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tv   PBS News Hour  PBS  July 1, 2016 3:00pm-4:00pm PDT

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captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc >> woodruff: good evening. i'm judy woodruff. on the newshour tonight, death from above. the obama administration makes public the number of inadvertent civilian deaths from u.s. air strikes amid heated debate and scrutiny. then, we report from london on how the brexit vote has immigrants in britain feeling increasingly unwelcome. >> i was at a train station and a guy was like, the lift is not working because of you foreigners, go back to your country. >> woodruff: and it's friday. mark shields and ramesh ponnuru take on the uproar over hillary clinton's email investigation and donald trump's seizure of the trade issue, all part of a full week of news. all that and more, on tonight's pbs newshour.
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>> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. >> woodruff: the islamic state group is claiming responsibility for an attack tonight at an upscale restaurant in bangladesh. authorities say up to nine gunmen took at least 35 hostages in dhaka, the capital, including some 20 foreigners. at least 26 people were wounded, and two police officers were killed. security forces mounted a siege of the site as the night went on. the head of an elite anti-crime unit said they were working to save the hostages. turkey's state-run news agency reports police have identified two of the three suicide bombers in tuesday's airport attack in istanbul. the alleged mastermind of the plot, who remains at large, is
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described as an extremist from the russian province of chechnya. meanwhile, security was heightened at the airport today, and officials from foreign consulates paid their respects to the 44 people who died in the attacks. a warning today from the leader of al-qaeda, ayman al-zawahri. in an online video message, he threatens "the gravest consequences" if the surviving boston marathon bomber is executed. dzhokhar tsarnaev was sentenced last year to death by lethal injection. the 2013 bombing killed three people. u.s. attorney general loretta lynch voiced regret today about a meeting earlier this week with former president bill clinton. they spoke monday, for about 30 minutes, after his private plane landed near her government aircraft at the phoenix airport. it stoked criticism because the f.b.i. is investigating hillary clinton's e-mail practices as secretary of state. today, in aspen, colorado, lynch
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repeated that she and the former president never discussed the investigation, but she understands the criticism. >> i may have viewed it in a certain light, but the issue is, how does it impact the work that i do and the work that the department of justice does? and i certainly wouldn't do it again, because i think it has cast a shadow over what it should not, what it will not touch. >> woodruff: lynch also said she plans to accept whatever recommendations career f.b.i. investigators make. meanwhile, hillary clinton's presidential campaign had no comment on the meeting. but in denver today, republican candidate donald trump hammered away at both clinton and her husband, the former president. >> and i think he really-- i think he really opened it up. he opened up a pandora's box and it shows what's going on. it shows what's happening with our laws and with our government. >> woodruff: a spokesman for president obama said today the
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clinton e-mail investigation is entirely independent of the white house. britain's prospects of a quick exit from the european union grew cloudier today. a leader of the brexit campaign said the process might not begin until next year-- if he's elected conservative party leader and prime minister. michael gove said it will take some time to invoke the e.u.'s "article 50," which formally begins a two-year exit process. >> i would only trigger it after extensive preliminary talks of the kind that i discussed earlier, so i have no expectation that article 50 would be triggered in this calendar year. i argued for specific changes in the referendum campaign. i believe in those changes. i will deliver them. >> woodruff: meanwhile, britain's finance minister, george osborne, announced that leaving the e.u. will cut government revenue, so he's giving up on reaching a budget surplus by 2020. amid the brexit fallout, britain and france joined in marking 100 years since the "battle of the
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somme" in world war i. it was one of the bloodiest in history, with one million killed over five months. leaders from both countries met today at a memorial in france. the ceremony included cannon fire and flowers laid at soldiers' graves. china today celebrated the 95th anniversary of the ruling communist party's birth. president xi jinping urged the party to return to its marxist roots. he addressed party members in beijing's great hall of the people, and said corruption is now the biggest threat the party faces: >> ( translated ): we must have a staunch will and not let up on our zero tolerance attitude. we must investigate all cases and punish those who are corrupt, to give corrupt elements no place to hide in the party. >> woodruff: meanwhile, thousands turned out in hong kong on the 19th anniversary of the city's return to chinese rule.
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they denounced beijing for kidnapping local booksellers who sold critical works about chinese leaders. a new mississippi law involving gay marriage and transgender bathroom policy is now on hold. it was set to take effect today, but a federal judge blocked it. the statute allows businesses and government employees to cite religious objections in refusing services for same-sex marriages. it could also affect school bathroom policy. the state plans to appeal. on wall street, stocks managed modest gains, to keep up a four-day comeback from the brexit meltdown. the dow jones industrial average was up 19 points to close at 17,949. the nasdaq rose nearly 20 points, and the s&p 500 added four. and, a visibly cleaner roman colosseum was unveiled today, 2,000 years after it hosted gladiator fights. the ancient site had been
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covered with grime and pollution over the centuries. it took workers three years to remove the dirt, using water and brushes. the next phase involves restoring the colloseum's interior. still to come on the newshour: a white house response to the human cost of drone strikes; tens of thousands displaced as an isis-held city is freed; growing fears on the part of immigrants in brexit's aftermath, and much more. >> woodruff: today, the obama administration revealed new information that sheds light on the reality of modern warfare-- the number of civilians accidentally killed in u.s. airstrikes. john yang has the story. >> reporter: today's release is the first time the white house has said how many terrorists and innocent civilians it believes have been killed by airstrikes--
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including drones. between 2009 and 2015, the administration says it launched 473 airstrikes in pakistan, yemen and africa. it estimates that as many as 2,581 combatants, and as many as 116 non-combatants were killed. these numbers do not include air strikes in iraq, afghanistan or syria-- what the administration calls "areas of active hostilities." a new executive order was also issued, with the aim of decreasing the number of civilian deaths. we get two views on all this-- sarah holewinski was recently with the u.s. mission to the united nations. before that, she was the executive director of the center for civilians in conflict, an advocacy group that seeks to reduce the number of civilian casualties; and naureen shah is the director of the security and human rights program at amnesty international usa.
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sarah and naureen, thank you both for joining us. naureen, let me start with you. first time these numbers have been released, what do you make of these numbers? >> well, this is a remarkable shift. we've been asking for exactly these numbers for years. the numbers are extremely low, and they come along with a claim of extraordinary precision. for the people whose cases amnesty international has documented, it's anything but precise. we're talking about kids struck by shrapnel, a woman killed in front of her grandchildren, families losing breadwinners. these are names. they're individuals. they're not numbers. we need to hear more acknowledgment from the obama administration of that. >> yang: the obama administration acknowledges these numbers are estimates. they say ngos like yours have more access to research these numbers. but sarah, the policy has been and will continue to be that no air strikes if there's a near certainty that a non-combatant would be killed.
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but we have on average, one in every four of these air strikes have claimed a non-come batted nt life. what does that say about this system and the precision that naureen was talking about of the system? >> precision is a really tricky thing. precision means that you are hitting the thing that you think you're going to hit. i am going to hit this folder. i am going to hit this glass of water. it doesn't mean that that folder or the glass of water is actually the thing that we think it is. so if you are striking from the air with a drone, for example, you may be hitting a person that you thought was something but is actually something else. and sometimes those are civilians. >> yang: also today we have an executive order laying out policy, sending in policy, how the united states will carry out these attacks in the war on terrorism. naureen, what do you make of these new policies, the new executive order centers. >> it's extremely important. there are a lot of commitments
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in this executive order they're can help us move away from an unaccountable drone killing program that's really meant that we want to yes a battlefield where the united states was claiming the authority to kill in secret and with immunity. what we have to see from the obama administration is they start to make good on those commitments and that includes acknowledging particular people killed. it's remarkable. but we have to see the administration follow through on that and not just leave this at the end of the conversation. >> yang: sarah, what's new in this order? >> first and foremost, we are the only country, america is the only country to have a policy like this on civilian protection. that's pretty remarkable. we haven't had it before. so that's the newest thing about this. a lot of the executive order is about just enforcing best practices that the u.s. military has been doing for a number of years, but the new thing, the new several things include, for example, working with our partners, so allies and partners, nigerian military,
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burmese military, you know, militaries we're equipping and supporting around the world to, make sure they are also paying attention to civilian protection and learning the lessons that america did. we also have this very boring-sounding thing called an interagency working group that comes out of this. it may be boring-sounding, but that's exactly how you make progress within the u.s. government. >> yang: naureen, what are the measures? what are you going to look for to tell whether progress is being made? >> we're going the look for whether the obama administration breaks the silence on people who are killed in drone strikes, they identify civilians, but who aren't americans. it's astrouding that at this point several years into the obama administration they've never specifically named an individual who was pakistani or somali or yemeni who was a civilian. there was a double standard here. we've seen american civilians and italian civilian who was named, but not a pakistani civilian or yemeni. that double standard has to end. i think that's in the executive order. i think we have to press the obama administration to make
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good on its aspirations and its clear commitments. >> yang: sarah, another part of this executive order, it says every year the administration will put out the numbers they put out today, the number of combatants and also non-combatants killed by air administration, but the first one is due may 1st. the president won't... the obama administration won't be there may 1st. this executive order could be changed by the next president. so what does this really mean? what is really going on? >> well, it's an amazing step from this administration to have a uniform policy on civilian protection. i'm not as worried about it being an executive order. i think that was the way that president obama felt like he could make the biggest impact on this issue that he cares about a lot. the next president that comes in will have a fight on his or her hands if they think that they are going to get rid of this executive order. certainly from i hope the american public, but also from civil society and also from allies around the world who are taking this as a sign of u.s. leadership and are glad to see
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it. >> yang: naureen, are you concerned the fact that they break out these numbers but they aren't telling us what's going on in what they call the areas of active hostility, in iraq, in afghanistan, in syria? >> well, what we're really concerned about is the administration providing some numbers and that being the end of the conversation. it needs to be the start of a conversation so we don't have this sanitized view. it can't be that you provide a data dump and then that's the end of the enquiry. we need congress upon asking questions about not only these numbers but numbers of people being killed in iraq and syria and other places. we need a lot more scrutiny overthe way the u.s. uses lethal force and the way every government uses lethal force. there has been a record of people being able to kill civilians and others without accountability and it's something we see across the word. >> yang: sarah, are these air administration with drones and with manned aircraft, are these effective ways of fighting terrorists? >> it's one way of fighting
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terror. it's certainly not going to to counter terrorism everywhere. what's important about the numbers released today in this executive order is it is one step toward the american public and the obama administration and whatever administration comes next to understanding what the impact and efficiency of those drone strikes are. we currently don't know. what is the impact on population? now we're getting to the point where we're having that discussion. it's a very important discussion to have. >> yang: very good, sarah holewinski, naureen shah, thank you for coming in today. >> thank you. >> thanks. >> woodruff: now to iraq, and an exclusive look at fallujah, with the iraqi forces who took back the city from isis. but even with the government victory, thousands now languish in the summer desert heat, with almost nothing to sustain them. special correspondent jane arraf reports.
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>> reporter: this is fallujah, the morning iraqi security forces took back the city from isis. months before isis declared an islamic state in mosul two years ago, it seized this city. iraqi security forces backed by us air strikes recaptured fallujah. it took a month of fighting. the u.s. tried to make sure iraq's shiite militias backed by iran were kept on the sidelines of the battle for this sunni city. but as iraqi government forces moved on after securing the jolan neighborhood, militia fighters moved in. they scrawled graffiti on walls to make sure everyone knew they were there, and in some places, insults, accusing fallujah of being in bed with isis. "don't take pictures of this," a fighter tells us near a burning house. they tell us to go back to the iraqi special forces we've come to see. u.s.-trained iraqi special
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forces led the assault into the south side of fallujah. first sergeant amar ahmed jassim says the elite forces are grateful for their u.s. training. >> ( translated ): america, since the fall of saddam until now, has not abandoned iraq. up until now, they provide air support. after all, they are our friends and they won't abandon us. >> reporter: although the main battle is over, iraqi helicopters are still attacking remaining isis fighters. this is just a couple of hours after iraqi security forces declared fallujah completely liberated. two weeks ago, they said they had taken back complete control, but it's clear there have been large pockets of isis fighters. it's also clear that even though the city has been spared a lot of the destruction of ramadi, the provincial capitol, there are still neighborhoods that have been heavily damaged. the city is empty. isis had kept more than 80,000
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civilians as human shields. they fled when isis withdrew. the only civilian we see is bushra daud. there hasn't been electricity or running water here for months and there's hardly any food. she can't explain why she stayed. isis controlled fallujah for two years, running a city of almost 100,000 people. "we wage jihad to dedicate the region to allah," they wrote in this public square. fighter ali sami hadi tells us the bridge above is now dedicated to a wounded iraqi soldier hanged by isis. >> ( translated ): this bridge is dedicated to the heroic martyr mustafa al-athari. isis slaughtered those who opposed them or wouldn't join them. here was their court and this was their execution site. >> reporter: celebratory gun fire rings out across the city, and fighters who clearly aren't professional soldiers flood the streets.
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as dusk falls, prime minister haider al abadi arrives for a victory tour. >> reporter: fallujah looms large in the history of the iraq war. abadi notes the american military suffered many of its casualties here in 2004. he says reconciliation with the country's sunni population, and giving more power to the provinces, is the only way forward. asked about the militias, he tells us: >> reporter: nearby, a commander of the mostly shiite paramilitary forces is mobbed by supporters.
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abu mehdi al muhandis is on the u.s. list of wanted terrorists. here, he is a celebrity. he tells us his forces refuse to be kept out of the much bigger fight expected in mosul. >> ( translated ): we gave thousands of martyrs as casualties because of the bomb factories in fallujah and mosul. we will go to mosul and we will meet in mosul, god willing. >> reporter: it's an important victory for the iraqi government and an important step in pushing back isis. but it has come at a cost. everyone who lived under isis has come under suspicion. iraq security forces have detained 20,000 men and boys who fled the city for investigation. they are still holding 9,000 of them. an american organization has arrived with its iraqi partner to deliver aid to some of those held at a detention center three hours from baghdad. but officials say they will confiscate the toothbrushes which can be used to stab people.
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and they're afraid some will hang themselves with the towels. "tell my family i love them," says this man. another says the militias handed him over to the iraqi army 15 days ago over a personal quarrel. samir salman has been here much longer. >> ( translated ): i have been here for seven months. i know nothing about my family. they brought me from baghdad to here and i don't know why. >> reporter: day after day in desolate camps in the desert, families wait for news of their husbands and fathers. more than 30,000 of the 80,000 civilians who fled the city two weeks ago have ended up here, near the town of amariyat al fallujah. a day after the iraqi government announced it retook the city, we can't find anyone who has heard about it. there is no electricity here, there isn't even enough water or toilets. there are few aid organizations here. u.n. officials say the u.s. is focusing on the military fight
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against isis, while under- funding the humanitarian aid. the norwegian refugee council, the n.r.c., is one of the few international organizations here. regional director carsten hensen says it's a catastrophe. >> we appeal to our colleagues in the n.g.o. community and the u.n.- we need to scale up. >> reporter: on this day they are distributing mattresses, but there aren't enough for everyone. these are some of the people who didn't get mattresses. this is thought to be one of the better camps, sleeping on the ground in the sand and the dust and the heat.
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a lot of the people here paid isis everything they had to leave the city. they were already poor and now they have nothing left. the iraqi government considers them potential security threats and won't let even those with relatives there go to baghdad. hakeem yassin is livid. he insists we follow him to see his tent. "come with me," he says, "look, there's no water here." he says corrupt iraqi business people are making money from these desolate camps. mustafa ahmed is one of those who didn't get a mattress. he was a baby during the 2004 battle for fallujah when he was badly wounded by shrapnel from a u.s. air attack. he lost a leg and a kidney. four years later he was taken to oregon to be fitted with a
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prosthetic leg. but he's long outgrown it. when he and his family fled fallujah, he walked eight miles on crutches. here, he can't even get catheter tubes. people here wait in misery just twenty miles from fallujah, unable to go forward or return home. for the pbs newshour, i'm jane arraf. >> woodruff: stay with us. coming up on the newshour: mark shields and ramesh ponnuru analyze this week's news; how ernest hemingway used other people's bad behavior to make a name for himself; and the benefits of reading for fun. but first, just days after the british vote to leave the european union, police in the u.k. announced an increase in hate crime reports against
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immigrants and minorities. anti-muslim cartoon pamphlets were distributed, and a muslim butcher was fire-bombed, near the city of birmingham. on streets and public transport across the country, south asians and other minorities are reportedly being told to "go home." polish immigrants are the largest group of e.u. citizens in the u.k. they have also come under attack in recent days. hari sreenivasan has this report from london. >> sreenivasan: this section of london, known as hammersmith, has always been a hub for polish immigrants. the "polish deli" opened up a few years ago, serving up a slice of home. daria pluszczok's parents own this business. xenophobic attacks in the aftermath of the brexit vote has the 22-year-old anxious. so anxious, she asked us not to show her face. >> i've loads of customers that are coming in, and telling us they're a bit afraid, a bit scared of speaking polish on roads and someone maybe attacking them or being rude to them.
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>> sreenivasan: daria knows the feeling, firsthand. >> i was at a train station and a guy was like, the lift is not working because of you foreigners, go back to your country. >> sreenivasan: sentiments that are being expressed more, post- brexit vote. in huntingdon, an 11-year-old boy found one of several leaflets sent throughout the town, saying "polish vermin go home." in portsmouth, this was spray painted behind a war memorial. in hammersmith, london, just down the road from the polish deli, someone vandalized the front of the polish social cultural association. we sat down with director joanna mludzinska. >> they immediately started to scrub this message out. we didn't want all our visitors coming in all day to be confronted with this message. >> sreenivasan: what did it say? >> i don't really want to repeat exact words, but you can imagine. but the basic message was "get out," fairly graphic. it was the first time we've ever had anything like this.
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i suppose you have to draw the conclusion that something has been set free, with this referendum decision. >> sreenivasan: since the vandalism, there has been an outpouring of support toward the center, from well-wishers. police are investigating, the mayor has asked for vigilance, even prime minister david cameron mentioned it in his first significant address to the house of commons since the vote. >> we've seen verbal abuse hurled against individuals because they're members of ethnic minorities. let's remember, these people have come here and made a wonderful contribution to our country. >> hear, hear. >> we will not stand for hate crimes and these kinds of attacks. they must be stamped out. >> sreenivasan: jakub krupa works as the polish press agency's u.k. correspondent. he says part of the reason poles are being targeted comes down to numbers. >> you have 850,000 pols in the
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u.k. of the three million people from the e.u. living in the u.k., every third migrant from the e.u. is polish. >> sreenivasan: part of the tension springs from the community's rapid growth. >> 12 years ago, before poland joined the european union, there were only 50,000 pols in the u.k., to now have 800,000 people coming to the u.k., in the last 12 years. >> sreenivasan: poland and britain have a long history together, going back to world war two when polish airmen aided in the battle for britain. suresh grover is tracking the most recent battle. he works for the monitoring group, a 35-year-old civil rights anti-racism organization. >> the muslim council has reported over 200 calls to the government, mosques being picketed by people, people coming on the streets in newcastle wearing t-shirts saying "now that we've won, send them back." >> sreenivasan: grover says 90% of these incidents are never reported to the police. he blames the leave campaign's immigrant scapegoating for the
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expressions of nativist anger and immigrant fears. >> racism that used to be meted out because of the color of your skin, now transferred, not color coded, to other people because they're products of a globalized world coming in and taking their markets. >> they don't get what open door mass immigration as a result of e.u. membership has done to people's wages, to people's availability of getting g.p. appointments for their kids into local schools. this was the issue ultimately that won this election. >> sreenivasan: the spark that lit the racist fire may have been economic. but grover says the flames can spread, consuming vast parts of british society. >> the residue of this nationalism, its not just
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patriotic, its nationalism towards the right, lasts for a long time, and the damage is done for a long time. >> sreenivasan: beginning with a sense of injustice for people like daria plooshtalk. you think polish citizens are second class citizens here? >> yeah. >> sreenivasan: why? >> i don't think we're being treated equally, at all. i don't know, that's just me. >> sreenivasan: for the pbs newshour, hari sreenivasan, london. >> woodruff: and now to our wrap of the week's political news, from the new cloud hanging over an investigation into hillary clinton's e-mail practices to donald trump's latest take on trade. we turn to the analysis of shields and ponnuru. that is syndicated columnist mark shields, and "national review" senior editor ramesh ponnuru. david brooks is away.
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welcome to you both. let's start out with what happened today. the attorney general of the united states, loretta lynch, saying that she wouldn't do it again, wouldn't have a meeting like the one she had earlier in the week with former president bill clinton. mark, loretta lynch said i wouldn't do it again. she said now she accepts the recommendation, she will accept the recommendation of the f.b.i. director, won't make any changes. how much damage to hillary clinton from this? >> well, we'll find out. that's to be determined, but the damage to bill clinton's judgment, to loretta lynch's judgment as attorney general is considerable. just, you know, ben bradlee, the legendary editor of the "washington post" said never do anything that you can't imagine being reported the next day in the "washington post" on the front page above the fold. and this is a perfect example of that. bill clinton, yes, he's gregarious.
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his unlimited self-confidence in his ability to charm people is deserved. he's probably one of the most charming people ever to walk the planet. but this judgment of his having a meeting, a private meeting with the attorney general while the justice department is investigating his wife on these charges is just unthinkable. and where was her judgment in saying... >> woodruff: the attorney general? >> yes. >> woodruff: but you're saying it doesn't hurt hillary clinton? >> it will be determined. you get a decision out of james comey, completely. if i'm not mistaken, at the time of david pretrayious, the recommendation was to prosecute him for felony, and the attorney general of the united states eric holder intervened and said, no, this is a misdemeanor, it should not be a felony. now, james comey, his independence, his integrity has been firmly established in practice by standing up to the
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white house of george w. bush that appointed him. so it gives to him, that's it. and i don't think anybody questions his... that he's a partisan. >> woodruff: ramesh, how do you see this affecting hillary clinton at this point? >> well, attorney general lynch has said she expects to accept the f.b.i. recommendations, but a source close to her told journalist mark halperin that she still has a chance of overriding that recommendation. i think it would be very hard in these political circumstances for her to actually overrule it. if there's no indictment of hillary clinton following this investigation, i think this incident makes it easier for republicans to say, well, that's because the fix was in. >> woodruff: but in terms of loretta lynch saying today, i wouldn't do it again, i'm not going to let... you're saying somebody close to loretta lynch is saying something different. she said she's going to accept the recommendation of the f.b.i. you're saying despite that...
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>> there are conflicting reports about how ironclad that assurance is, but at the end of the day, the damage has already been done to hillary clinton. assuming there is no indictment, the damage is that most americans don't regard her as honest and trust worthy, and that's been something that has been an anchor on her poll numbers. >> meaghan:>> woodruff: no mattt comes out of this f.b.i. investigation? >> i think even if there are not formal, legal charge, people have concluded she's not forthcoming. >> one quick thing, judy. it reinforces the unflattering narrative about the clintons that they don't play by the same rules as everybody else and everybody else. and i think that's a problem for both the president, but particularly for secretary clinton. >> woodruff: this happens the same week the house republicans come out on their report on the benghazi attack, the 2012 attack in benghazi, libya. they spent months looking into
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this, ramesh. it was thought the object of all this was. the report essentially doesn't bring a lot of new information about her. it does harshly criticize the administration for not providing better security there, though. >> that's right. if people go into the report looking for a smoking gun about hillary clinton, they're going to be disappointed, but it does provide new detail on two things. first, the security failures in benghazi and how repeated warnings about those failures and those risks were ignored. and second, how the administration early on after the attacks put out a public narrative about the relationship of those attacks to an anti-muslim video that it had reason to believe was not true. >> woodruff: what does it add up to, mark? >> it adds up to a personal tragedy. ann stevens, the ambassador's sister, gave an interview to the "new yorker" where she essentially said her brother took the risk knowing the security circumstances himself
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in benghazi when he went there, but i think this is a story that died on two earlier occasions, the first was when hillary clinton appeared before the committee. i mean, in a marathon session. she absolutely dominated them. she was far superior to her interrogators. she exposed them as shallow and partisan. and she showed great command of the facts. the second that was reinforced by a then house majority leader kevin mccarthy's boast on fox news that the bank of benghazi e had knocked down her poll numbers and the republican house caucuses deserved credit for having created this committee for that purpose. so this... i think the story is over. >> woodruff: it's a wash? >> i don't think there will be a huge political impact except on this. this is one reason, the whole benghazi story is one reason hillary clinton can't run on her accomplishment in libya when she was secretary of state, which at
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one point she wanted to do. >> woodruff: let's talk about donald trump. he's been speaking all over the country this week, mark, on trade and talking about american workers and saying that democrats across the board and he also singled out the chamber of commerce, which is typically a friend of republicans, and saying they're in the tank, too, to this whole idea of free trade. is this a smart strategy on donald trump's part? >> yes. democrats ought to be grateful that donald trump has not been doing this for the past two months. he's been squanderingties time and goodwill by attacking a federal judge's heritage and things of that import. he's talking about trump university or whatever else. it is, judy. actually, it's been a cornerstone of republican ideology, a belief in free trade, and the reality is that republican voters now are more
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sceptical as seen in exit polls this year of free trade's benefits. liabilities, loss of jobs rather than creation of jobs, even more so than democratic voters. so donald trump is going into areas where the manufacturing jobs have been lost, where there is stagnation, where there is very little optimism about the future, where people are underemployed, and he has an explanation for it, and he stands as the anti-establishment figure. he's critical of washington. he's critical of both parties. he's critical of chamber of commerce. i think it's... plus, it was a real speech. i mean, he did it with footnotes. he did with it a press release. it was like a real campaign all of a sudden instead of donald trump talking off the cuff. >> woodruff: do you see him getting some mileage out of this, ramesh? >> i am a little bit more sceptical about the political utility of this line of attack on trade that he has taken because if you look at the
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polling, even though we've been hearing a lot of scepticism about trade from politicians over the last year, public opinion does not seem to have shifted that much, and americans seem to regard trade more as a source of opportunity than as a source of danger. those numbers have not really budged, at least the gallup numbers, over the last decade. i think there is an opportunity for hillary clinton to take a more balanced look at trade and in that fashion to win some of the voters that have voted republican in the past. >> woodruff: so not more motivation there on the part of workers who feel aggrieved by trade perhaps? >> i do. we disagree. go to pennsylvania, go to ohio go, to michigan gosh, to indiana, go to wisconsin. and you will find... i mean, a sense of disenchantment and alienation, and i think donald trump taps into that. it's certainly far superior what he's been wasting his time on in this campaign. >> woodruff: and in fact we've seen some poll numbers in
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battleground states coming out, states like pennsylvania where we have white blue collar workers who are apparently... a number of them gravitate to donald trump. >> that's right. that's exactly true. >> you have the white collar workers going the other ways in a lot of these polls. a lot of white collar, college-educated republicans are more supportive of hillary than they have been of past democrats. >> woodruff: the map and the demographics are shifting in all kinds of ways. finally this supreme court decision this week, ramesh, on abortion. the court basically ruled that texas tightening the definition of what an abortion clinic has to be, has to do at least texas clinic, that that's unconstitutional. is this... do you see this becoming a political issue, abortion? >> abortion is always a political issue to some degree in a presidential election. most voters don't think of it as their top issue, but there are a lot of voters out there who do. what's interesting this year, what's unusual is that you've
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got a republican nominee who doesn't seem to care that much about the abortion issue or about the pro-life element of the republican coalition. so on the day that the supreme court made its decision, usually the nominee would put out a statement. donald trump didn't have anything to say about it. what he had to talk about instead was senator elizabeth warren's attacks on the house that the trump campaign has been filling. that's what he decided to talk about instead. >> woodruff: how do you see? >> abortion remains a constant in american politics. americans have grown dramatically more tolerant and accepting of gay and lesbian right, all sorts of... having a child out of wedlock, sex outside of marriage. but abortion remains a divide and a division within this country, a majority of americans believe it should be legal in most all circumstances, substantial minority, over 40%, believe it should not be. what you have is really a moral
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privilege in the country. americans, even 50% of women according to gallup, believe that abortion is morally wrong even though they are accepting of it. so it's this terrible dilemma. and the democrats, especially secretary clinton, have become probably the most aggressively pro-choice nominee of any party in our history. i mean, her position used to be that abortion should be safe, legal and rare, and the rare has been dropped. it's now just safe and legal, and she accepted her nomination by going to planned parenthood, not by going to a school, not by going to a woman's shelter, by going the planned parenthood and saying, this is where i want to be, this is where i'm most comfortable. i think it probably indicates where she feels... i think it's her conviction, and i think it's where she sees this. and trump is all over the lot. he's was for late-term abortion
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originally and then he was for incarcerating a woman who had a legal position. i think he's still supporting planned parenthood if i'm not mistaken. >> woodruff: we have the leave it there on this issue, perpetual in american political life and moral life. mark shields, ramesh ponnuru, thank you very much. >> you're welcome. >> woodruff: now, another addition to our summer reading list. it is a look at the origins of one of american literature's finest works, by one of our most celebrated writers. recently, jeffrey brown talked with journalist and cultural historian lesley m.m. blume about her new book, "everybody behaves badly: the true story behind hemingway's masterpiece 'the sun also rises'." >> brown: leslie blume, welcome. this is interesting that the picture on the cover is unusual, but the picture on the cover is
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actually a starting point for you to this whole endeavor. >> yes. i was researching another project when i came across this very enticing photograph of hemingway with a very attractive and mischievous-looking group of people around the cafe table, in pamplona in 1925. i'm sorry-- pamplona, spain where they were all gathered for the annual bull-fighting festival. and the woman who was sitting next to hemingway was this sort of, less-glamorous woman and she had a sort of coquettish look on her face. i was immediately intrigued by her. >> brown: "who's that and what's her story?" >> exactly, and it turned out that her name was lady dufftwist and she was the real-life inspiration behind lady brett ashley in hemingway's debut novel, "the sun also rises." i have long been a lost generation obsessed with it, but i hadn't realized that lady brett ashley had been drawn from real life. and i wanted to learn more, so i looked for a compelling book that would tell me the real life back story behind "the sun also rises," and did not find one.
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>> brown: you couldn't find one, so you decided to do it? >> i wrote it. >> brown: tell us first-- remind us about "the sun also rises," the novel itself. >> "the sun also rises" was earnest hemingway's debut novel. it came out in 1926, and it is a group of american and british expats that are set up in paris. they are part of an expat colony. they're up to no good, but it always sways to nobility, because they're all there to be writers or artists. in the case of lady dufftwist, she was there to sit out an aristocratic divorce. in real life, as on paper, this group of expats goes to pamplona for the festival and the entire party, shall we say, dissolves into quite a broo-ha-ha. >> brown: yeah. all kinds of shenanigans. >> lots of bad behavior. >> brown: rivalry? >> sexual rivalry, fist fights, you name it. it happened and it was not a very good situation for anybody involved, except for hemingway, who in turn saw this as
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desperately needed material to stage a break-through novelistic novelistically. >> brown: it is, and suddenly he had a lot of material. >> well, he literally took the events that had transpired in pamplona and paris and translated them onto paper. >> brown: to the point where i saw you say, some people wondered whether it was actual journalism or a novel he had written. >> well, hemingway at that time was a reporter. he was known for being a really good reporter. and one of the real-life inspirations behind "the sun also rises" characters really looked at his book after it came out a year later, and said this is nothing but a report on what happened. how can we pass this off as fiction? >> brown: now this is hemingway before he was hemingway, right? he's 25 years old at the time. >> well, hemingway is a baby when he turns up in paris, but he's an ambitious baby and he has the talent and he's there to stage his breakthrough. so many of the expats that were there at the time were there
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precisely that. it was an ambition-fueled town. hemingway was looking to make a big splash with a revolutionary new modern style that's stretched out adjectives and really got to the point. there was quite a journalistic element to that style also. he wasn't the only person in town doing it, but he was the one who knew that he could do it in a commercially successful way. >> brown: not only was he the only person in town, but a lot of famous people in town right? fitzgerald and gertrude stein and ezra pound. >> you've just-- all three of those people really helped hemingway significantly, and gertrude stein and ezra pound were stylistic mentors to hemingway. they weren't selling a lot of copies of their work. gertrude stein famously only sold a reported 73 copies of her first book in eighteen months or something. ezra pound is not selling tens of thousands of copies, but hemingway on the other hand, takes what's viable from their styles and adds it to his own instinctive style. he knows that he has
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commercially successful work and he's going to showcase that in "the sun also rises." >> brown: and that made his reputation, or certainly helped it. >> it brokered his reputation. >> brown: how exactly? was it the style? the character of the man? what was it you think? >> it was a combination of a lot of different things. hemingway himself and hemingway's writing were both brilliant cocktails. so with hemingway's writing, he famously wrote to one of his publishers-- he said, you don't need a high school education to enjoy my writing. it's going to titillate the masses. doesn't mean anybody could relate to it, but the style is so revolutionary that it will titillate highbrow critics, which it did. and then he said, for people who are not interested in the stylistic components of it, there was a lot of "high society," and that is always interesting. there was something for everyone. that was one of the things that helped him bring that revolutionary style to the masses in a way that somebody like gertrude stein or ezra
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pound is not going to do. >> brown: those always went hand in hand with hemingway, right? the writing and the biography. when you think about the ideas, the views of hemingway, they've bounced around over the decades, right? how did you come to see him? did you like him? >> it's an interesting question. i spent an awful lot of time with hemingway and hemingway had a remarkable ability to reach very noble goals through sometimes ignoble means. i think the question is less a question of "do i like him" or if i forgive what he did in the service of his ambition, and hemingway's talent was so outsized that i feel like i can forgive a lot of his trespasses to have achieved what he did achieve. >> brown: all right. the book is "everybody behaves badly: the true 6story behind hemingway's masterpiece 'the sun also rises'." leslie blume, thank you. >> thank you so much. >> woodruff: all week, we have been sharing our summer reading list.
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and we wanted to close out with an essay from author jennifer weiner, in praise of diving into a book. >> they say that the happiest day of a writer's life is the day he or she gets to go home, to tell mom and dad that the book that they've written is actually going to be published, to be sold in stores, and read by strangers, and out in the world. i assume that's true for every writer who didn't call her first book "good in bed." i'll never forget my mom hugging me, then pulling back to ask," so what's the title?" and feeling my heart sink when i realized that i'd actually have to tell her. with its naked legs and cheesecake on the cover, its breezy tone and wisecracking, single-in-the-city heroine, i knew that my debut was not a candidate for the national book award. i knew it was an entertaining, diverting read, the kind of book that would get packed in beach bags or purchased for plane trips. what i didn't know was the way the world would treat books like mine, the scorn and opprobrium
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that would be heaped on what the world would come to call chick lit- or how much it would hurt, or how completely i'd believe it. at some point in my life, between birth and publication, i'd gotten the message that there were books that mattered and books that didn't. for years, i believed that my work fell squarely into the second category. i bought what the critics were selling-- that chick lit wasn't real literature; that it was only entertainment, even dangerous, a kind of fast- growing weed pushing other, worthier books off the shelves. but, as the years went on, i started to think-- what's wrong with something that's "just" entertaining? is the problem that i'm writing something that's diverting and disposable, or that what i'm writing is diverting, and disposable, and for women? is chick lit any worse than mysteries or thrillers, the genre fiction that men read, the
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fun. let's declare our own independence from the shackles of shame. take whatever you want to the beach, or the bus, or to bed. read without apology, for enrichment and enjoyment. whether it's spiky, challenging post-modern fiction, or commercial women's fiction, or commercial men's fiction- more commonly known as "books"- read what you like, wherever you can, and embrace e the joy of the stories that make you happy.
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>> woodruff: and you can find all of our essays online, at www.pbs.org/newshour/essays. and, tune in later tonight. on "washington week," as we march closer to the political conventions, donald trump focuses on his pick of a running mate. that is later tonight, on "washington week." tomorrow on pbs newshour weekend, how refugees may be saving one rural economy by taking jobs few others wants. and before we go tonight, we want to take a moment to thank greg king. greg has played a key role for the newshour and our producing tv station, weta, as one of our lead technicians for 44 years. he is retiring after today and we want to wish him well on his next chapter in life. that's the newshour for tonight. i'm judy woodruff. have a great weekend. thank you and good night. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by:
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>> lincoln financial-- committed to helping you take charge of your financial future. >> bnsf railway. >> xq institute. >> md anderson cancer center. making cancer history. >> and the william and flora hewlett foundation, helping people build immeasurably better lives. >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you.
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>> there is "bbc world news america." >> funding of this presentation is made possible by the freeman foundation, newman's own foundation, giving all profits from newman's own to charity and pursuing the common good, kovler foundation, pursuing solutions for america's neglected needs, and aruba tourism authority. >> planning a vacation escape that is relaxing, inviting and exciting is a lot easier than you think. you can find it here in aruba. families, couples and friends can also find their escape

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