then i have to learn about the minerals that are in the earth. and what happens when two chemicals work together in w relationship to heat?at how does heat work in relationship to time? >> brown: but unlike mostun artists, gates goes further, into a whole other realm-- just as we learn to re-shape clay into pots, he says, we might learn to re-shape buildings and
neighborhoods into a revitalized urban life.di >> if you were to apply that to a city, you'd say, "well, what'h the relationship between a commercial district and a residential area? and how might those things be a collision at first?" but they need to slowly cool.ol >> brown: same process but different material? >> i think so. and it implies that one has to continually get to know a thingt by being directly engaged with the thing. >> brown: gates is a successful commercial artist on themm international gallery scene. but much of the focus of his work is here, on chicago's south side, in neighborhoods filled with vacant lots, abandonedab buildings, poor and dangerous streets. gates has bought buildings, like these on dorchester avenue, refurbished and turned them into community gathering places for music, films, talk. he's also developed low-cost housing, including for artists,r who contribute hours of community service in return. >> there were two of them when the exhibit opened.
>> brown: we happened on a weekly session in which residents talked about a local art exhibit and more. gates likes to take things that are falling apart or abandoned, and give them new life, like these floorboards from a community youth gymnasium thatrd was being torn down. >> instead of demolishing it, you pull it one board at a time. and then they sit. like clay, it's nothing until it is something. >> brown: in this case it's something because you put themyo back together in an abstract work of art. >> yes. >> brown: and not only that, but a work of art with an embedded meaning. >> it's a shame that the building is abandoned. that's only part of it. it's a shame that young men and women aren't learning what it means to work together as a team.'t it's a shame that all of the skill that went into hand
painting of these floors is noes longer done by very many people. there are all these shames. >> brown: but he also creates on a bigger canvas-- he has degrees in urban planning-- as with his largest project to date: the stony island bank. a once-thriving institution in a beautiful neo-classical building that sat empty for more than 30 years and was scheduled to be torn down. gates bought it from the city for a dollar, raised several million to fix it up, and turned it into an "arts bank," with exhibition and performance spaces; a gorgeous library,sp with books from the collection of the publisher of "jet" and "ebony" magazines; slides once used to teach art history; and vinyl albums from disc jockey frankie knuckles, the godfather of house music. the art is in the idea: that black culture, black spaces, should be preserved and cherished.cu >> i'm excited about collections
because they start to demonstrate that black people have the capacity to care about black things.mo that we have the ability to make space for these incredible collections, and make room for people to enjoy them where normal people live. and i feel really fortunate that that kind of poetry can live on the south side of chicago. >> have you been doing this all day? >> brown: his newest project, undertaken in his position as director of "arts and publics life" at the nearby university of chicago, extends the idea to an entire city block-- a burgeoning "art block," in the washington park neighborhood. >> can you get me a tape measure please?sh >> brown: it includes an "arts incubator" for cultural groups and classes in woodworking and more for young people. >> as you finish high school and go to college, come back for the summer. come back after you graduate. it's really that relationship that will make these buildings work over time.y
>> brown: there's also a cafe and a bookstore where musiciansn regularly perform. on the drawing table, a large performance space for plays and concerts., what's the idea behind it? an engine or an anchor for the neighborhood to grow? >> maybe engines and anchors are good words. but i think first it needs to be a place where art can happen. before we think about it as an economic generator or cultural anchor, it's "can i have a place to rehearse my play?" >> brown: it's as simple as that? >> yes, absolutely. can we have a place to play our music?it r can our kids learn art here?thte >> brown: gates' work is now expanding beyond chicago. his team at the university was recently awarded grants to g tackle redevelopment projects in distressed areas of gary, indiana; akron, ohio and detroit-- all of it grounded in his ideas of what "art" is. >> what i love about art is that
the power of the symbolic work has so much potential to do more than the thing on the ground.. and so i think about ripples. i think about affect. i think about symbolism. i don't think that there are limits on what's possible. not only do poor people have a right to beautiful things, but people have the right not to bef poor anymore. i think that that feels like it's work making art about. and fighting for. >> brown: it's art mixed with activism, and urban development. for the pbs newshour, i'm jeffrey brown in chicago. >> woodruff: on the newshour online, what do oprah winfrey and warren buffett have ino common? they are both calculated risk takers. making sense columnist denise
cummins writes that successfulcu entrepreneurs are not risk- takers but calculated risk- takers.tr read her take, on our home page. and our jobs guru answers a reader who wants to know why would an employer keep their benefits package a secret? it's one of the more discouraging parts of a job search, and we address it in ouo "ask the headhunter" column. all that and more is on our web site, pbs.org/newshour. >> sreenivasan: tonight on charlie rose: charlie continues his conversation with president obama on america's foreign policy, zeroing in on syria, china, and north korea. and that's the newshour forth tonight. on wednesday, with only a handful of states yet to holdta presidential primaries we look at the delegate math for the road ahead.pr i'm hari sreenivasan. >> woodruff: and i'm judy woodruff.. join us online, and again here tomorrow evening. for all of us at the pbs newshour, thank you and good night.al >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by:
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