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tv   PBS News Hour  PBS  July 14, 2016 6:00pm-7:01pm PDT

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captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc >> woodruff: good evening, i'm judy woodruff. gwen ifill's on assignment in cleveland. on the newshour tonight: speculation swirls around whom donald trump will pick for his vice presidential running mate, but as the candidate prepares for a different type of convention, could party rules threaten his nomination? also ahead this thursday, hunger, violence, and political unrest-- how venezuela's financial crisis has taken a turn into darkness. >> ( translated ): at 2:00 in the morning, i was sleeping in my room. my telephone rang and it was my son. and he said to me, 'papa, i'm kidnapped. i'll put the kidnapper on. >> woodruff: and, our 'end of aids' series takes us from the u.s., to rwanda, where a successful response to the virus
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is becoming a point of pride for this once battered country. >> now it's time where we can say: no more loss, we should not lose any other life any more. >> woodruff: all that and more on tonight's pbs newshour. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: >> you never discriminate. you want everyone -- the young, the old, the soft and the strong -- but cancer, we're fighting you with immune therapies and genetic testing, with laughter, with strength, because every one of us is doing
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one thing only, making cancer history. >> xq institute. >> and by the alfred p. sloan foundation. supporting science, technology, and improved economic performance and financial literacy in the 21st century. >> supported by the rockefeller foundation. promoting the well-being of humanity around the world by building resilience and inclusive economies. more at rockefellerfoundation.org
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>> carnegie corporation of new york. supporting innovations in education, democratic engagement, and the advancement of international peace and security. at carnegie.org. >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions: and individuals. >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. >> woodruff: the political world was alive with talk today of donald trump's running mate. several news outlets reported he's decided on indiana governor mike pence. trump's son, donald junior, told nbc it's down to three: pence,
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former speaker newt gingrich and new jersey governor chris christie. the trump campaign said only that an announcement will come tomorrow morning. meanwhile, the democrats' presumptive nominee, hillary clinton, met with democratic senators at the capitol. she told them she will pick a "very qualified" vice presidential running mate. we'll discuss all of this and more after the news summary. supreme court justice ruth bader ginsburg walked back her criticism of donald trump today. she had branded him "a faker" and dangerous for the country. in a new statement, she said: "my recent remarks were ill- advised, and i regret making them. in the future i will be more circumspect." the u.s. secretary of homeland security says he's worried about potential trouble during protests at the upcoming party conventions. jeh johnson spoke at a house hearing today. >> i am concerned about the prospect of demonstrations getting out of hand.
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i am concerned about the possibility of violence. we have within d.h.s. some 3,000 personnel that will be dedicated to the security of the republican national convention and the democratic national convention each. >> woodruff: johnson said thousands of state and local police will also be working the two conventions. hundreds turned out today in st. paul, minnesota, for the funeral of philando castile, whose fatal shooting by a policeman had touched off nationwide protests. the casket was carried by horse- drawn carriage to the cathedral of st. paul. more than 1,500 mourners attended the service. in dallas, police turned out en masse for the funeral of sergeant michael smith. he was one of five officers shot to death by a sniper last week. >> woodruff: tonight a truck rammed into a crowd celebrating bastille day in neese.
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30 people were killed including the driver and 100 injured. they're calling it an attack. britain's new prime britain's new prime minister theresa may shook up the ruling cabinet today, sacking several ministers and namg boris johnson as foreign secretary. the outspoken former london mayor helped lead efforts to quit the european union. his appointment drew sharp criticism across europe, johnson brushed it aside. >> it was inevitable there was going to be a certain amount of plaster coming off the ceiling in the chancelleries of europe, it wasn't the result they were expecting and clearly they are making their views known in a frank and free way. there's a massive difference between leaving the e.u. and our relations with europe, which if anything i think will intensify and be built up at an inter- governmental level. >> woodruff: in washington, the state department said the united states expects to work well with the new british ministers. secretary of state john kerry
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traveled to moscow today, reportedly calling for joint u.s.-russian action against islamic state forces in syria. ahead of kerry's arrival, "the washington post" said he'll propose joint bombing operations and other efforts, and ask russia to restrain syria's military. until now, the obama administration rejected such cooperation. meanwhile: syrian president bashar al-assad has denied his forces targeted american journalist marie colvin. she died in an artillery attack while reporting in syria in 2012, and her family is charging in a lawsuit that the regime wanted her silenced. but assad tells "nbc nightly news" that colvin was to blame for her own death: >> she worked with the terrorists. and because she came illegally she's being responsible of everything that befall on her. nobody knows if she was killed
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by a missile or which missile and where did the missile come from and how. nobody has any evidence. >> woodruff: assad uses the term "terrorists" to describe all of the groups fighting his forces. and back in this country, wall street resumed its rally. the dow jones industrial average gained 134 points to close at 18,506. the nasdaq rose 28 points, and the s&p 500 added 11. still to come on the newshour: speculation grows around donald trump's v.p. pick. a country in crisis-- inside venezuela's economic collapse. a rise in employment contracts that restrict workers' freedom, and much more. >> woodruff: we start with a swirl of speculation around donald trump's vp pick as the
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republican party readies for an unconventional convention. gwen is in cleveland tonight at wviz idea stream. gwen, how does the rollout of the vice presidential pick compare with others you've covered? >> i would say the last 24 hours was crazier than any other i covered but not the entire process. we're waiting on final word of who the nominee will be. think back with me, judy, in 1988, that was one big surprise, remember when dan quayle showed up to the convention on a riverboat and george bush nominated him for the first time? senator from indiana, no one heard from him. in 1982, i remember being in little rock and hearing al gore was going to be bill clinton's nominee and part of the surprise
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was there were two southerners and that wasn't supposed to happen. the last true surprise, happened a day or two before, was when dick cheney, in charge of the search process, became clear he was going to be the vice presidential nominee that year. so, when you think about it for h.w. bush, when you think about it, now -- i mean for george w. bush. when you think about it now, you realize this is crazy and unusual and everything about this campaign has been unusual, but the vice president pick process always is. >> woodruff: bottom line is reporters have to be very careful at a moment like this. >> ifill: very, very careful. we woke up this morning and heard mike pence was leading, the pockets, then that grew for a while, then the trump people sprayed some water on it. there are a million different theories i've seen today. i personally, especially given the way this campaign has been, want to watch donald trump walk out himself and say the words. >> woodruff: i think we all do. all right, gwen, who will be
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doing "washington week" from there tomorrow night. thanks. >> ifill: yes, we'll have a special hour-long show. looking forward to it. >> woodruff: from party rules to possible running mates, there is a lot to unpack: i'm joined by lisa desjardins in cleveland, npr political editor domenico montanaro and newshour regular presidential historian michael beshloss. we welcome all three of you back to the program. lisa i'll come to you to talk about the rules committee in a minute, but first i want to turn to domenico about the latest vice presidential pick by donald trump. it's been up and down all day as gwen said, what are you learning? >> we want to see it come out of donald trump's mouth. the campaign wants to surprise us, donald trump said he wants to surprise us. we know by 11:00 a.m. tomorrow, we're supposed the to hear in new york, all the signs are pointing to mike pence, the biggest signal is he was left
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off the speakers list at the republican national convention. the important thing is chris christie and newt gingrich were the other two on the list and we say, is that fake or real? we'll see. >> woodruff: michael, you've written about presidents and choice of vice presidents, what does this tell us about the nominee, the candidate? >> the first thing is this will answer is this going to be change in donald trump's per pea in which he becomes a traditional candidate or is he going to remain himself? if it's mike pence, this is a soup -- sop to those saying you should choose a vice presidential candidate in a more traditional way.
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among christie, gingrich and pence, probably wouldn't be presence, but is unpredictable. >> woodruff: given on what we watched unfold from donald trump during this campaign, what would mike pence bring? >> well, a couple of days away from the republican convention starting and he needs to unify that party. you know, lisa is covering the rules committee and that got kind of messy today and he needs to be able to shore up the conservative base. michael is exactly right, if you were to choose to have dinner with somebody, probably wouldn't be pence, an indiana governor, somebody we don't know well. chris christie and newt gingrich seems to echo his personality but a safe pick would be pence in the sense that the most important thing in a vice presidential announcement is do no harm in a vice presidential pick because we've seen people create all kinds of problems for the top of the ticket, but most people vote
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for the top of the ticket, not for vice president. the last time you could tangibly point to a vice president bringing some geography on is probably l.b.j. picked by j.f.k. in 1960. >> woodruff: michael, quickly, how much does the pick matter, traditionally? >> doesn't matter usually. domenico is right, if you count electoral votes you have to go to l.b.j. in 1960 and say he brought texas, a couple of deep south states kennedy would not have otherwise won. but bill clinton decided to choose al gore against all advice, tennessee, another moderate, young, he thought that would double a lot of messages he wanted to send. so that, i think you can say, helped that ticket to get elected with you hard to quantify it in terms of numbers. >> woodruff: lisa desjardins, you are there in cleveland, watching the goings on at the
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convention, the rules committee has been meeting. this is another way to learn something about the nominee, isn't it? >> it's fascinating. these are actual decisions affecting the party for years to come. today what i saw in person was the crash of the many tectonic plates thereof party today. we saw the rules committee have to stop for four hours before they even got started, had to go behind closed doors, supposedly for a printer error, but it was likely about problems between conservatives, ted cruz's camp, also the anti-trump camp that's hoping to use the rules process to derail donald trump next week, add to that mix the r.n.c., their officials were the other side, and therump campaign. so the four sides coming together to protect their own territory. judy, i just came from there, those negotiations completely collapsed. i think the takeaway here today is the grassroots movement to have the republican party, the ones who do not trust washington or the r.n.c. seem to have had
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some losses today. one vote that just happened, a big one, there was a man to try and ban lobbyists from being part of the r.n.c. that failed. that was a major test vote. that shows the r.n.c.'s strength. donald trump, his campaign sort of staying arms length from that, but they're hoping that bode's well for them as they try to go to a convention and they want the least rebellion possible. however, judy, there is enough people here who want to derail donald trump that i think we're still going to hear their voices on the floor next week, just not clear how much. >> woodruff: domenico, why does it matter to donald trump what comes out of the rules committee right now? >> i don't think it matters so much what necessarily comes out of the rules committee, you know, in a procedural way, but what they want and need to do here is pacify some of the anti-trump rebellion that could take place. the last thing that priebus or
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anyone once is a show of disunity on the floor of the convention, that's what they're trying to avoid. >> woodruff: michael, looking through the lens of history, relationships between the party and nominee have varied from election to election. how much does it matter to donald trump that he has the r.n.c. and the grassroots to have the party by in this case are two with different things with him? >> totally matters. we were talking about this rules committee, that excuse that there was a printer error that stalled the meeting and sounded like something out of the old soviet union, the kind of excuse that used to be given. but the point is if there's the remotest danger these pledged del gaults will become liberated, there is a history. 1980 jimmy carter tried to get a rule passed all pledges could be broken and in that case he might
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be able to beat jimmy carter not running well in the polls. so they don't want anything -- the trump people -- to happen that's spontaneous. but the final point is donald trump will be totally affected by the image that americans take away of this convention at the end of next week. if it's a positive image, it's going to help. fit looks disorganized, people will blame him. >> woodruff: lisa on another front, the trump campaign, there has been a lot of consternation among republicans about why it's taken so long for us to learn who's speaking at the convention. the trump campaign did put out a partial list today. what did we learn from that? >> i think we got a lot from it. i think there will still be more speakerspeakers ahead but this t the list donald trump told us to expect. this was not celebrities and sports figures. the biggest group were current lawmakers, including house speaker paul ryan and senate majority leader mitch
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mcconnell, we knew the names would be on there, but important leaders like shelly of west virginia, florida's governor rick scott, another swing state, i wonder why, and i also paid attention especially to there's a few business merntion the manager of trump's own winery is going to be speaking as well as, for example, the owner of a casino, those kinds of voices, but i do think we see themes in here as well. looks like donald trump is going to open the convention talking about security. he said just a few days ago, i'm the law and order candidate. i think they're going to play that up a lot. also, with these businesses, probably talk about jobs. i think, judy, all these things kind of come together, what we're talking about the vice president, the rules. this idea that the conservatives and the republican party are very hungry for red meat, whether in the direction of the party or their candidate or the vice presidential candidate. mike pence, if he's a nominee, fills that goal, but he also, some democrats are telling me today, gives them something because he is very staunch or a-
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staunch on abortion and is against gay rights and is a bigger divide as we get into november. donald trump seems to be doing a lot of things in a lot of ways for conservative at this convention. >> woodruff: so many questions answered today but other questions still out there. lisa desjardins, domenico montanaro, michael, we look forward to spending time with you next week. >> absolutely. thank you. >> woodruff: now, to venezuela, where what's been an economic crisis is leading to social and political upheaval, in a country
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once flush with oil money. in partnership with the pulitzer center on crisis reporting, videographer bruno federico and special correspondent nadja drost bring us this report from caracas. >> reporter: dr. dili gonzalez walks into what is left of her hospital in caracas. the 28-year-old physician is one of the few doctors left here, as venezuela falls deeper into collapse. its healthcare system in shambles. we aren't supposed to be here-- we film with a hidden camera. the ceilings leak, vital equipment broken, with no spare parts. patients in deep need with few doctors attending. >> ( translated ): these gloves aren't sterile, you can't operate with them, there's nothing here. >> reporter: heat wafts into the morgue. water shortages have made the bathing areas putrid. this hospital is falling apart. >> ( translated ): i would say we have a humanitarian crisis. there are no medications. you can't get antibiotics... there were eight operating rooms. now, three or four function,
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with difficulty. there's always something missing, there's always something breaking. we're in bad shape. >> reporter: gonzalez says doctors have to send patients out to scrounge for everything from ibuprofen to chemotherapy agents. the doctors have to improvise with what little they have. >> ( translated ): we're responding to medical situations as though we are in a war. this is not syria. we are in venezuela. >> reporter: this is venezuela now. >> ( translated ): we used to be the middle-class, now we're lower-class, everyone is lower- class. because no one has the economic capacity to go to the super- market and buy everything they need, pay the rent, or pay for the condominium, pay utilities, with what they earn. >> reporter: gonzalez and her husband, also a doctor, share a small one bedroom apartment, and can't make ends meet with their monthly salary. >> ( translated ): i earn 30,000 bolivares, which are about $30. for the apartment, we pay 90,000 bolivares in monthly rent. >> reporter: even so, they are some of the lucky ones.
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10:00 a.m. on a weekday morning. hundreds wait to buy food, in shopping lines that have become a symbol of venezuela's economic crisis. we're here in a middle-class neighborhood, but most of the people in this line come from poor neighborhoods from all across the city, because they can't find food at subsidized prices in their neighborhoods. so they've come here, to this supermarket, lining up throughout the night, in the hopes that when they can finally enter, they might come out with a bag of rice and a carton of milk. over a decade ago, the government of former president hugo chavez introduced price controls on certain basic goods, to make them more accessible to the poor, offering them at almost token prices. now, with so little to go around, goods are rationed. after having been in line since midnight, sandra romero maya leaves the supermarket. >> ( translated ): i want to eat a steak. because i can't anymore. what do i have for food? what you see here, for 15 days, a week.
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do you think that eight people can get by on this? >> reporter: venezuela hardly produces anything besides oil, importing almost all goods thanks to revenue from petroleum sales. but the deep drop in oil prices, along with what critics say is government mismanagement, have helped drive triple-digit inflation, the highest in the world and has reduced the ability to import goods. products from car parts to corn flour are difficult to get. the scarcity has created a huge black market, in the petares neighborhood, contraband vendors called bachaqueros display their wares: goods purchased at regulated prices, and re-sold for much more. these vendors are illegal, and we're advised to use a hidden camera to avoid getting attacked. but the black market contributes to the scarcity of regulated goods. >> ( translated ): i leave at 4:00 or 5:00 in the morning to go line up and i return at 5:00 in the evening night without anything.
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>> reporter: andry veloz, a frustrated mother, says it's a rare day she returns with anything from the shopping line to the shantytown where she lives with her husband and three children. sometimes they eat just once a day. she and her husband blame the shortage of subsidized goods on the black market bachaqueros. >> ( translated ): these people who like to rise at dawn to be able to buy everything and re- sell it. everything for re-sale, all of it expensive. >> ( translated ): butter costs 500 bolivares and they sell it for 2,000. >> reporter: that's about $2 on the black market, or three days work at minimum wage. soaring prices and scarce supply has led to looting of stores; trucks are often attacked. venezuelans are at the edge, and many increasingly blame the government for the crisis they are living. president nicholas maduro, chavez's chosen succesor, says it's an economic war waged by foreigners and businessmen hoarding supplies to drive up prices and destabilize the government.
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tania diaz is a member of congress in maduro's party. >> ( translated ): they've managed to create a huge distribution mafia. and they block consumers' access to products, and increase prices along the way. this is simply a war economy. >> reporter: many of the government's supporters are the poor, who have benefited most from the social programs rolled out under chavez's administration. three years after his death, chavez' legacy lives on for many of his supporters, called chavistas, his face adorning billboards and murals throughout caracas. chavistas feel their revolution has been unfairly covered by the international press, and we have to overcome their wariness before they bring us to a chavista collective, trying to hold out the crisis-- by growing their own food. tucked under a metro line, this is one of several community gardens the government is
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supporting to help alleviate food shortages. for jose pacheco, the garden's coordinator, the government has made mistakes, but that doesn't deter him from believing in chavismo, chavez's brand of socialism. >> ( translated ): i'll tell you something. no revolution in history has been easy. we're in a tough spot. but we're not going to go over to the right because of that, they don't guarantee us anything. >> reporter: margarita lopez maya is a political analyst. >> so what is happening? chavismo is being reduced to its core, its hardest core, and there is a significant portion of venezuelans who are disenchanted by chavismo at this moment, but still haven't done the step of going to the opposition. >> reporter: but more and more venezuelans are turning against the government, lining up last month to add their names to a petition, led by the opposition, for a referendum to oust maduro. government supporters call it a coup attempt. >> they want to turn our country over to the united states!
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>> reporter: with a political crisis and the economy in free- fall, law and order have broken down. violence racks caracas, now the most murderous city in the world. as sun sets, much of the city goes quiet. going out could mean becoming the latest victim of robbery or kidnapping. >> at 2:00 in the morning, i was sleeping in my room. my telephone rang and it was my son. and he said to me, 'papa, i'm kidnapped. i'll put the kidnapper on.' >> reporter: it was a year and a half ago when the kidnappers told this man, whose identity we agreed to hide, that he had until morning to gather a ransom of $35,000 for the release of his son, who was put in a car with his captors, circling caracas throughout the night. kidnapping is big business in caracas, and we wanted to speak to someone who does it. a trusted colleague led us to a kidnapper who calls himself 'el negro.' with the help of 50 gang members in his kidnapping ring, he studies and stalks a person for
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weeks if they look like they have money to determine if they are worth grabbing. >> reporter: "someone like you", he says to me. once a person is kidnapped, things move quickly. >> ( translated ): you communicate with the family, and if the family doesn't comply, we have to pressure them. there's various ways. one can cut a finger and you send it with a note, or you leave a note at the door of their house. if the family doesn't comply within 48 hours, we look for a way to eliminate the person or release them. >> reporter: the father we spoke with was dealing with different kidnappers than 'el negro's gang, and they agreed to release his son for the $6,000 he had managed to gather. >> ( translated ): as i was driving down, the kidnapper told me, 'if you come across a police check-point, don't worry, because we're the same people.' >> reporter: el negro says the police turn a blind eye to his operations, for a price. >> ( translated ): it's a business more than anything.
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it's the same authorities from whom we buy weapons. >> reporter: kidnappings are rarely reported and there are no official statistics, but with a recent study estimating their number has quintupled this year, they show no sign of slowing down. >> ( translated ): in the end, i think the economic situation and lack of money, impunity, and the lack of vigilance are the most important factors driving this wave of kidnapping. >> reporter: after his son was released, he finished his studies within the year and, like so many others who could, left venezuela. most of dr. dili gonzalez's' friends and colleagues have gone too. despite the crime, the food shortages, and challenges of getting by every day, she's determined to stay to serve her patients. >> ( translated ): i'm one of those who think, no, i'm not going to move out of the country, i'm going to fight until the end, until i can't anymore. >> reporter: for the pbs newshour, reporting with bruno federico, i'm nadja drost in caracas.
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>> woodruff: stay with us. coming up on the newshour: a small african country mounts a robust fight against the aids epidemic. but first, how some american companies are requiring workers to sign contracts that limit career mobility. while they are not well-known, companies can use these contracts to prevent an employee from working for a competitor. lawmakers are worried it's gone too far and are trying to weaken or even outright ban them. in fact, the massachusetts state senate today debated its own bill to limit them. but many say these agreements are not likely to go away. special correspondent duarte geraldino has the story for our series, "making sense," which airs thursdays. >> reporter: in a small industrial park in fort lauderdale, florida, the allure lampshade factory. >> we take pride in that fact that everything is made in america. the metal, the frame, the lining, the trimming.
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and our stickers are made in the usa too. [laughing] >> reporter: everything is made in the usa! >> exactly. >> reporter: mark van wettering has been making shades since he was a teenager, opened his own business in 2007, just before the start of the great recession. >> i had to do a bankruptcy-- chapter 13-- to get my stuff in order and lost my home, but i held on to this business. i bet everything on myself and on the company that we would succeed. >> reporter: to boost his odds, he thought about having his employees sign a non-compete contract, which would have prevented them from quitting to go work at any one of his three local rivals. >> i saw a lawyer. i had it drawn up. i couldn't find it in me to bring it to the table and have my employees sign it. if someone feels that they have a better opportunity somewhere else, i'm all for it. >> reporter: but nearly 40% of all american workers have at some point signed a non-compete contract, including one out of
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every six workers earning less than $40,000 a year. some of them much less. like genoveva ochoa, a central american immigrant who speaks practically no english. >> el paper del noncompete. >> reporter: ...and yet knows the phrase "non-compete." ochoa came to the u.s. five years ago and almost immediately went to work at allure. >> ( translated ): i learned everything here. >> reporter: but two years ago, she says her husband convinced her to join him at nearby canterbury lampshades, which offered her fifty cents more an hour, but also made her sign a noncompete contract. >> ( translated ): they called me into the office and said here are the papers you need to sign, and if you don't sign you don't get the job. >> reporter: she signed. but, she says, canterbury failed to give her full-time hours, so she quit and returned to allure. canterbury has since sued both ochoa and van wettering for violating the noncompete agreement.
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>> ( translated ): this is so unfair, forcing people to sign these papers, it's like cutting off our hands, because we can't work anywhere else. >> reporter: ochoa offered to resign from allure. van wettering wouldn't hear of it. instead, he filed a countersuit. for the record, canterbury declined our interview request. >> first of all we hired her originally. we taught her the skills that she has. i can't believe that there will be a judge somewhere in the state of florida who would agree with my competitor. that a person making $9 or less. >> reporter: $9 or less? >> yeah, assembling lampshades is now subject to a non-compete clause. >> reporter: believe it, says his lawyer, jonathan pollard. >> this degree of absurdity is unique to florida. >> reporter: if there's a judge anywhere who might enforce canterbury's contract, says pollard, that judge is probably in florida, one of the more pro- business states. >> non-compete law is a creature
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of state law, on one end of the spectrum, you have california where employee non-compete agreements are unenforceable and on another end of the spectrum, you have florida where they are highly enforceable. >> reporter: of course, even in florida, most non-compete contracts are reserved for higher-level employees who have access to trade secrets. >> recipes for cookies, profit margins, customer lists. >> reporter: and as attorney russell beck, who writes an influential blog, points out... >> billions of dollars of trade secrets are stolen on an annual basis and there needs to be some mechanism for protecting them. >> reporter: several studies suggest theft of trade secrets robs the u.s. economy of some three to $500 billion a year. headlines warn of larcenous employees looking to lift a lot more than paper clips. no wonder non-compete contracts have proliferated, popping up in some surprising sectors of american life. >> the way they made it very clear to us from the beginning is that we were volunteer
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providers. we are not employees of the company. >> reporter: and yet, in the paperwork that you signed, you had to sign a noncompete? >> we did. >> can you get the drinks honey? >> reporter: omar and damaris said are foster parents, licensed by florida to care for special-needs children. >> they have autism, bi-polar, intellectual disability. >> some of them have all three. a lot of times the children who have these behaviors are in institutions. and the state wants to step them down into group homes, but they need people who are willing to open up and do this type of service. >> reporter: in 2012, the saids signed a detailed contract with a private company called lifeshare to take david and cyrus into their home. lifeshare would train and supervise the saids, give them a portion of what the state paid for the boys' care. the saids agreed to provide a long list of services. >> robert sir. >> this is not babysitting. this is a therapeutic setting. we are constantly taking data,
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annotating behaviors, looking at trends, graphing that information. we have therapists coming in and out, we have doctors' appointments. >> reporter: cyrus, now 17, had been in an institution. >> here, it's a lot more better. they care about you. they don't let other people hurt you. but other places, they don't do that. >> reporter: did they hurt you? >> yes, sometimes. they let the boys hurt me. >> reporter: what did they do? >> punch me, kick me. one of them tries to break my arm. >> ok and so whoever wins what do we say? good game, good job. >> reporter: this level of foster care can be physically and emotionally challenging. >> yeah, i've been punched in the face. he's been bitten, he's had his nose broken. >> we don't take it personal. this is a challenge that they were born with. it's our job to help them manage it. >> reporter: but according to the contract, the response to violent outbursts was to dial 911, then a lifeshare hotline
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and wait for a call back. >> reporter: lifeshare would not comment, but the saids say the company often told them to lock themselves in their bedroom. >> what happens if he gets into glass or some of the kitchenware? or rips the tv from the wall and injures himself? >> so we were getting hurt. the boys were getting hurt. and we would call the cops and the cops would say, "if you don't know how to control them, then these boys do not have any business being in your home." >> reporter: fearing they would lose cyrus and david, the saids decided to terminate the contract with lifeshare and deal directly with the state, which was urging a more hands-on approach. they say lifeshare immediately invoked the non-compete clause, withholding their monthly stipend, and demanding they either give up the boys, or pay $20,000 to keep them. >> i love every single one of them. and we feel that these kids do not deserve to have a price tag. >> we just wanted to walk away and continue doing the work that we feel we have been called to do. lifeshare would not have that. >> reporter: jonathan pollard
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represents the saids in what has now turned into complex litigation. >> lifeshare is saying, we have a non-compete agreement, those children are basically our property. >> reporter: how is that possible? >> there is nothing to stop anyone from putting together a non-compete agreement for anything. >> reporter: in part, that's why a national movement against noncompetes is picking up steam. the white house and us treasury are investigating, as nine states look to restrict their use and five want to ban them altogether. non-compete contracts are increasingly unenforceable, but employers keep asking workers to sign these contracts. for example, in california workers sign non-compete contracts at a higher rate than most americans, and yet in that state these contracts carry almost no legal weight. so what, then, is their purpose? >> those agreements are just restricting competition and employee mobility. which means, you can pay your
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folks less money and have a better bottom line at the end of the day. that's what it's about, it's greed. >> there are definitely companies that use these agreements as a retention tool. that's not what they are designed for, and companies shouldn't be doing that. >> reporter: but to be clear, you believe that there is a place in the future of the american workforce for these non-competes. >> absolutely. they just can't be abused. >> reporter: that's the struggle for policy makers: non competes can promote innovation and entrepreneurship. but they also have the potential to act like economic nooses around the necks of workers, and even competing businesses. >> i want to compete, but i want to compete on a fair playing field. >> reporter: in fort lauderdale, duarte geraldino for pbs newshour. >> woodruff: now, our series "the end of aids" turns from
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america's epidemic to the one in sub-saharan africa. that's where the virus first emerged, and it remains the hardest-hit region, with an estimated 70% of all h.i.v. infections worldwide. the tiny nation of rwanda, which many learned about decades ago because of a genocide there, has now mounted one of the most impressive h.i.v./aids responses in the world. correspondent william brangham and producer jason kane continue our series, with support from the pulitzer center on crisis reporting. >> brangham: at this hospital in a remote northern area of rwanda, a small medical miracle is unfolding. this district, still in the grips of an h.i.v. epidemic, has not recorded a single case of mother to child h.i.v. transmissions for three years. similar progress has been happening throughout rwanda, outpacing many other places in the world, even many in the u.s. >> we sat down with local leaders, we sat down with the ministry of health team of
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supervisors, we discussed, 'how can we do better? just to have zero case.' >> brangham: dr. jean nepo utumatwishima says they did it with a creative mix of medicine, technology and what you might call 'aggressive neighborliness' >> rwandans, they tend to hear much to their peers, to the people they live with. >> brangham: you listen to who you know. >> you listen to who you know. and sometimes to who you share the situation. >> brangham: to achieve this success, a fleet of influential women were recruited from local villages, and these women visited every pregnant woman in their area, to make sure each one was educated, and tested for h.i.v. if untreated, an h.i.v. positive woman will often pass the virus to her baby at birth, or through breastfeeding, but h.i.v. treatment can stop that. using simple texting, the workers transmit results and information to the local health center, which then relays it to
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the main hospital. >> when the, the s.m.s. reaches the central server, it goes directly to these computers. >> brangham: dr. utumatwishima says that working with infected pregnant women who are so consistently giving birth to babies free of the virus has been a huge source of pride for the nation's healthcare providers. >> we need a generation of kids who'll never blame us. who'll never blame the country. >> brangham: it's a remarkable success for a country many learned about through tragedy. in 1994, one of the two main ethnic groups in rwanda, the hutus, turned on their neighbor tutsis and slaughtered hundreds of thousands of them, often killing them with machetes. millions more were displaced. government agencies, including much of the nation's health infrastructure, were left in shambles: a ripe opening for h.i.v. jon cohen has covered the h.i.v./aids epidemic for more than 25 years for "science" magazine, and he traveled with us for this series.
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>> when i was here in 2000 they were trying to restart an aids program that had been completely destroyed. >> brangham: so they had a good program, prior to the genocide? >> they had one of the leading programs in sub-saharan africa in the early 1990s. and it was all destroyed. >> brangham: ...destroyed at the very moment h.i.v. rates were spiking throughout the region. >> so, everything was completely down, so it has to be built from, from zero. >> brangham: dr. sabin nsanzimana was in medical school during the rebuilding. he says he hated going to the aids wards because all his training felt useless, the death so overwhelming. >> you could not do anything to help them. what you could do only was to, to see people suffering without any help. >> brangham: but nsanzimana is now leading his nation's h.i.v./aids response, and he says everything has changed. today, officials say 86% of h.i.v.-positive rwandans know their status, that 80% of them
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have started treatment, and 87% 82% of those have now have fully suppressed the virus, making them far less likely to infect others. hitting 90% in each of those categories is what global health experts say will be a major step towards ending the epidemic, and rwanda is almost there. of course, the success of rwanda's effort relies in large part on people actually adhering to their treatment plans. josiane mukanyandwi is h.i.v. positive, but she's alive and well, and the virus is undetectable in her blood. it's what prevented her young son, prince, from getting infected when he was born. but that diligence isn't easy: it involves long treks to the clinic-- time she has to take off work. she's got checkups and treatment, long stretches of waiting, counseling, managing her meds. all this, even though mukanyandwi feels perfectly fine. >> ( translated ): it took one
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month to accept my status. i talked with my family, my parents, and i decided to come. now i'm coming every month and there is not problem. >> brangham: as josiane leaves, a long line of moms follow through the clinic. they're all h.i.v. positive, their babies, all negative. >> now it's time where we can say: no more loss, we should not lose any other life any more, because this country will be only be rebuilt by its own people. >> brangham: the mother to child h.i.v. transmission rate has fallen so sharply in rwanda that when the rare transmission does occur... >> she refused initially to start on treatment, we can't >> brangham: ...health officials conduct a forensic examination of each case to see why it happened and how to prevent it next time. >> we still have new infections, we still have people dying because of aids. and still have children who are getting h.i.v. from their mothers, so, we should not sleep. >> brangham: jon cohen says that in the aftermath of rwanda's genocide, the nation built an
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even stronger h.i.v. response. >> they had a chance to rebuild from the bottom up. and, to build a sturdy structure in terms of a health response and, they're starting to see the payoff of that. >> brangham: so they seized an opportunity-- >> yeah, and i hate to be pollyannaish about any of this stuff. it's hard to sustain this sort of response they have today, and the place they want to go to next is really difficult to get to. >> brangham: the last and most difficult steps to end the epidemic involve finding those who don't know they're infected, as well as helping those who are on medication stay the course. >> when they give me pills, i started to refuse. >> brangham: these young people, part of a local support group, are all h.i.v. positive. they were infected at birth by the virus that has also made most of them orphans. most say they didn't learn their status until they developed aids as kids, and nearly died. >> like me, the first time i know it, i, i want to kill myself.
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>> brangham: compared to adults, adolescents are twice as likely to skip their meds, take them incorrectly, or stop treatment altogether. this can hurt their own health, and make them more likely to infect others. so keeping these young people consistently on treatment is a crucial goal for the country. >> it was a hard task for me to take my pills. >> brangham: why? >> the first thing i could go off, playing, and then forget the good time of taking medicine. >> brangham: 18-year-old "jean- paul"-- that's not his real name-- is one of those who needs help. >> you're going to need someone to like, remind you, you're going to need a parent or a family member or a relative. >> brangham: like all these young people, jean-paul has been paired with another young man from the group: alexis nshimiyimana. alexis is older than jean-paul-- he's also h.i.v. positive, and he's been more consistent with his meds. his job now is to help jean-paul do the same. the two hang out. they swap stories. they commiserate. >> he asks some things.
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what can i do? i say, this is your life. it is not mine. you know? you may take medicine in order to live. >> they're talking from experience, so we're open to them. he told me, this is what you're going to do: you're going to change your time that you used to take your drugs to a time that is not going to be an obstacle to you. >> brangham: but there are logistical obstacles as well: his mom and dad are both dead. he splits his time between his aunt's house and an uncle's across town. jean-paul still misses pills now and then, he said. but he's trying. it's a lot of difficult things to deal with-- to be a person your age, to be a person your >> that's part of life. >> brangham: part of life for an entire nation as well-- one that's striving to keep up its newfound progress against the epidemic. for the pbs newshour, i'm william brangham in kigali, rwanda. >> woodruff: tomorrow, our team reports on an innovative treatment program that's happening on a small, remote island in eastern kenya, and how they've figured out how to reach fishermen there.
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>> woodruff: and now to our newshour shares, something that caught our eye that might be of interest to you, too. south carolina's tim scott is the only black republican in the u.s. senate. yesterday, he took to the senate floor to speak on his experiences of being scrutinized by law enforcement because of the color of his skin. here is an excerpt: >> for those who don't know, there are a few ways to identify a member of congress or senate. well, typically when you've been here for a couple of years, the law enforcement officers get to know your face and they just identify you by face. but if that doesn't happen, you have a badge or your license that you can show them, that shows you're a senator. or, this really cool pin.
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i often times say that the house pins are larger because our egos are bigger, so we need a smaller pin. so it's easy to identify a u.s. senator by our pin. i recall walking into an office building just last year after being here for five years on the capitol. and the officer looked at me with a little attitude and said, "the pin i know, you i don't, show me your i.d." i'll tell you, i was thinking to myself either he thinks i'm committing a crime, impersonating a member of congress, or what? well, i'll tell you that later that evening, i received a phone call from his supervisor apologizing for the behavior. mr. president that is at least
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the third phone call that i've received from a supervisor or the chief of police since i've been in the senate. >> woodruff: we continue the conversation about race and policing online. not just a "black and white" issue," activists are calling for greater exposure of police shootings of latinos. read about five more americans, shot by police last week, whose deaths didn't garner much media coverage. all that and more is on our web site, pbs.org/newshour. >> woodruff: a scene of horror unfolded in southern france tonight. officials in nice report 60 killed, 100 hurt when a truck plowed into a crowd watching fireworks for bastille day. amateur video captured people running for their lives. witnesses and local officials called it an attack and said the
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driver also shot at the crowd before being shot dead himself. in washington, a spokesman at the white house says president obama has been informed of the situation. and in the night's other big story, it is being widely reported that republican donald trump has asked indiana governor mike pence to be his running mate and that pence has accepted. the trump campaign says only that the announcement will come tomorrow morning in new york. and a reminder that next week i will be joining gwen and a reminder that next week i will join gwen and the rest of the newshour team in cleveland for a week-long special at the r.n.c. conventions. here's how to watch. >> with so much at stake, you need election coverage you can trust. that's why the pbs "newshour" has teamed up with n.p.r. to bring you primetime coverage to have conventions. gwen ifill and judy woodruff are joined by n.p.r.'s rachel martin for balanced reporting you won't find anywhere else. join us for live coverage of the
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republican national convention begins july 18, 8:00 p.m., 7 central, on pbs >> woodruff: and that's the newshour for tonight. i'm judy woodruff. join us online and again here tomorrow evening with mark shields and david brooks. for all of us at the pbs newshour, thank you and good night. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: >> lincoln financial-- committed to helping you take charge of your financial future. >> the lemelson foundation. committed to improving lives through invention. in the u.s. and developing countries. on the web at lemelson.org.
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>> and with the ongoing support of these institutions >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc captioned by media access group at wgbh access.wgbh.org >> the pbs "newshour" home for politics. >> woodruff: this is not something you can support. >> you want to paint in bold colors. >> reporting from around the world. >> why is this place such a crossroads? >> stories with impact that inspire, engage, on health, making economic sense, education, science and technology and the arts, every night on pbs.
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this is "nightly business report" with tyler mathisen and sue herera. full steam ahead. stocks hit new records. earnings looked strong at least so far. the biggest ipo of the year soars. economic data heats up. if everything seems to be going in the right direction, why are some so worried? >> pricing power. the one industry that can raise prices more steeply and more often than any other, and it touches us all. >> you're hired. multiple reports say the "apprentice" like contest to become donald trump's running mate ends up with indiana's mike pence as the winner. what the choice means for the race for the white house. all that and more tonight on "nightly business report" for thursday, july 14th. >> good evening, everyone. i'm sharon epperson

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