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tv   PBS News Hour Weekend  PBS  May 29, 2016 5:30pm-6:01pm PDT

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captioning sponsored by wnet >> pbs newshour weekend is made possible by:
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bernard and irene schwartz. judy and josh weston. supporting innovation and enabling urban progress. the john and helen glessner family trust. supporting trustworthy journalism that informs and inspires. sue and edgar wachenheim, iii. corporate funding is provided by mutual of america-- designing customized individual and group retirement products. that's why we are your retirement company. additional support has been provided by: and by the corporation for public broadcasting, and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. from the tisch wnet studios at lincoln center in new york, lisa desjardins. >> reporter: good evening and thanks for joining us. presumptive republican presidential nominee donald trump says if he's elected president, he would ask allies from saudi arabia and south
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korea to germany and japan to pay 100% of the cost of u.s. armed forces defending their countries. trump made the remark today at the annual memorial day weekend "rolling thunder" motorcycle rally in the nation's capital. >> you know, you look at the 28 nato countries, many of those countries are not living up to their obligations of paying us. so we're protecting nato, we're protecting these countries, and they're not paying up. >> reporter: trump now has one new opponent-- the libertarian party today nominated a former republican governor for president: gary johnson of new mexico. and in the democratic race, bernie sanders is campaigning in california ahead of the june seventh primary. when asked today, if he'd consider being hillary clinton's running mate, sander's said, quote, "we'll see." >> so i would hope, if i am not the nominee, that the vice presidential candidate will not be from wall street, will be somebody who has a history of standing up and fighting for working families. >> reporter: the latest polls in california show essentially a dead heat between clinton and sanders. joining me now to discuss the
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california campaign is "los angeles times" assistant managing editor for politics christina bellatoni. >> desjardins: christina, thank you so much for joining us. >> hi, lisa. >> desjardins: all right. let's start with one of the biggest new phenomenon we are seeing in california this year, new borders. what do you think are these new voters mean for senator sanders and hugh big of a deal is this? >> it is really hard to know because when you see a giant number of young people registering for example and los angeles county alone you have 61 percent of the new registrants, 236,000 people, 61 percent of those are under the age of 20, now owe have seen senator sanders has won with young voters basically everywhere and also seen him doing very well with young voters in california so you would assume that helps him because but you don't know because there are a lot of people who are starting to vote with agers toward donald trump, hillary clinton had plenty of young people who like her as well. so we are expecting a flood of turnout and sanders does seem to
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have quite a bit of momentum, especially here in southern california as he barnstorms the state, he hasn't left and be here he every single day all across a the state. >> and the new voters it is a very large scale, right? >> yes, hundreds of thousands of people and democrats allow independents to vote in the presidential primary so you could have a lot of independent new voters showing up and voting for senator sanders or hillary clinton come june 7th. >> desjardins: let's talk about the importance of california for hillary clinton. if she loses, how much of it do you think that really would be? we expect her to crush the nomination either way. >> it is embarrassing, most populist state, you know, very strong democratic state, a state democrats are expected to capture, but she could very much win here, the clintons have a long history in california, she has a lot of quiet support, congressional delegation, all but four have endorsed hillary clinton the other four have actually not taken a position at all. sappedders does not have any congressional support here. so those friends matter when it comes to organizing and getting voters to show up. >> desjardins: all right let's quickly turn to the general
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election which is sofas make, chris dispai naah, donald trump said he will make a play for california and the elect troarl votes. >> is he just trying to spread tout democrats here? you know, of course, anything can happen. you can't forget that california did have a history of voting for republicans for 20 years, ending with george hw bush in, bush in 1988 when you consider this is a majority minority state, a huge number of latino voters here, large population of asian voters, and also it is a very strongly democratic state expected to retain the senate seat, boxster reretiring, so i would say that is a pretty big long shot in addition to that a the republicans in california which is are the largest number of republican voters, they are moderates, not the most conservative republicans in the country so all of those factors think donald trump is not likely to spend a lot of time campaigning. >> desjardins: we will watch either way. christina bellantoni chris, thank you so much for joining us. >> thank you.
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>> >> reporter: more painful numbers on the migrant crisis in europe. today, the united nations and "doctors without borders" estimated as many as 900 migrants drowned in just the last five days when their overloaded boats capsized. more than 10,000 have been rescued. that includes this group brought to shore by the italian navy today. the ship also carried 45 bodies recovered from the sea. an important day in the history of warfare as france and germany marked the 100th anniversary of one of world war one's bloodiest battles. in verdun, france, children flanked german chancellor angela merkel and french president francois hollande as they laid wreaths at a memorial, and outside the town where 11,000 german soldiers are buried. the ten-month battle in northeastern france took the lives of 300,000 soldiers on both sides, and wounded hundreds of thousands more. the 200 most highly paid c.e.o.'s in america each made, on average, more than $19 million last year, according to
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a survey published today by "the new york times" and equilar, a company that specializes in executive pay. the average c.e.o. on that list made 523 times the average employee's take home pay. however, that level of c.e.o. pay was a 15% drop from the year before, largely due to lower stock values. the biggest c.e.o. pay check that went to expedia's dara khosrowshahi, who made $95 million. there were only 15 women in the top 200, and the highest paid was oracle's co-c.e.o., safra catz, who ranked fifth overall. this wednesday join the newshour's gwen ifill for an interview with president obama followed by a town hall meeting where he will take questions on a variety of topics. "questions for president obama: a pbs newshour special" wednesday at 8:00 p.m. on your pbs station.
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>> reporter: the terrorist attacks by isis in paris and brussels underscored the threat of so-called "foreign fighters," men who join the fight with isis and bring their violent training home. to address the problem, this month france launched a plan to open de-radicalization centers in every region of the country. the netherlands is also trying to thwart radicalization and help parents prevent their children's descent into violent islamic extremism. the newshour's hari sreenivasan reports in tonight's signature segment. >> sreenivasan: mohammed nidalha hasn't seen his son reda in more than two years. he scrolls through old pictures on his ipad, from when he was 19 years old to when he was five- years-old. >> ( translated ): reda grew up like any other child. he had lots of friends, just a regular boy like any other. >> sreenivasan: the family emigrated from morocco, but reda was born and raised in leiden, near rotterdam in southern
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holland. >> sreenivasan: nidalha says his son reda went to syria to join the muslim militant group isis. >> ( translated ): in the weeks leading up to his departure for syria, he fooled and misled us all. >> sreenivasan: the family is muslim, but nidhala says, they are not very religious. he believes when reda visited an uncle in belgium for a few months in 2014, reda fell under the sway of isis recruiters. after that, he traveled to turkey, the gateway into syria. >> ( translated ): reda called his sister and told her "i love you, i love dad, i love mom, but i'm going to syria to help children and help the women being raped." >> sreenivasan: as soon as he learned of his son's plan to go to syria, nidalha says he contacted dutch security officials. >> ( translated ): everyone told me, "we can't help you, because your son is already 18 years old. he can travel to wherever he wants." even when i told them my son is planning to join a terrorist organization and is going to fight in syria. still they said, "sorry, we
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can't help you." >> sreenivasan: reda is one of an estimated 220 dutch residents who have traveled to syria or iraq to join isis, according to the soufan group, which estimates that 5,000 foreign fighters from western europe have made the trip. marion van san is a researcher at erasmus university in rotterdam. she has interviewed dozens of dutch families whose children have traveled to syria and iraq, including mohammed nidalha and even his son, reda via facebook. she says radicalization is hard to predict or stop. >> if they really want to go, and if they're in a circle with like-minded people, there's not a lot you can do about it. >> sreenivasan: van san says the youth most vulnerable to radical recruitment are from troubled families or broken homes looking for guidance on how to live. >> they're all youngsters with very, very strong ideals. they're worried about the world.
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and they want to have like a guideline-- how shall i live? and they find that in islam. >> sreenivasan: imam azzedine karrat leads rotterdam's essalam mosque, the biggest in the netherlands. he says parents worried about their children becoming radicalized often come to him first. the imam says the key is to engage with these youths, not push them away. >> ( translated ): i believe that young people that radicalize at one point did start their search with good intentions. things can of course co awry, but it's up to us to listen to them, not give them the idea that we're judging them and present them with alternatives and different information. >> sreenivasan: if he fails to talk someone out of going to syria, karrat may call the police. he says he's competing against the internet for hearts and minds. radicalization doesn't happen in mosques. on the contrary, one of the steps in the radicalization process is distancing themselves from mosques.
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>> sreenivasan: to reach as many people as possible, karrat posts his sermons on youtube and is active on twitter and facebook. but he's also aware of his limitations. >> ( translated ): imams and mosques are part of the solution, but it's also dependent on the collaboration between different actors in society, organizations and people in the community, the municipality, the parents, the youngsters themselves, the police, together they are part of the solution. >> sreenivasan: marianne vorthoven runs s.p.i.o.r., an islamic organization that works with imams, teachers, social workers, and community leaders to talk to parents and youth there is no easy answer to this. >> sreenivasan: s.p.i.o.r. has organized more than 40 meetings in rotterdam during past year and vorthoven says the very act of acknowledging radicalization within muslim communities is novel. >> there's a lot of silence, a lot of taboo around these issues. and especially in some groups
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it's also, "no, but it's not about us. it has nothing to do with islam, so we don't need to talk about it." whether you like it or not, these atrocities are being done in the name of islam, so also in society how people perceive islam and muslims is affected by it. >> sreenivasan: in s.p.i.o.r.'s meetings, organizers try to boost resistance to radicalism-- what they call "resilience"-- by exposing the myths in recruiting messages and addressing factors that may push some to become jihadists. >> some people, and especially muslim youth, do not feel a sense of belonging. they do not feel accepted in society, many of them. very often implicitly or explicitly, the message is that you cannot be a good dutch citizen and a muslim at the same time. >> sreenivasan: this struggle with identity is familiar to 30- year-old mahmoud tighadouini. his family is originally from morocco and he was brought up a muslim, born and raised in amsterdam. >> i was like searching for my
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own identity. i was thinking, in the netherlands, they call me "the moroccan," and in morocco they call me "the dutchman." so i didn't know what i was. >> sreenivasan: after 9/11 and the start of the war in iraq in 2003, tighadouni met a group of young men online who introduced him to a radical muslim ideology. >> i was thinking, "the west are the enemies." and they say, "they are wrong, we are good." they are black or we are white. i needed the clearness, i needed the structure, i needed the people who say to me how to go, how to live. >> sreenivasan: after several years of chatting online, the idea of fighting american troops abroad came up. >> we were talking about jihad, about do you want to fight in afghanistan? do you want to fight in iraq? and i said, "yes, of course, i want to help my muslim brothers and sisters. they kill them for no reason." i was almost going, because i had my suitcase already done. my mom, she prevented it, gladly. >> sreenivasan: his mother, fatima, had noticed a change in
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mahmoud. >> ( translated ): i have to know what he does. so i found his passport in the drawer in his room and i took it and i hid it. i was scared, my son shouldn't be going to somewhere that's not good. >> sreenivasan: she also called her local community police officer to intervene. and the officer confronted tighadouni in his house. >> he said, "listen, mahmoud, this is the time you need to stop with this." and i was very upset on the same time, but i was also listening to him, because he was very clear. that's the moment when i started not to be normal, but when i started to think, to de- radicalize. >> sreenivasan: there are more than 3,400 community police officers, known in dutch as a "wijkagents," across the netherlands. each is assigned to one neighborhood to get to know it very well. >> hallo! >> sreenivasan: mickael scharloo and jan pots are two of these community police officers in south rotterdam, one of the poorest areas of the city and
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also one of the most diverse, with 120 nationalities and a large muslim population. >> all is goot? yeah. >> sreenivasan: pots and scharloo tackle small issues like traffic and parking violations, but they are also on the front lines of preventing violent radicalization. pots describes fielding similar calls to the one tighadouni's mother made. >> ( translated ): we had a conversation with the parents and with the boy, who wanted to travel to syria. and we set up all the help we could to prevent that-- we took his passport, and made contact with other partners that we work with. >> sreenivasan: scharloo says officers like them are effective only by having strong personal relationships with the communities they serve. >> if people want to tell me something, they have to know me. because they have to trust me with certain material and certain information. >> sreenivasan: although efforts to prevent radicalization have been underway in rotterdam for years, some don't believe they go far enough. rotterdam city council member tanya hoogwerf is skeptical that intervention by police,
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religious leaders, and community groups is sufficient to combat the growing threat of homegrown radicalism. she advocates a harder law enforcement approach. >> it's a real threat, and it is a security problem, and it's not something you're going to solve with a teacher at school. it's not something you're going to solve with a community police service. it's something that you're only going to solve and tackle with a hard security impregnated approach. >> sreenivasan: hoogwerf would like to see dutch citizens who join isis or other militant groups in syria or iraq banned from re-entering the country, or at a minimum detained. >> if we are going to spend money, don't spend money on some small organizations that pretend they can de-radicalize. no, spend it on serious intelligence solutions. put more emphasis on taking people that are potentially a threat away from the streets of rotterdam and put them in detention. >> sreenivasan: marianne
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vorthoven of s.p.i.o.r. admits it's difficult to quantify success in the work it is doing to prevent radicalization. >> we cannot say for a fact that otherwise this young man or young woman would have gone to syria, but because we've had this meeting with him or her, now she is not going. but what we see is that people open up about a very sensitive and complicated subject. >> he hopes this will raise awareness among other parents. he believes anyone could be susceptible to radicalization. >> >> >> ( translated ): i gave my son the freedom to choose, i didn't raise him religiously, and still i couldn't prevent this. >> reporter: learn more from mahmoud tighadouni, who shares the story of how he became radicalized. visit after a long decline, the share of americans failing workplace
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drug tests appears to be on the rise. the proportion of american workers testing positive for illicit drugs like marijuana and opioids has gone up for two years in a row to about 5%, that's according to a leading drug test company, quest diagnostics. "new york times" reporter jackie calmes has written about this trend and the effect it is having on the labor market. earlier this week, she sat down with hari sreenivasan. >> how big is this problem with people walking away from a job interview and they hear, when they hear there is a drug test? >> it is bigger than i had thought, clearly bawrksz this whole subject came to me in a completely separate news story i was reporting, and employers, local leaders just volunteered to me as the unemployment rate came down, the biggest hurdle they were facing in filling jobs was finding people who were willing to take a drug test and if they did take a drug test could pass it. and i thought, well, that can't be as big of a problem as they
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are making it out to be, so a couple of weeks later when i had some time i started making calls around the country, this initial tip was in indiana, and it was like shooting fish in the barrel it was so easy to find employers to tell me that it was a problem. >> is there any kind of way to break this down? is it a type of worker is it a specific region, a type of industry where these employers are facing these challenges? >> it is across the board but clearly a bigger problem in jobs for unskilled or low skilled people. but not exclusively, and it is interesting. i hadn't realized the extent to which drug testing had become all but ubiquitous in our american labor market. for all jobs from, you know, low skilled and blue collar to higher skilled and white-collar. it has become a fact of life in the last 20 years. >> reporter: and is the predominant drug failure is it marijuana, opioids, what was it? >> i thought particularly
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because "the new york times" among other media had been paying a lot of attention the opioid and heroin epidemic but the biggest complaint of employers is marijuana use and the statistics show that in the last couple of years, at least, marijuana use, illicit drug use is up a bit in the population, and the marijuana today stays in the system longer, and it is more -- less like a weekend use, like maybe a couple of decades ago to a lifestyle, near nightly use, near daily use report report is there any correlation that legal rised m menino disnatural and recreational use? >> i asked if it was different in colorado, is say or washington, d.c. with where it has been legalized and we are told,, no it is really no different and the thing is, if you are an employer saying, say, in colorado where recreational use is legal, you still, it does
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not affect your company policies. you can still say you have to take a drug test to be hired and you might be randomly tested while you are here. and it also doesn't affect that the federal law, that anyone who has a job that is so-called safety oriented, trucking, anything transportation related, has since 1991 required testing both to get the job and then randomly while you are on the job. >> reporter: companies have an incentive to be drug free, i mean their insurance increases. >> exactly and it is not just insurance, in the past couple of decades, related to insurance and the last couple of decades, there is more liability that employers have if their, their employees do something on the job that causes injury to others or can be sued, can get them sued, then they are liable, and if they have -- if they are certified as a drug free workplace, they have some, you know, defense. >> reporter: thank you so
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much. >> thanks for having a me. >> >> this is pbs newshour weekend, sunday. >> reporter: on a special memorial day broadcast tomorrow, the pbs program "p.o.v." airs a new documentary called "of men and war," which shows that for many u.s. veterans of the iraq and afghanistan wars, life after combat can be very difficult. in this excerpt, we meet a soldier and his wife who are addressing his p.t.s.d. issues while at home. >> he may think i am mothering him too much or, you know, and i don't want to be a mother. i don't want to be your caretaker, i want to be your girlfriend, you know. >> you know, it is tough. like you get home from a war -- >> and i am a completely different person.
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>> and -- >> oh, my gosh. >> i guess i am just -- i will not give up trying. >> >> i am trying, because i want our marriage to work. i don't want to do the same thing that i did before. >> and you just barricade yourself in a room and being by yourself and drinking -- >> that's what i am afraid of too, because i still drink now. i am trying to deal with my stressors and -- using drugs, i bounce around from thing to thing to thing to try to find something that can do something.
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none of them seem to work, but -- >> >> desjardins: finally, today's 100th running of the indianapolis 500, and a surprise winner, american alexander rossi, the 24-year-old rookie from california was running out of gas as he crossed the finish line and then could not complete his victory lap. he took the lead with only four latches to go as drivers ahead of him took their stops for fuel. >> wow. that is it for this edition of pbs newshour weekend. i am lisa desjardins, thanks for watching. good night. >> captioning sponsored by wnet captioned by media access group at wgbh >> pbs newshour weekend is made possible by: lewis b. and louise hirschfeld
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cullman. bernard and irene schwartz. judy and josh weston. the cheryl and philip milstein family. the citi foundation. supporting innovation and enabling urban progress. the john and helen glessner family trust. supporting trustworthy journalism that informs and inspires. sue and edgar wachenheim, iii. corporate funding is provided by mutual of america-- designing customized individual and group retirement products. that's why we are your retirement company. additional support has been provided by: and by the corporation for public broadcasting, and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you.
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[david solomon] it was a huge undertaking. we had all of these portraits... drawn in europe, during world war ii. and our goal was to find a home for them; either get them to the veteran or his family. [kathy] some of the people that i've spoken with had no idea these portraits existed. [debbie mergenov] oh my god, i just cried my eyes out. i just thought it was beautiful. [myer bernstein] their first reaction was "dad, it doesn't look like you." well, i was 19 years old!


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