tv PBS News Hour PBS April 26, 2016 6:00pm-7:01pm PDT
captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc >> woodruff: good evening, i'm judy woodruff.d >> sreenivasan: and i'm hari sreenivasan.oo >> woodruff: on the newshour tonight, voters in five eastern states hit the polls today.uf what's at stake as candidatesdi fight for some of the largest delegate hauls left in the race. >> sreenivasan: also ahead this tuesday, today marks 30 years since the worst nuclear disaster in history. a look at how chernobyl's effects can still be seen. >> woodruff: and, how chicago artist, theaster gates, is breathing new life into the city's south side by transforming crumbling buildings into spaces for creativity. >> poor people have a right to beautiful things, but people have the right not to be poor anymore. i think that that feels like it's worth making art about. and fighting for. >> sreenivasan: all that and more on tonight's pbs newshour.
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>> th4 possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pby station from viewers like you. thank you. >> woodruff: it's another "super tuesday" indeed for donald trump, in his bid to avoid a contested republican convention. the associated press projects the g.o.p. frontrunner swept all five states that voted today. he is projected to end up with a significant win over ted cruz and johnçóñr kasich inñyóñr pen and same in the p state ofñi maryland and it isñii projected will win connecticut, delaware a and rhode island as well. onñi theçó democratic side netw projections make hillary clinton the winner in pennsylvania over bernie sanders and the winner in maryland too. clinton is also projected to=/%n
delaware but it's too soon to call the other two democrat contests. we'll be taking an extended looi at tonight's results after the e news summary.ñr >> sreenivasan: in the day's t other news, opponents of north carolina's voter i.d. law said they'll keep up their court fight against it. the statute requires voters to show a photo i.d. a federal judge upheld it ond monday, saying the state has a legitimate interest in trying te prevent voter fraud. t opponents argue the law targets minorities. >> woodruff: a major storm system is sweeping through the great plains states thisns evening, putting some 50 million people at risk.op tornado watches are up for parts of kansas, nebraska, oklahoma and texas. earlier, high winds, rain and lightning whipped across kansas city. and, pebble-sized hail pelted airliners at the city's airport. >> sreenivasan: in iraq, parliament approved a partial reshuffling of the cabinet, under pressure to adopt reforms. before the vote, shouting matches broke out on the parliament floor.
and that came as thousands of followers of an influential shiite cleric protested in baghdad, demanding an end to corruption. >> woodruff: thousands of so- called junior doctors in england walked off the job today in a contract dispute, leaving senior counterparts to fill in. the all-out strike by the british medical association was the first ever against the national health service. victoria mcdonald of independent television news, reports. >> on any other day, the ambulance would be bringing its patients back to the junior doctors.wo instead they were here on the picket line, again.. this time, all emergency was withdrawn. >> each doctor had to think long and hard about taking this position. unfortunately, the majority of us have realized we've got no option left. >> reporter: emergency coverage was, of course, provided in hospitals but by other staff, includings consultants. despite the fact this all-out strike is unpress departmented, all the planning does seem to have paid off.es
hospitals have coped just fine. but the question is what next? apart from tomorrow's action, the b.m.a. doesn't doesn't have. anything else planned, and the health, is the well, he is showing no signs of backing down. >> total refusal of the b.m.a. to negotiate on a perfectly straightforward matter of weekend pay is, i think, sadly driven by some elements -- not b the majority but some elements within the b.m.a., who are looking at this as a political battle with the government. >> they've been briefing the media over the last 24 hours that the b.m.a. wants nothing more than to bring down the government. completely ridiculous. >> reporter: in the meantime, 125,000 operations and outpatient appointments have been postponed or canceled over the two days of the strike. and yet, there is still no sign that either side will blinkin first. >> woodruff: the contract dispute involves plans to expanc care on weekends. >> sreenivasan: in economic news, apple reported its revenue
fell in the first quarter, for the first time in 13 years.rs the company was hurt by falling sales of iphones. and wall street had a quiet day the dow jones industrial average gained 13 points to close at 17,990.cl the nasdaq fell seven points, and the s&p 500 added close to four. >> woodruff: and, the olympic flame visited a refugee camp in athens, greece, today, carried by a syrian swimmer who's been granted asylum there.d ibrahim al-hussein lost part of his leg in a bombing. he carried the flame through a camp that holds around 1,500 people. he hopes to compete with the greek team, at the summer games in brazil. >> sreenivasan: still to come on the newshour:iv how today's elections will shap the final leg of the presidential primary. chernobyl's impact, 30 years later. practical advice on preparing for life after college, and much more.
>> for more on the primary contest we turn to amy walter national editor "the cook political report" and amy i'll start with you. clean sweep on the republican for donald trump. i guess it was expected but it's pretty impressive as soon as thm polls close. >> it's huge the numbers he's getting across the northeast.r i'm old enough to remember early in the campaign where we thought this is the region he'd have the most trouble and democrats can vote in the primaries was supposed to hurt trump and establishment primaries do better in the east and that goes to bush or rubio.i those came in and some aren't t reason and kasich did terribly
and the sound you here is the door on the stop trump movemen. indiana may be a good night for it's cruz but it's going to be hard to see that happen. >> and what did you see during this campaign that i guess makes you not surprised that donald d trump has done so well in your state. >> you know it's the process s that's confounded so many peoplo since trump entered the race. he appeals to people. he connects. i was at a rally of his yesterday. there was energy i've rarely seen. maybe obama in 2008 would compare. people are passionately committed. it feels like a matter of faith. they feel he's a business guy who gets things done and says it like it is. >> the arguments ted cruz keep making and john kasich that t they'll be the stronger ge
candidate doesn't seem to resonate. >> i asked the trump support anu they just don't buy it. i'll tell you when i speak to party officials in pennsylvanian the people who have been around for a long time and running for elected office they're terrified frankly at the thought of running the general election al with trump at the top of the ticket because they don't think he'll behe fefkeffective you ha freshman center seeking re-election and he announced ou he's voting for ted cruz. there's sentiment among experienced regulars for stopping trump but it doesn't 't seem they have the momentum to do it.do >> let's talk about what we know about on the democratic side. hillary clinton projected to win three states so far pennsylvanin the big prize, maryland and delaware. we're still waiting to find out about connecticut and rhode island.e you and i were just talking about rhode alisland.e it looks like bernie sanders may do well. >> it's typical for this campaign we've had thus far in the democrat primary and hillary
clinton doing betterd in statee with a more diverse electorate t and delaware african american ic population than rhode island and connecticut. what we're also seeing now is the hillary clinton getting the votes she needed to get, winning the states she needed to win to make her case which i'm sure re we'll hear later tonight for why the race should wrap up and d she'll start turning toward the general election and donald an trump will start talking about the t general election and whil other candidates will make their case americans are believing and the math starting to show the match-up is hillary clinton and donald trump. >> and dave davies hillary hi clinton, pennsylvania of the t five states it's fair to believe
pennsylvania is the state most in contention between we republicans and democrats in november. so it's not a surprise that she's there.sh again talking to voters in your state why do you think bernie sanders wasn't able to cut through there? >> you know, clinton had such a head start here. people here remember bill clinton's fondly as a time of prosperityof and hillary clintos family is here and her father r went to penn state and played football there and is beloved ov among african american voters in philadelphia and she was here and bill was here and chelsea was here and lots of advertising. she wanted a two-touchdown win u to put an end to this thing. we'll see what the numbers are. bernie has a determined spirited following and we'll see what showing they get but it's not surprising hilary would do welll in the state. >> it's an interesting picture c
on the democratic side and you've looked at the exit polls. are you seeing anything, n interviews with voters that tells you why they did as they did? >> i think what's interesting whens you look at the voters, looked at connecticut and maryland exit polls they were asked do you think you'll be more energized or do you think it's divided the party and i think the primary h energized e the party except when you look at bernie sanders supporters th majority say it's divided the party. for as much as it's been some what contentious i think it will be a challenge for hillary h clinton to get the bernie supporters on board.bo the republican side is so much more did i >> snarky even. i was listening to ted cruz a while ago and he was saying
hillary clinton has announced ou her running mate or donald trump has announced his running mate and it's hillary clinton because they agree on so c many issues. i know it's early but if it's hillary clinton versus donald trump what do you see voters doing? -- in your state. >> high negatives for both of these folks.es i think as i said the republicans in pennsylvania lv don't want to see donald trump.d they think he's a loser in the fall. not the kind of guy voters can warm to. i can tell you i've spoken to republican regulars and candidates for delegate in pennsylvania who told me privately they'll vote for hilary before donald trump.ld we'll see how it plays out. we've been wrong about trump p again and again and again. just looking as it stands now it's hard to see him losing
the -- the democrats losing pennsylvania which they haven't in an presidential election sine 1988. they start with a big advantage. >> a bit of news rhode island has been called for bernie sanders. >> that is a state that is more overwhelmingly white and more working class combined with post-graduate voters.e it's not surprising he did well there.dj$j to watch in the general election because the senate race all eyes will be and how's a republican n run on the ticket with donald trump. ow much can he distance himself. how much does he have to coordinate with donald trump ini terms of messages and the east t and west part of the state it will be fascinating and donald d trump trying to connect with white working-class voters but e will it come at the expense of
the suburban philadelphia. >> our producer was talking. dave, did you just say your r center pat toomey vote head voted for ted cruz.cr you're already seeing a difficult move on the part of republicans to try to figure out what in the world they're going to do as you move not just to o the convention but on to november. >> it's an interesting one. senator toomey is an influential republican and supported marco rubio and when he dropped out and he didn't endorse anyone and when it's too late to effect the vote he announces okay, i votede for ted cruz. it's probably as much to do with policy similarities as anything butar it just shows how helplesl those who want to stop trump are in all this.
>> 15 seconds, amy walter. it's not all over but almost. >> and now i think i think we'll see the pivot to the general election and the tone of the messages going forward. we'll see if donald trump has t decided to be more presidentiald as he said he may be. >> we said that last week. >> didn't work well. >> big primary night. amy walters, dave davies. we thank you both. >> sreenivasan: now, 30 years on from the chernobyl nuclear disaster. the fallout from that fateful day still haunts europe as a somber anniversary is marked. ( bells ringing ) bells tolled 30 times in kiev, once for each year since the world's worst nuclear disaster.
the president of ukraine spoke at chernobyl itself. >> ( translated ): the chernobyl accident will for a long time remain an event of a worldwide scale that is a challenge to the whole of humanity. such catastrophes do not respect state borders. >> sreenivasan: the city of pripyat, where the nuclear plant was located, is now a ghost t town.. it sits in the middle of an uninhabitable exclusion zone, where hundreds of towns and villages in ukraine and belarus were forced to evacuate. ukraine was still part of the old soviet union when chernobyl's number four reactor suffered a catastrophic power surge on april 26, 1986. that triggered a meltdown and explosion, spewing huge amounts of radioactive material into the atmosphere. millions of people across eastern europe were exposed to dangerously high radiation. but it took two days for soviet authorities to acknowledge the incident publicly. some 600,000 troops and
volunteers were sent in to fight the fire and clean up contamination, and 30 died from radiation poisoning. >> ( translated ): i went in there when everyone was fleeingn we were going right into the heat. and today everything is forgotten. it's a disgrace. >> sreenivasan: the stricken reactor was encased in a concrete sarcophagus. work is now underway on a steeln clad structure to enclose the site and prevent furthercl radioactive leaks, at a cost of more than $2 billion. the human toll is less clear, but the world health organization estimates long-term radiation effects will claim at least 9,000 lives. some further perspective on the impact of chernobyl. first, more on the science, consequences, fears and risks of nuclear power from our science correspondent, miles o'brien,po who's done extensive reporting in chernobyl and at the more recent accident site int fukushima, japan. miles, you're one of the few people who have gone to both of these places. you were reporting there chernobyl four or five years ago.
put this disaster into perspective. >> well, hari, chernobyl, by any measure, had a greater impact. i think the radiation releasedn from chernobyl was about six times greater than what we saw released from fukushima. both of them were so-called level-seven accidents which is the worst kind of accident on the scale the internationalth community puts upon them. but chernobyl, because it had an explosion and a fire, caused the spread of radioactive material over a much broader area. much of europe was affected by it. and so it had a tremendous impact, the noonly potentially health-wise, but also politically and emotionally, and had a great impact on how people viewed nuclear power.ar >> sreenivasan: americans were three mile island but chernobyl was important in the timeline of how the world perceives it. >> americans had made up their mind about nuclear power already. we made up our minds in the
mid-70s, the china syndrome and three mile island. in the case of chernobyl, there was no containment vessel what soever. so there was a big amount ofig radiation which came out. and it really laid the groundwork for the reaction that many europeans had toward fukushima 25 years later. you saw the germans, most notably, pulling the plug on their nuclear program. a lot of that has its roots in the fact they were under a clowz cloud of cesium 13730 years ago. >> sreenivasan: that sarcophagus you mentioned was only supposed to be there 15 years. it's still there now and it's still leaking. >> it the, and seeing ift with my own two eyes five years ago it was pretty scary, frankly. it looked like something from "mad max." it was hastily built, to say the least, by theseiquidators, true heroes who went in there and shoveled for short periods of time, many with devastating
consequences later in the form of cancer.es it is still there. it is not safe. and this new structure which eventually will cover it had been an improvement for sure.en >> sreenivasan: where is nuclear right now, five yearsea after fukushima, 30 years after chernobyl. >> it's interesting, hari, things have changed a little bit on people's perceptive on nuclear. it's easy to take chernobyl out of the mix. it was a bad reactor design. there are still 11 of those types of reactors running in russia now. but the west never acoptd this type of graphite moderated a reactor. so what has happened, interestingly, even five years after fukushima, is a lot of people are coming around to the conclusion that in order to truly fight climate change, the type of baseload power, power that stays on all the time at night, that is zero carbon emission, is in fact nuclear.on so there's interest in the
business community in this. a d.c. think tank recently conducted a study. they found 50 start-ups in the u.s. in the nuclear space attracting $1.5 billion in investment. it's kind of an odd outcome, actually. >> sreenivasan: science correspondent miles o'brien joining us from boston tonight. thanks so much. >> you're welcome. >> sreenivasan: now an on-the- ground look. we get that from michalth huniewicz, a polish photographer living in england. he visited chernobyl last year and documented the effects of the radiation on surrounding villages, plants, and animals. this was personal for and you your family.y. tell me a little bit about how they were affected after the blast.a >> i was two years old when it happened so, i don't remember ao great deal. but what i do know from my parents was when i was two years old, someone knocked on our door in the middle of the night and woke up my parents. and they had to wake me up and give me something to drink, which was called the lagol solution, and we didn't know what it was at the time. they didn't offer any
explanation to my parents, except there was anas environmental problem, and your son has to drink it.n after that, they disappeared because they want thaid toar distribute it to other children. it was only for people who were very young because when you're done your thyroid is unable tona handle large doses of radiation so it was distributed tof children like myself. >> sreenivasan: tell me about some of the pictures that stand out for you. i'm look at a photo of a pianoph that was left if the same place. it looks like a hospital infirmary. l >> that was in a place called the piano shop. it wasn't actually a piano shopt in reality. that was a nickname the place was given. it's one of those places which contains objects which were never taken away.hi there are a large number of pianos that you can still play, although i suspect they are are out of tune by now. the hospital that you mention is probably the most eerie place because we coknow for a fact because we know that is wherewh the firefighters were taken
right after the accident when they felt sick. they were taken to the moscow hospital, number 6, which specializes in radiation poisoning, acute radiation poisoning. but the gear that those firefighters were wearing was dumped into basement of the hospital. that basement is pretty much freely available.ab it's probably one of the most contaminated places on thece planet and you can just walk in there. a piece of head gear was cragd up from the basement to the lobby of that building by someone. and it's lying on the ledge, ask it's very highly radioactive so, there is a picture of my hand with a dosing meter getting closer to that piece of headat gear. i was really distressed because the meter of very loud, telling us don't go any nearer. it was very highly radioactive. so that's one of the most memorable moments for me because it was my hand close to that
object. >> sreenivasan: finally, itt looks like mother nature is winning. i mean, everything that's unclaimed is being taken over by plants. >> that's right. you would imagine that this zone would be destroyed with nucleary fallout, but actually, it's become more of a sanctuary for wildlife. b there are the horses broughtth after the accident, and half of them died.ie they did not adjust.th but the other half has lived and they remain in the zone.ha they live wild. people do hunt them but they're more or less allowed to live undisturbed. and, indeed, the number of those animals has been growing, and they are doing perfectly well. i spoke to a scientist who worked in the zone trying to establish what the impact was o radiation on those animal species. and he told me it was min stiewl. there was nothing that he could detect.. so the animals and the plants live there without any problems. they are much better off without
humans. as you said, they are taking over the zone. there are trees growinged in of buildings. so i suspect within a few decades there will be not much left of the zone other than the nuclear plant.cl >> sreenivasan: all right photographer michael huniewicz joining us from london tonight. thank you so much. >> thank you for having me. >> woodruff: stay with us, coming up on the newshour: technology that helps farmers reduce their carbon footprint.bo burundi refugees hunted down by their own government.rn plus, an artist's vision to reshape and revitalize chicago'i south side. now, how life after college cann be influenced by choices made before students even enroll, and why it's crucial for their financial futures. it's part of our weekly education segment "making the
grade." william brangham has our conversation. >> brangham: it's a big week for high school seniors across the country. they've got to make those finalo decisions on where they'll go to college next year. to celebrate, celebrities andr. athletes joined first lady, mechelle oh, balma for a signing day ceremony.hl >> no matter what path any of us on the stage took to our success, we all know completing your education past high school is the most important thing you can do to reach your dreams. that's why we're here. so while you all might be in off us, let me tell you, we are in awe of you.ig >> brangham: hoolers and their parents are obviously focused on what school they'llll go to, but a new book argues there are more important things thingsto consider. the book is called "there is life after college." jeffrey selingo is the author. i talked with him yesterday. jeff, if i could discern a basie thees frist your obamacare it's not so much where guto college but it's what you do while you're in college.ha
is that right? t >> that's right. it used to be as long as you had a bachelor's degree if a college, any college, really,eg you would be golden in the job market. it was really the way that you got jobs years ago. but now the fact of the mattere is that there's a lot of noise around the signal of aer bachelor's degree. so it's really important what you do while you're there, the experiential learning that you get-- internshipses, projects, study abroad, and activities like that, cocurricular activities, whether it's athletics or clubs.ri and most importantly, you don't. take on too much debt. the more debt you take on in college, the fewer options you have after college to sake essentially any job you want anywhere in the country which would be good for your career, and instead you're basing your career decisions on how much moneyec you're going to make. >> brangham: you characterized graduates after college into the sprinters, wanderers, and stragglers. what do those delineations tell us about postcollege life today? >> it used to be, again, as long as you went to college, you wer a sprinter.er you would come out of college
and you would have a job.wo you would usually work in oneu occupation, sometimes for one employer, for most cases. but the fact of the matter is, only about a third of students now launch from college in that way.bo so two-thirds are either wanderers or stragglers.er they take half their 20s to get going in careers. in some cases those are wanderers and in other cases they're stragglers, they take most of their 20s.f what are the markers. sprinters intern at least 80% of the time in college. >> brangham: while in college?co >> 80% have at least one internship while in college aseg opposed to the wanders. only about 50% of them intrn,0% and the stragglers only about 20% of them intern. the other big marker is debt. sprinters have less than $10,000 of debt when they come out of college. the average today is 30,000. the more you have the fewer options you have after college. the other marker of straggers, they have some college credit but don't yet have a degree.
70% of students go right on to college after high school, but only about 50% of them end up graduating.gh so we have a number of millennials now with some college credit and no degree.gr and in fact, they make up the bulk of people today in the united states who have some college credit and no degree toe show for their efforts. >> brangham: you report thatha a lot of employers feel like colleges are not doing a veryer good job of preparing graduates for the work world. you quote one employer saying that these student have been syllabussed to death. what does that mean? >> it means college has aha certain cadence to it. you start in september, end in may, you get a syllabus andou course catalog at the beginning of the semester that lays outgi when things are do. it's essentialily a recipe to get an "a." you have plenty of breaks. then the student get into the workforce, and the workforce is a mash-up of activities. you know, it's not task based
anymore. it used to be jobs, you wouldbs get a list of things to do every day, clock in at 9:00 and clockn out at 5:00. no job works like that anymore but yet our education system is still very task based in that way.ou >> brangham: you write employers as a whole often feel colleges should be doing a better job of this, but collegeg push back and saying the companies are offshoring and making us job train them when that should be their job. where should the responsibility lay? >> the responsibility lies with all three groups. it lies with colleges to give people both the broad skills they need to succeed not only is the workplace of today but tomorrow. but also to give them some opportunities for hands-on training.alai and also lies with students to go out and get that. many students sleep walk through college.nd they go there and think college will happen to them. and it's also the role of the employers. and many employers, they confuso students on this front. in other words, you have the c.e.o.s of some companies saying go out and get a broadet
liberal articles education and we'll train you when you get here. e about the the people hiring,pl either the line managers or chief h.r. officers are tellingr students we need specific skills.g >> brangham: if you were to build a recipe for the things college students really need to be focused on to succeed in however up to the categorize success, what are some of those things.veha >> when students are pick ats college, they should pick a place, a campus or a city, urban area, where they will getit hands-on opportunity. and if they go to a faraway place they should think how are they going to get hands-on experience.ey second, don't take on too much debt., make sure go to a place where you're gog grawrkt hopefully in four years and not take on tooea much debt. and the third piece is pick a major. in some ways it doesn't matter what major you pick because most careers are not related to majors but shupick a major where you're going to work hard, wher you're going to read a lot, where you're going to write a
lot, where the homework will beb tough, why whereyou'll meet the best professors and where your classmates will push you. >> brangham: when you're trying to figure out where your career will be, and to be one oa those sprinters, is there a risk we lose some of the richer experiences of college-- to learn how to think, to open your mind, to exploark to simply gro up into a human beak beag? >> it used to be that college was for exploration. the idea was you would go to college, explore for four years, get the broad education, and move into the workforce and get specific training. now, much of that is supposed to happen in those four years of college.ha the problem with exploring too much in college it's very expensive.n the cost of college has gone way up. half of students don't end up graduating. a third of student end up transferring institutions. so there's a lot of friction in the system we have today. that's why a the love this explore aches, trying to figure out what you want out of life,he trying fig outer a career, should actually happen outsideid of the walls of college.
this idea of taking a gap year between high school and college or even taking time off in college to try to find yourselff to try to find a career. because the more that happens in college, the fewer experiences you're going to have outside the classroom because you're going to be focused on those inside-the-classroom experiences.se >> brangham: all right jeffrey selingo, the book iso, "there is life after college." thank you very much.s >> it was great to be here, thank you.an >> woodruff: later tonight, pbs's new debate program program, "point taken" asks: is a college degree worth the price tag?: check your local listings. >> sreenivasan: even with advances in technology, farmers are continuing to look for ways to cut energy costs. part of farmers' energy needs are fuel and electricity, butf there are other energy costs from harvest public media in nebraska, grant gerlock explains the many ways farmers are trying
to keep fossil fuels off the cornfield.s >> reporter: greg and sandy brummond live and work on theiri farm in northeast nebraska, jusa outside the town of craig.ts e >> this is our shop, that we do most of our repair work and just literally about live up here for ten hours a day, it seems like. >> reporter: this shop is the epicenter of the brummond farm,e and its energy use. with the lights, machinery for equipment repair and other implements, it uses more power than their home.im in fact, sometimes it is their home. >> we actually added an office and a kitchen, so we don't even have to go back down to the house. we can fully function up here. >> reporter: it's like having your house on top of your shop and everything. all that stuff that uses powert that you would think of. >> oh yeah, is in here. >> reporter: the shop and its
high energy needs are why the brummonds made a recent investment in solar energy. >> we've got 36 panels down there. the angle was good for the sun. >> reporter: these panels are capable of supplying ten kilowatts, enough power for all those lights and machines in the shop. e they were put up a few months ago by graham christensen, who runs a small business installing solar panels. >> you can see even on today, which is a cloudy day outside, we're still producing 506 wattsw of energy currently. we'd like to see it more up around that seven to 12 points. >> reporter: christensen grew up on a farm in burt county, not far from the brummonds. today, he's back in the area with an electrician to survey another farm looking to cut energy costs.an >> down this side of the lane, we might put in some geothermal wells. >> reporter: kevin anderson would like to install enough solar panels to generate 25 kilowatts. >> basically, with 25 kilowatts it would get soaked up right into these buildings. this grain elevator. all the fans on the grain elevator.
the dryer that they have connected there, all the out- buildings around, as well as their home. >> reporter: federal taxed credits, and government grants are making renewable energy more affordable.t solar is the popular choice for farmers looking to cut energy expenditures.op according to a 2013 u.s.d.a.o report on agriculture and energy, 93% of farms that produce renewable energy use solar. anderson wants to take advantage of the financial incentivesci while they are available, but that isn't his only motivation. >> it seems like as you get a little older, you get a littlet more concerned about it. what kind of a legacy we're leaving our kids and what type of environment they're going to live in. grandkids, their kids. i think it's the right thing to do. >> reporter: back on the brummonds farm, they've gotfa hopes of adding more panels and using less energy from the local utility, which generates power mostly from coal.
>> i flew over gillette, wyoming-- that's where a lot of our coal comes from. to get that perspective of looking over those humongous holes in the ground where the coal is taken out.t. i was like, wow. i wonder when this is going to run out. >> reporter: u.s. agriculture used around 1,600 trillion b.t.u.'s of energy in 2011, enough to power the energy need for a state the size of iowa orw south carolina for a year. most of that energy is for direct uses, such as electriciti for buildings or gasoline for tractors.il but farms also use a lot ofal energy in indirect ways. w for instance, farmers apply synthetic fertilizers containing nitrogen to keep plants healthy, allowing crops such as corn to show big yields every year. but most nitrogen fertilizer production comes from natural gas. after fuel for trucks and tractors, fertilizer is the second largest energy component on farms-- and one of thefe biggest expenses for farmers.
in bladen, nebraska, keith berns and his brother brian have developed a business selling seeds for plants that can restore soil health and curb a reliance on synthetic h fertilizers. >> we can produce, you know, anywhere from 100 pounds to 200 pounds of nitrogen from a cover crop. >> reporter: what are cover crops and why are they called that? >> cover crops are basically crops that a farmer would plantr in-between periods of their normal cash crop. we're taking that carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere and we're putting that carbon into thebo soil through the photosynthetic process and that carbon thatbo gets put into the soil is what become an immediate food source for all these micro-organisms. this is a winter oats and i pulled up a chunk here, just to show you the roots.ts >> even without any scientific equipment, you can take a good, healthy soil, and you can smell it and it just has that really good, earthy smell.an >> reporter: instead of yields
above the ground, the berns brothers point to a harvesthe taking place below the ground-- carbon transferred from the atmosphere, nitrogen fixed in roots and in soil.ro >> this whole thing is full of nitrogen. when it decomposes in the spring it will release quite a bit of nitrogen from my corn crop. >> reporter: with the right cover crops, farmers can grow more fertilizer for themselves, which means that much less need to come from fossil fuels. >> there's a lot of petroleum, you know, a lot of oil needed tf make any type of fertilizer. so anytime we don't need it to produce it, we don't need it to haul it, we don't need it to apply it-- if we can grow it naturally through a cover crop. >> reporter: for farmers across the country, finding energyne savings from solar panels and p cover crops, means it could take fewer fossil fuels to get food to your dinner table.cr for the pbs newshour, i'm grant gerlock in bladen, nebraska. n
>> woodruff: it has been one year since burundi's president pierre nkurunziza announced he was running for a third term, a move widely-considered unconstitutional. his announcement triggered a failed coup, a questioned election, mass protests, and a violent crackdown on the opposition. since then, at least 400 people have been killed and 3,500 arrested. more than 220,000 people fled the country. divisions between hutu and tutsi ethnic groups have characterized past violence in burundi, but on sunday, marguerite barankitse was honored for her work helpino burundian orphans and refugees, regardless of ethnicity. she received a million dollars from an armenian group. the money will be donated to the organization of her choice.ce still, ethnic identity can be a
matter of life or death forr burundians, even those outside the country. special correspondent nick schifrin found burundian refugees 900 miles from home, in nairobi, where they thought they'd be safe. but their enemies have tracked them down. >> reporter: it's just pastt' midnight, we're in nairobi, kenya, and this isn't only a cornfield. this is a kind of protection because right behind me there's a house full of men, and all night, every night, two of them are in the field standing guard, using old weapons like a crowbar and a rusty knife. they are too scared to sleep, and too scared to show theirca faces. they are burundian refugees who say they're being hunted. the men who are guarding the house, can they really defendgu you from the people who are hunting you? >> ( translated ): the weapons
you see here can only be used against the dogs you hear o barking. if there were an enemy coming here with a grenade or a machine gun, we wouldn't be able to resist. >> reporter: 25-year-old arnold is a burundian refugee. he lives in this tin shack with seven other refugees.ge it's a 150-square-foot, church library. >> ( translated ): we have no mattresses, no food. as refugees we can't find jobs, and we are scared of beingd arrested and sent back from where we were. >> reporter: where they were was burundi's capital bujumbura. a systematic campaign targeted the government's political opponents, leaving some of their bodies in the street. the u.n. warns president nkurunziza is helping lead the country to a second civil war by transforming politics into ethnic conflict between hutus and tutsis. it's the same ethnic divide in rwanda that sparked the 1994 genocide. in the last year, 225,000
burundians have fled the violence to cities they hoped were safe. h but even here, they hide theirbu faces. today here in nairobi, which of you is afraid? all of these men escaped from burundi. kenyan activist tom oketch brought them together to discuss their rights, and try to calm their fears. >> reporter: and on new year's day, that violence arrived in kenya. burundian refugee juma says this is where he found the body of jean de dieu kabura, a member of burundi's opposition. >> ( translated ): he was naked and his body had cuts all over. then he spoke and he said, juma, they have killed me. >> reporter: those killers accidentally left t behind their hit list-- i.d.'s of burundian refugees they were hunting. ld.ee
>> ( translated ): these are some ids of the men. this one is stained with his blood. >> reporter: you were supposedne to look for members of the opposition, is that right? this 23-year-old hutu says the government sent him to follow h the tutsi opposition members, and kill them.nt >> ( translated ): first we were supposed to establish relationships with these people, and after becoming friends with them, we were going to use poison.te >> reporter: pierre was a medical student, conscripted into the government's youthhe militia, known as the imbonerakure. the name translates to "those who see far." so when you got to nairobi and you realized what your job was, why did you refuse to do it? >> ( translated ): when they showed us the list, i saw a person i knew.th he was actually a friend. i was in a political partywa different from his. but for me that does not mean i should hate this person, or kill him.r >> reporter: albert is a burundian journalist.
he covered clashes between the government and opposition protesters.et >> reporter: in kenya, these men went to the local police, and t say they were ignored. police spokesman charles owinono denies that. >> reporter: that reassurance holds even less comfort than sleeping in shifts, and cookingv cornmeal in a donated bedroom. do you miss home? >> ( translated ): before the crisis in burundi, we had enough resources to have a better life. we are here because we have
nowhere else to go.wh >> reporter: for the pbs newshour, i'm nick schifrin in nairobi. >> sreenivasan: from clay pots to entire cities, a most unusual and influential artist. jeffrey brown has this profile from chicago. >> this is the ceramics studio. >> brown: when you make a pot, the artist theaster gates told me recently in his studio, you think about the material and how to shape it. >> if it's clay, then i have to learn about the minerals that are in the earth. and what happens when twoap chemicals work together inog relationship to heat? how does heat work in relationship to time? >> brown: but unlike most artists, gates goes further, into a whole other realm-- just as we learn to re-shape clay
into pots, he says, we might learn to re-shape buildings and neighborhoods into a revitalized urban life.sh >> if you were to apply that to a city, you'd say, "well, what's the relationship between a commercial district and a residential area?ti and how might those things be as collision at first?" but they need to slowly cool. >> brown: same process butlo different material? >> i think so. and it implies that one has to continually get to know a thingi by being directly engaged with the thing. >> brown: gates is a successful commercial artist on the international gallery scene. but much of the focus of his work is here, on chicago's south side, in neighborhoods filled with vacant lots, abandoned buildings, poor and dangerous streets.do gates has bought buildings, like these on dorchester avenue, refurbished and turned them into community gathering places for music, films, talk. he's also developed low-costst housing, including for artists, who contribute hours of
community service in return. >> there were two of them when the exhibit opened.ed >> brown: we happened on a weekly session in which residents talked about a local art exhibit and more. gates likes to take things that are falling apart or abandoned, and give them new life, like these floorboards from a community youth gymnasium thatfr was being torn down. >> instead of demolishing it, you pull it one board at a time. and then they sit. like clay, it's nothing until it is something. >> brown: in this case it's>> something because you put them back together in an abstract work of art.in >> yes. >> brown: and not only that, but a work of art with an embedded meaning.an >> it's a shame that the t building is abandoned. that's only part of it. it's a shame that young men andt women aren't learning what it means to work together as a team.ar it's a shame that all of the
skill that went into hand painting of these floors is no longer done by very many people. there are all these shames. >> brown: but he also creates on a bigger canvas-- he has degrees in urban planning-- as with his largest project to date: the- stony island bank. a once-thriving institution in beautiful neo-classical building that sat empty for more than 30 years and was scheduled to be torn down. gates bought it from the city for a dollar, raised severala million to fix it up, and turned it into an "arts bank," with exhibition and performancece spaces; a gorgeous library, with books from the collection of the publisher of "jet" and "ebony" magazines; slides oncega used to teach art history; and vinyl albums from disc jockeydi frankie knuckles, the godfather of house music. the art is in the idea: that black culture, black spaces,bl should be preserved and cherished.
>> i'm excited about collectiond because they start to demonstrate that black people have the capacity to care about black things. that we have the ability to make space for these incredible collections, and make room for people to enjoy them where normal people live. and i feel really fortunate that that kind of poetry can live on the south side of chicago.h >> have you been doing this all day? >> brown: his newest project, undertaken in his position as director of "arts and public life" at the nearby university of chicago, extends the idea to an entire city block-- a burgeoning "art block," in the washington park neighborhood.or >> can you get me a tape measure please? >> brown: it includes an "artsde incubator" for cultural groups f and classes in woodworking and more for young people. >> as you finish high school and go to college, come back for th summer. come back after you graduate. it's really that relationship
that will make these buildings work over time.p >> brown: there's also a cafe and a bookstore where musicians regularly perform. on the drawing table, a largelaa performance space for plays and concerts. what's the idea behind it? an engine or an anchor for the neighborhood to grow?e >> maybe engines and anchors are good words.ig but i think first it needs to be a place where art can happen. before we think about it as an economic generator or cultural anchor, it's "can i have a place to rehearse my play?" >> brown: it's as simple as that? >> yes, absolutely. can we have a place to play our music? can our kids learn art here? >> brown: gates' work is now expanding beyond chicago. his team at the university was recently awarded grants to tackle redevelopment projects i distressed areas of gary, indiana; akron, ohio and detroit-- all of it grounded in his ideas of what "art" is.
>> what i love about art is that the power of the symbolic work has so much potential to do more than the thing on the ground. and so i think about ripples. i think about affect. i think about symbolism. i don't think that there are limits on what's possible. not only do poor people have a right to beautiful things, but people have the right not to be poor anymore. i think that that feels like it's work making art about.'s and fighting for. >> brown: it's art mixed with activism, and urban development. for the pbs newshour, i'm jeffrey brown in chicago. >> and again the presidential d primary results tonight the associated press predicts donald
trump will sweep pennsylvania e and four other states. hillary clinton is projected top win pennsylvania, maryland and delaware and bernie sanders is being given rhode island with no project yet in connecticut and chris van halland is expected to win in maryland. early clinton spoke in philadelphia. >> with your help we're going to come back to philadelphia for the democratic national at convention. we will unify our party to win this election and build an america where we can all rise se together where we build each other up instead of tearing each other >> woodruff: and that's thef: newshour for tonight. i'm judy woodruff. join us online, and again here tomorrow evening. for all of us at the pbs newshour, thank you and good night.al
>> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: >> lincoln financial-- committed to helping you take charge of your financial future. >> supported by the john d. and catherine t. macarthur foundation. committed to building a more just, verdant and peaceful world. more information at macfound.orm >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions
this is "nightly business report" with tyler mathieson. >> sour apples, 13 years of quarterly revenue growth has ended putting pressure on the world's most valuable company to create the next must-have device. don't lose out on lucrative social security strategy. it's about to go away if you don't act fast. heartache and disappointment after for the fda to fast track a drug for a devastating illness. all that and more tonight on "nightly business report" for tuesday, april 26th. >> good evening, everyone, and welcome. well, it had to happen some day and today was the day. apple's 13-year growth surge has