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tv   PBS News Hour  PBS  July 20, 2016 3:00pm-4:00pm PDT

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public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. >> woodruff: the nominating is done, and donald trump is back here in cleveland. tonight, delegates hear from the man who he chose to be his running mate, and from a rival who battled him nearly to the end. correspondent lisa desjardins begins our coverage. >> reporter: donald trump flew into cleveland this afternoon to claim what he won last night. then, a helicopter ride to downtown, where he was joined by his running mate, indiana governor mike pence. >> the last time i got accused for speaking a little too long, so this time i'm going to speak a lot shorter. but i just want to introduce a man who's become a friend of mine; somebody who's going to make an unbelievable vice president of the united states: governor mike pence. >> it is such an honor to join your family to welcome you to cleveland.
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we're excited to hear you address the nation tomorrow night. it's been exciting to hear from your family. more to come tonight. and i'm convinced what begins in cleveland will end in the white house. >> reporter: the ticket's number-two man delivers his own prime-time address tonight, and campaign manager paul manafort says the nation will see what trump saw: >> governor pence was the kind of guy who didn't see no for an answer. that when he became governor, he made a difference as governor, and that was an attitude-- was very appealing, and record was very appealing. >> reporter: manafort also brushed off questions today of any perceived awkwardness between the two men: >> when the final selection process happened, there was a comfort level. now, have they spent two years together? no. but are they comfortable with each other both on a personal basis and a policy basis? absolutely. will that grow? yes. >> reporter: pence will use his speech to focus on tonight's theme "make america first again." also scheduled to speak, a slew of trump's primary challengers, including texas senator ted cruz.
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he's stopped short of making a formal endorsement, after a bitter primary battle during which trump dubbed him "lyin' ted." even today, trump's plane interrupted cruz at one point, as he spoke to supporters. >> there's a lot of talk about unity-- i want to see unity, and the way to see unity is to unite behind shared principles-- us to unite in defense of liberty. >> reporter: cruz gave no specifics on what he'll say tonight, but trump's lieutenant, manafort, promised a supportive speech. >> i think that he'll talk about hillary clinton and how america can't afford to have hillary clinton as president. and i think he'll say something, he'll give a sign of where he is on donald trump, that will be pleasing to the trump campaign and the republicans. also tonight, another member of the trump family will go to the podium-- eric trump, the nominee's third child. campaign officials say he'll
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give a very personal speech-- a son's portrait of a father. meanwhile, the fallout continues from melania trump's speech monday night that lifted sections from a michelle obama speech. yesterday, the trump campaign dismissed any allegations of plagiarism. today, meredith mciver, a trump staff writer, took responsibility. in statement, mciver wrote, "...she read me some passages from mrs. obama's speech as examples. i wrote them down and later included some of the phrasing in the draft that ultimately became the final speech. i did not check mrs. obama's speech." mciver said she offered trump her resignation but he refused. outside the convention hall, there were new protests, and this time, multiple arrests. police on horseback and bicycles converged on a site-- and used pepper spray-- as anti-trump protesters tried to burn an american flag. >> ifill: we go down to the
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convention floor now. npr's weekend edition sunday host rachel martin will be with us this week and next, for our joint pbs newshour-npr coverage of the conventions. rachel, what are you watching for tonight? >> yes, i'm doin' on the convention floor near the area where the delegation from texas is sitting because, as you heard, senator ted cruz will be speaking tonight addressing the delegates here. he ended up being the most fierce competitor against donald trump in that primary season. even though he secured a primetime speaking slot in the convention, he hasn't actually endorsed donald trump. so it will be interesting whether or not he uses this as an opportunity to do just that, or if he decides just to move past the moment and instead lay out his own vision for the future of the republican party with perhaps an eye on 20/20 when he -- 2020 when he may have another shot at the nomination himself. but tonight when mike pence
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takes the stage, he will be commandincommanding the attenti. pence was picked for the vp slot as an olive branch for republicans who have been reluctant to support trump. but it is really going to be interesting to watch whether or not pence is able to unify the party in an address tonight because, no doubt, there is a real split in the party now between establishment conservatives on the one hand and trump supporters who say the party missed the vote and don't understand where the voters are anymore. they're looking for donald trump to steer the republican party in a new direction. we'll be exploring that tension tonight and asking a question, what does it mean to be a republican in 2016. so lots to come here. stay with us. i'll throw it back to you, gwen and judy in the studio. >> woodruff: thank you, rachel. we will be talking to you throughout the night.
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it was before a crowd of more than 1,000 delegates at the republican state convention in springfield, illinois in 1858, where abraham lincoln said "a house divided against itself cannot stand." this week in cleveland, we've seen real divisions in the party of lincoln, and heard questions raised about how they unite. we explore those now with alex castellanos, a strategist for the pro-trump super pac "rebuilding america now;" and leslie rutledge, arkansas's attorney general, and a speaker here on stage last night. we welcome both of you to the program. leslie, let me start with you. is the republican party we've seen at the convention both in the speakers and the messages we have been hearing, is that a united party? >> it is a very united party and i think that's what we've seen this week as the delegates work through the platform, through the rules and all the issues, and what it boils down to is the republicans are ready to take back the white house, ready to grow jobs across america, to push back on the regulatory
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environment that hurts small businesses, and that's why we are seeing republicans this week uniting behind donald trump and governor pence. >> ifill: john, you have been to many conventions and worked on capitol hill for some time. now we see a convention that feels very different from the convention that nominated mitt romney and paul ryan, someone very different from when they nominated john mccain and sarah palin. what would you say is the difference? >> it's a completely different dynamic because we have a non-politician who are dominatindominating the most efe speakers, even you, not in the washington mindset, normal americans expressing themselves. trump brought that to the table. many times we have been the establishment party. we are not the party of george bush, we've moved on. we're a populous party who is very frustrated with how
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washington has operated to the nth degree. there are a lot of sor sore loss and a lot of people not comfortable with donald trump. >> woodruff: he got the lion's share of the votes and the nominee, but there were 700-some votes for somebody else. how does that element of the party come together? >> donald trump already united the party. while there may have been votes for someone else on the floor, but across america in those primaries, new voters were coming out in droves just to vote for donald trump and we're seeing this enthusiasm behind the outside washington candidate in mr. trump, in governor pence because they know things must change and that hillary clinton is dangerous, deception and dishonesty are second nature to hillary clinton and that's what i talk about in my speech. when we look at the supreme court, people ask why is this
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election so important? as the attorney general, the chief police officer, we look forward to the elections. >> ifill: you spent the night talking about hillary clinton, that seems to be the themes. is this an anti-clinton convention or a pro-trump convention? >> it's both. it's prominently pro-donald trump. we want donald trump to be president, we are supporting him 100%. but what we don't want are four more years of the same failed policies that hurt our arkansas and businesses around the country. when we look at these small businesses which are the backbone of america, we want to get the regulatory burdens off the small businesses. i'm raised on a cattle farm, married to a farmer. we know firsthand the regulatory burdens on our farmers and industry across america. >> woodruff: john, who else does donald trump need to reach out to to win this election? we both are familiar with the
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so-called autopsy, with the report done by the republican party after mitt romney's loss in 2012. in essence, it said the needs to reach beyond its base to hispanics, to minorities. what does donald trump need to do? >> there are with two groups really warring for him, that is female voters because he's getting crunched with female voters. i'm glad you're here talking because you need to make that case. he has to change his messages because with a lot of women voters he has not been particularly sensitive in his language. the second group, i think he's got toetic panned the working class. he's pretty effective with priet working class voters, there are present request african-american and hispanic working class voters who are frustrated with the economy, haven't had much going on in the last couple of years, and if he can bring a more pro jobs message, we need a
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positive message about how trump needs to grow the economy because people want that. >> ifill: leslie, just so happens you're a woman and a very big donald trump supporter. does the party need to do what john is suggesting? >> as i said last night in my remarks, donald trump understand women and men are not single-issue voters. and for far too long the democratic party ant secretary clinton treated us that way. men and women care about jobs, economy, national security. if you listened to me you know unlick hillary clinton donald trump knows men and women are not single-issue voters. we care about the jobs, economy and national security, verbatim, that's what i said last night and we're going to keep talking about that because women and men, they want a safe place for their families to live, to be able to have a job, pay their
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bills, go to the soccer games, and that's the sort of america that people across this country want. >> woodruff: john, you were saying some of donald trump's remarks haven't been sensitive was the word you used. what kind of language do you want to see him using? what do you want him to stop and start saying? >> when you're talking about fixing the immigration system, donald trump needs to let the private donald trump come out. from everything from what i've heard about donald trump, privately he's a guy who does a lot of listening, is a guy who is not full of bravado, is very effective in small groups, everyone says that. he needs to let the private guy out because the bravado and the language that gets beyond the pale, we all know what it is, he needs to scale that back. i think if he can continue to pound on hillary clinton is not sufficient. >> ifill: has this convention, both of you take a stab at this, has it helped donald trump?
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there have been distractions. we saw the melania trump speech distraction, we've seen the rules distraction, the cruz votervoters rising up, booing te trump plane today as it lained. i wonder whether you think this convention has been distracting overall or whether it in the end helped introduce donald trump to a broader audience? >> absolutely. when we talk about melania trump's amazing speech, i mean, by and large, it was a terrific speech filled with wonderful messages about donald trump as a husband, as a father and grandfather and really introducing us, but for that distraction which is unfortunate because she showed she is a strong, smart, confident woman and would be a tremendous first lady. likewise we heard from donald trump, jr. last night. we'll hear more from the trump family to get to john's point to see donald trump the man. four years ago, we didn't see enough of who mitt romney was. they didn't really showcase that enough. i'm hoping we've learned from our mistakes and are showcasing
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what an incredible person donald trump and his family are. >> we've had hiccups. finally the never trump people ended their fantasy land. we have the candidate. we can start looking forward. i'm looking to good speeches from marco rubio, ted cruz and mike pence tonight. i'm looking forward to hearing donald trump tomorrow night and seeing who he is in private. he has a great family, they're very poised. let's talk about that and what he can do for the rest of our families. >> ifill: thank you both very much. >> woodruff: thank you. thank you. >> ifill: tonight, we continue our series exploring donald trump's life: his transformation from businessman to reality tv star, to presidential nominee. in this final installment, we look at trump's political transformation to billionaire populist. in retrospect, this scene seemed inevitable-- donald trump, surrounded by the trappings of wealth and celebrity, staking his claim to the world's most
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powerful office. >> i am officially running for president of the united states, and we are going to make our country great again. >> ifill: his candidacy was initially dismissed as a prank, a long shot. but in fact, it was 28 years in the making. gwenda blair is a trump biographer. >> it's not the first time, second, third, fourth, or even fifth-- it's the sixth time that he has talked about being president. >> ifill: trump's earliest interest in the intersection of politics and business was fueled by his developer father fred, but also by a shadier figure-- roy cohn, the tough-talking power attorney who rose to prominence as senator joseph mccarthy's "fixer" during the communist scares of the 1950s. author timothy o'brien: >> the donald trump who will sue anyone's pants off at a drop of
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a hat, learned that from roy cohn. the donald who learned that the best way for a business campaign, or a political campaign, to be run was in a scorched earth fashion-- he learned that from roy cohn. >> ifill: running for president, or at least talking about the possibility, became something of a hobby for trump. >> donald trump the political operator is very much the same person as donald trump, the marketer and self-promoter. and he's brought those same self-promotional and marketing skills to bear on the political race. >> ifill: indeed, his first foray into presidential politics was a sales pitch-- literally-- to promote his new book. here's writer michael dantonio. >> in 1987, he had a book, "the art of the deal," that he wanted to promote. instead of buying ad space, he pretended to run for president. he went to new hampshire, gave a couple of speeches, he made some pronouncements about the reagan administration's failures, and
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got a lot of attention. he was one of the first people actually to use running for president as a business tactic. >> ifill: trump played coy about his political ambitions, and even about his political leanings. >> are you a republican, donald? >> i'm a republican, yes. >> so if there were politics, it would be as a republican? >> it would be, i guess, as a republican. but i don't see that there will be politics. >> ifill: he flirted with a reform party bid in 2000, floating oprah winfrey as a possible v.p. pick. >> oprah. i love ohprah. oprah would always be my first choice. >> oprah? >> oprah. your competitor, right? >> ifill: and he made noise again in 2004. >> well, you'd be shocked if i said that, in many cases, i probably identify more as a democrat. >> ifill: the hints came again in 2008 and 2012. >> he's found these different flash points that he's used to get himself attention, but he's never, ever developed a mature, deeply informed political
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platform. >> ifill: during that time, critics charge some of his positions have been as inconsistent as his party affiliation, on issues like abortion: >> well, look. i'm-- i'm very pro-choice. and i am very, very proud to say that i am pro-life. >> ifill: his view has also clearly shifted on the woman who is now his likely general election opponent. >> hillary clinton, i think is a terrific woman. i mean, i'm a little biased because i've known her for years. >> most people know she's a world-class liar. >> ifill: by 2011, he was questioning president barack obama's citizenship, promoting the already-discredited notion that the president was not qualified to serve. >> people have birth certificates. he doesn't have a birth certificate. now, he may have one, but there's something on that, maybe religion, maybe it says he is a muslim. i don't know. >> it really was, i think, seeing whether the latent
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hostility toward a black president-- how deep it was. and he immediately got a very, very strong feedback that it was quite deep, quite widespread. he got a lot of attention for that. and i think that that was really the launching for 2012. but it turned into 2016. >> ifill: which brings us back to this moment: >> i will build a great, great wall on our southern border. and i will have mexico pay for that wall. >> he's a sharp guy. he's very shrewd at reading what people want to hear. and they want to hear that they're right, that they have a reason to be angry. >> ifill: blasting through a field of 16 other primary contenders, donald trump has now emerged as the likely g.o.p. nominee. >> lo and behold, by the time he is campaigning, it is almost enough to run as a celebrity candidate. so i think what we've seen is
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sort of the confluence of the donald trump celebrity strategy, the donald trump self-promotion strategy, and a changing political environment that allowed him to leverage both of these things to become to presumptive nominee. >> thank you all. thank you very much. ( cheers and applause ) >> woodruff: with that, we turn to syndicated columnist mark shields, "new york times" columnist david brooks and amy walter of the cook political report, who are also joining us around this table each night for our live convention coverage. welcome to all three of you. we love spending all this time with you. mark, is the donald trump we're seeing in this reports that gwen prepared, is that the trump coming through at this convention? >> unfortunately, yes. it was a terrific piece of reporting but i think it is coming through. donald trump's ego, donald
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trump's vanity, i don't think it's necessarily flattering to him, but i think it is coming through. >> woodruff: david? i don't think so. i think there is a patina of normalcy at this convention. we sit in the booth like we do every four years, we get french fries, is what i get at least every four years, and seems like another convention. but this is not another convention. this is the party that used to believe in free trade, capitalism, conservatism, and that party is going, at least at the podium, and the republican party is nominating a guy without any known principles, without any known ex p persons, without any known ethical standards. it's bizarre. i mean, i'm getting more cosmically depressed the more i step back from the normal patina of life here and thinkn't a what's actually happened. >> ifill: as amy wrote in her column for the "cook political report," the same cheese yes music from -- the same cheesy music from the band.
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>> it is. how different is this convention? four years ago, we were all here and there was mitt romney and paul ryan. four years before that, john mccain and sarah palin. this in some ways is exactly the same as we've always seen, and yet the party is so different. >> the party is so different, in part because i don't think there is a party. this is trump's convention and he put his stamp all over it and we'll once again see him tonight and his big speech thursday. but this party is not trump's and you could feel that in the hall. we talked a lot about the disunity among many members of the delegation, the fact the hall is not filled, the fact that speaker after speaker has come up and given their version of what they see as the republican party. it's not necessarily the version that donald trump has to have paul ryan the speaker of the house not mention the most important parts of the donald trump messaging -- the wall, immigration, trade -- eng was
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quite important and significant. i'll be very curious to see what senator ted cruz says tonight. he is somebody to yet endorse donald trump and there is no indication he will do that tonight and may put out his vision of the republican party. >> woodruff: mark, a lot of these delegates like donald trump and think he's what the country needs. >> they do. i don't think there is any question. a very healthy majority of them do. i just have one point i want to make about this election, this campaign, this convention, and it reminds me, just before the collapse of the soviet union and the end of the cold war, georgie arbitof was a soviet expert on the united states and he made a brilliant prediction. he said to the united states, we're going to do a terrible thing to you. we're going to deprive you of an enemy. the organizing principle of the united states defensive foreign policy had been opposition to the soviet union. there is no more soviet union.
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if you take hillary clinton out, there is no organizing principle for this convention. last night mitch mcconnell spoke, republican leader of the senate. 24 times, he mentioned hillary clinton. five times he mentioned donald trump. twice as often, hillary clinton has been mentioned as has donald trump. i think it's true in this campaign, if hillary clinton disappeared tomorrow and donald trump was a referendum up and down, he would be in trouble and the same is true for the democrats. >> ifill: so mike pence steps up to the podium tonight, this is his big moment even though a lot of people feel they know him h, does that make a difference? does that begin to orient this party and convention or is it just going to be what it's going to be is this. >> i doubt it will make a difference, the trump persona is dominating this atmosphere. but we may get an emotional break. i'm struck about the emotional tone of the convention, first night about loss, second about
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hatred. it's hard to say you want to lock up hillary clinton without hating her. they took away the soviet union and we have an ally in vladimir putin whom we've adjusted the platform to soften the public's view of vladimir putin. but pence is a nice guy, a warm guy, a genial guy and that's not exactly the tone we have been hearing. >> ifill: do you think he'll talk about the wall? >> he will not talk about it. i would be very surprised. >> what i'm surprised we haven't heard about and donald trump is the one i expect to make this message the most strongly is that all this establishment, we have been talking about disunity this whole time, but donald trump won this nomination and donald trump is getting anywhere from 40 to 40% of the vote right now. he is close to hillary clinton, either tied or a couple of
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points behind, and his message is resonating with a good group -- a good, significant chunk of voters. that's the message that's coming across here that's not coming across from the establishment, this idea that they have been left behind, that the establishment still isn't putting policies forward that address economic stagnation, the feeling they have of this loss, and until that happens, which i think needs to happen tonight, then, you know, we're going to get that change. >> woodruff: mark, do you agree? what do they need to do tonight and tomorrow night to fix or to fill out what the message has been so far? >> to be the party of open arms rather than clinched fists. i think fieps is a step in the right direction. paul ryan, mitch mcconnell, others used him as the hook for speaking positively about the trump candidacy. mike pence gives a legitimacy --
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>> ifill: is that the plan for trump? >> i don't know. mike pence is still in small print on the sign, and he had barely a walk-on cameo apart in his own announcement last saturday. so tonight, this is really the first chance to see what his role might be in this campaign. >> woodruff: i saw donald trump, jr. today in an event in which he basically said mike pence was a calming influence and they couldn't pick any of the other finalists because they didn't need two donald trumps being another donald trump, so they seemed to recognize at some point the need for a calming influence. >> and someone who will seem genial and reassure orthodox conservatives. i'm struck by how many different parties there are here. there is the kasich party, the cruz party, sort of a trump thing, and then there is an even gold guard george h.w. bush, bob dole party lurking in the corners. pence is not offensive to any of
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those parties whereas trump is alienating. >> ifill: i'm glad to hear you are reading and quoting each other. >> they always do. do. >> ifill: thank you very much, amy walter, david brooks, mark shields. you can see us tonight and you can stay with us tonight, beginning at 8:00 p.m. eastern time, for our special npr/pbs newshour coverage of the republican presidential convention in cleveland. now back to hari in d.c. >> sreenivasan: in the other news of this day, a federal appeals court struck down the texas voter i.d. law. the judges found it has a "discriminatory effect," and they ordered changes before the november election. the 2011 law requires voters to show one of seven forms of identification. supporters say it prevents fraud. the u.s. justice department, and other opponents, say low-income and minority voters have a harder time obtaining the i.d.s. the government of turkey declared an emergency for the next three months, in the wake of last week's failed coup. officials also closed more than 600 private schools and other establishments, as a political
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crackdown kept growing. in istanbul, buses brought hundreds of people to court on suspicion of involvement in the coup attempt. thousands have been fired or arrested. french lawmakers have voted to extend emergency rule for another six months. the state of emergency was first declared after the paris attacks last november. it was about to expire, when a truck attack in nice killed 84 people last week. today, president francois hollande visited a military reserve unit that's to be deployed under emergency rule. he acknowledged public criticism of security failures. >> ( translated ): after such a tragedy, the anger is legitimate because compatriots were killed, because innocents were hit, but it must not degenerate into hate and suspicion. the debate itself is also necessary to know the truth when such a tragedy happens, but it must not affect our vital unity, nor ruin our necessary cohesion. >> sreenivasan: the islamic state group has claimed the attacks. but hollande's government also warned today against blaming all muslims. in syria, a u.s.-backed rebel
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group says it's investigating the beheading of a young boy by one of its fighters. it was captured on video, and opposition activists said the victim was a 12-year-old palestinian refugee. armed men on the video accused him of spying for a palestinian militia that supports the syrian government. back in this country, wall street kept moving higher. the dow jones industrial average gained 36 points to close at 18,595. the nasdaq rose 53 points, and the s&p 500 added nine. two deaths of note tonight: hawaii congressman mark takai has died. the first-term democrat passed away today at his home, nine months after he was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. he announced in may he would not run again. and, garry marshall passed away tuesday, after a career that created fixtures of american entertainment. jeffrey brown looks back at his life and work. >> brown: director, producer, writer and actor-- garry marshall made tv and movie audiences laugh for more than 50 years. and, he was still working this
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past spring, promoting his final movie, "mother's day." >> i like to really examine the human condition of regular people, 'cause i'm a regular person. you know me. >> brown: marshall grew up in the bronx and began his career writing jokes for comedians and scripts for 1960's tv comedies, including "make room for daddy" and "the dick van dyke show." a breakthrough came in 1970, when he co-created tv's version of "the odd couple." it ran five years and led to a sitcom empire. ♪ sunday, monday, happy days! "happy days" debuted in 1974, and had a decade-long run. >> schlemiel! schlimazel! hasenpfeffer incorporated! >> brown: in turn, it spun off "laverne and shirley," starring marshall's sister penny, an actress and director in her own right. >> nanu, nanu. >> brown: and in 1978, "mork and mindy" brought a young robin williams into national view. marshall estimated he wrote a thousand tv sitcom scripts, before switching to the big
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screen in the 1980s. he directed bette midler in the 1988 movie "beaches." and in 1990, "pretty woman," pairing richard gere and an emerging star, julia roberts, became a smash hit. ( laughs ) years later, marshall described his approach to directing this way: >> you don't know if it's a hit or a flop, it'll do well or not, but we do know the process can be pleasant. once there's too much yelling and screaming, i go home. so i try to make it where you don't do that and people somehow get along. my best directing tool is hugging. >> brown: marshall occasionally appeared on-screen as well-- including in albert brook's 1985 comedy, "lost in america." along the way, marshall's work earned him dozens of awards and nominations, and a star on the hollywood walk of fame. garry marshall died tuesday in burbank, california after
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suffering a stroke. he was 81 years old. >> sreenivasan: defense chiefs and other leaders from more than 30 countries are here in washington for two days of meetings on the war against isis in iraq and syria. the summit comes as isis loses territory in both countries, but the group and its followers lash out with terrorist strikes globally. meantime, there is continuing turmoil in turkey-- which borders both syria and iraq-- after friday's coup attempt. for more on all of this, i spoke a short time ago with michael fallon, the united kingdom's defense secretary. defense secretary, welcome. >> thank you, hari. >> sreenivasan: first off, right now, we're with hearing that the turkish president has declared a state of emergency for another three months. this comes in a week where there has been a significant purge of people who might have been in
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opposition to him. is turkey still a reliable ally in n.a.t.o.? >> well, yes, it's still a key ally in n.a.t.o. it's a cornerstone of nate o. it's very important in the southeast corner of n.a.t.o. to have turkey there as a long-standing member. it has formidable armed forces and it's helping us fight i.s.i.l as well in the middle east. turkey is important. now, it's obviously concerning that there's been this coup and we're particularly concerned turkey keeps to the path of respecting human rights when it's dealing with the aftermath of the coup. >> sreenivasan: does what's happening now compromise your ability to fight i.s.i.s. together with turkey? >> well, turkey's made it clear this doesn't affect their commitment to the fight against yielz. we want to seal the border to syria to stem the flow of foreign fighters and they have every interest of not having i.s.i.l flourish on their doorstep. >> sreenivasan: you're here
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for a conference with world leaders on what to do in this fight. what more are you prepared to do? >> we're playing the second part after the united states in this. we've carried out the second largest number of airstrikes, the largest portion of surveillance of aircraft ahead and trained around 19,000 iraqi and kurdish troops, specialist training in how to deal with imp improvised explosive devices. so we're playing a big part in this and we've announced recently that we're stepping up, putting more troops in as the united states has asked every member of the coalition to do. we are can you believing the number of -- we're doubling the number of troops in iraq itself so they can do more training to pick up on the momentum. i.s.i.s. is being pushed back along the tigris and euphrates, towns and cities are becoming liliberated and we want to keep
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that up. >> sreenivasan: how do you deal with the shift that's happened in your enemies? we're no longer fighting enemies in a battlefield wearing a uniform with certain colors on the other side of the line. we've shifted to an insurgency strategy. these are lone wolves, self radicalized attacks in europe and it somehow falls on your doorstep to say let's keep the country safe. >> right, there is no front lines in this conflict, so this calls for new tactics. you need to deal with the hybrid war fair, the messages they're pumping out to sustain this poise noun ideology, and then deal with them where they've captured particular cities and imposing barbaric punishment on the citizens and very high taxes. so you need to deal with all of these things. in the end, these things can only be done locally. they have to be won by local forces with security provided by the government in that country. now, we can help.
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we can help, with air power, technology, training, resources, helping to stabilize these countries once they have been liberated, but in the end the fight has to be on the ground by local forces that can retain the hearts and minds of the people they're freeing. >> sreenivasan: print went through a big decision-making process a few weeks ago. before that decision, you were a remainder. you wanted to stay in the e.u., no secret. you said during that time u.k.'s departure would weaken europe and strengthen russia's hand. >> n.a.t.o. is the alliance, the security that we have that print is a part of in europe and we've added more troops to the eastern border of n.a.t.o., we've stepped up to that. being inside the european union gave us another leaver. it was the union, not n.a.t.o., for example, that imposed sanctions on russia, and we will continue in the remaining years we're inside the european union to keep the sanctions up and
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keep the pressure up on russia. i would have rather we would have stayed. but people decided, we've had the vote and what we have to do is make a success of leaving the european union, develop new relations with europe, ensure our trade is protected, and to continue to play our part in the security of europe, which we're doing through a greater commitment to n.a.t.o. and more work with our key allies, like the united states. >> sreenivasan: just in the last few weeks, we had a series of reports coming out of eastern europe and how n.a.t.o. is preparing for the possibility of russian aggression in places like poland and estonia. what happens if estonia raises its hand and says, n.a.t.o., i need help now. how likely is the u.k. to want to help the member of the e.u. and may be a n.a.t.o. alliance. >> they want to help each other. some like the baltics say we want more reassurance.
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n.a.t.o. is doing exercises on their door steps, flying planes through the baltic and intimidating them through hybrid and social media so we are stepping forward deploying a new presence, an entire battalion in estonia next year with french and danish troops added to it. the united states is doing the same in poland itself. so we're all helping to give more reassurance on the -- on the eastern side of n.a.t.o. and making it clear to russia if they attempt to intervene in a n.a.t.o. country, there will be cons fences. >> sreenivasan: defense secretary michael fallon, thanks for joining us. >> thank you. >> sreenivasan: finally, as the international aids conference convenes in durban, south africa, this week, we continue
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our "end of aids" series. as we've been reporting, public health officials believe that getting the overwhelming majority of h.i.v.-positive people tested and consistently treated is a crucial step to ending the epidemic-- but that's proven a difficult goal. but in western kenya, on the border with uganda, there's a small island where researchers are finding remarkable success with even the hardest to reach groups. correspondent william brangham and producer jason kane continue our series, with support from the pulitzer center on crisis reporting. >> brangham: it's late on a monday night. fisherman kevin opiyo and his crew are heading out onto lake victoria on the very western edge of kenya. they throw out their lines and stretch out their nets, hoping the tiny omena fish are schooling below. fishing these waters is long, grueling, dangerous work. it's also become one of the main pathways for the growth of the h.i.v. epidemic in this part of
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kenya. opiyo himself is infected. >> ( translated ): i'm confident that i got it through sexual intercourse and can say it was the time i was working in remba. >> brangham: fishing crews often have travel long distances to other islands on the lake, and into neighboring uganda. >> i think there's a mentality among fishermen that life is not as important, therefore you can enjoy it and have as much sex as you can. >> brangham: dr. moses kamya is an h.i.v. researcher who's been working with fishermen in the region for years. >> you know, fishermen tend to have a lot of disposable income, and um, you know, they can buy sex very easily, and, of course, where fishermen are, there are, you know, sex workers who hang around them. >> brangham: the fishermen live on mfangano island, here on lake victoria, near the border with uganda. the island's 25,000 residents live clustered in homes near the water, and fishing is the main industry.
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largely because of this migratory fishing, it's estimated that nearly one out of every three adults here is infected with h.i.v. we traveled to mfangano island with jon cohen. he's covered the epidemic for "science" magazine in more than two dozen countries and helped us report this series. >> here in this region, the h.i.v. prevalence in fishermen is incredibly high. i mean, we're talking on the order of 30%, 40%. that's something you see in people who inject drugs, it's something you see in sex workers. but people haven't thought about heterosexual men as being a key affected population, and these fishermen, they are! >> brangham: so to stem this epidemic, how do you reach this hard-to-reach population? well, you try something like this: this is what state-of-the-art h.i.v. care and prevention in kenya looks like. you set up your testing team, not in a clinic, but right next to the water. you do it at night, because that's when the fishermen are
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coming home. you get a band to play; you give away prizes. >> what we have done, in order to have a place where people want to go test, is made it accessible to them. we've brought testing to people, as opposed to having people have to go for the test. >> brangham: dr. diane havlir is one of the world's foremost experts on treating h.i.v. as we reported earlier, she's helping lead san francisco's ambitious strategy to end the epidemic there, and she's helping run one of the largest h.i.v. test-and-treat studies in the world here and in uganda. the study-- sponsored by the u.s., kenya and uganda-- is called "search." >> h.i.v. medicines have been transformative for the individual. so what we're testing in search is: can we transform communities with treatment? >> brangham: not just individuals. >> not just individuals. the whole community.
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and one of the first things that we had to do was to figure out how to offer testing to every person. not just people who were sick. every single person in that community. >> brangham: kenya, like most governments in the developing world, only starts people with h.i.v. on treatment after their immune system becomes compromised. but the search study is trying to determine whether treating h.i.v. positive people immediately-- regardless of how sick they are-- can have an impact across the entire community. but the problem still exists that men here-- particularly fishermen-- have generally been very reluctant to get tested. >> so he is highly mobile and >> we are not able to get to him. >> brangham: dr. james ayieko is one of the doctors with the search study. >> our system does not make healthcare-seeking a "manly" thing. so you have to get something extra that would motivate them, you know, to come to care. >> brangham: the search team also makes an economic argument to fishermen: if you don't treat your h.i.v., you'll get sicker and it's going to cost you
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because you can't work. >> you know, if you're infected, you can stay out there, the disease will progress, you will get worse, and then you might be brought in in a stretcher to the hospital, which is not a good option. so the idea-- this study is trying to bring the idea of, "we can keep you healthy as you are." >> brangham: fisherman kevin opiyo thought he might have gotten h.i.v., but even when he started to feel sick and weak and found it hard to work, he still didn't want to get tested. >> so it was fear of my past life, fear of the ladies that i used to move around with, it was that fear that kept me away from testing. >> brangham: it was likely during this period that opiyo brought the virus home and infected his wife as well. >> one of the things which sadly still exists in h.i.v.-- it remains a highly stigmatized disease. and people may suspect they're at risk for h.i.v. disease, they may deny to themselves they're at risk for h.i.v. disease.
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so, it takes a lot of energy, often, for a person to go to seek testing. >> brangham: at search's community health events they know the stigma of h.i.v. and aids will keep people away, so they don't call this an "h.i.v. event"-- and it isn't just that. they offer testing and care for all sorts of health issues: diabetes, family planning, hypertension, as well as h.i.v. on this day, they even ran a boat race to attract more fishermen to the event-- six teams of young men competed in a race. the prize? brand new cellphones. but of course, you couldn't compete until you got tested. dr. craig cohen is part of the search team, and he says this broader health approach is more appealing for men. >> i'm going there to make sure that i'm healthy, that my family's healthy, my children are healthy. >> brangham: it provides cover, in a sense. >> it's not just cover! i mean, these other conditions-- malaria is super endemic here, depending on the season. it also helps to build up a
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sense of camaraderie around health, so that people are understanding that the clinic here is here for everyone, whether you're 70 years old, or 50 years old living with diabetes, whether you're 40 years old and living with h.i.v. >> brangham: making the tent bigger. >> making the tent much bigger, and understanding that health is about everyone. h.i.v. is part, is under that tent, but it's not an h.i.v. tent, it's a health tent. >> brangham: but even after people are diagnosed with h.i.v. and get started right away on daily treatment, the next challenge becomes keeping them in treatment. and for those who fall out of care, the search team will come find you. today, the team is out looking for another h.i.v. positive fisherman who'd missed his last appointment. if someone stops taking their h.i.v. meds, the virus will surge back, making the person sicker. but a resurgent virus means you're also much more likely to pass the virus to others. a person who's on regular treatment almost never does
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that. but they found the missing fisherman, persuaded him to come back to the clinic on the spot, and made sure he stayed on his meds. one more success in a long campaign. two years ago, the u.n. set an ambitious h.i.v./aids goal called "90-90-90"-- it said that by the year 2020: 90% of people who have h.i.v. should know their status; that 90% of those people should be taking anti-retroviral treatment; and that 90% of them should be treated consistently enough that the virus is suppressed-- undetectable in their blood. all that by 2020. but here on this kenyan island-- thanks in large part to the search study-- they've already hit that goal, four years early. there are few other places in the world with similar success. of course, replicating what's happening here across an entire nation, or the rest of the world, will require enormous funding and effort, but the search team hopes that by proving what works, they can set
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an example. >> i think a study like the search trial is giving out evidence to show that what was hypothesized is really-- is really going to be the direction that h.i.v. treatment and care should go. >> brangham: having hit this 90- 90-90 goal, the search team is monitoring their broader aim of creating community-wide change. the study has found that by treating people with h.i.v. immediately, those individuals have been working an entire week more per month, compared to those who waited to start treatment. a large percentage of the community is, of course, still living with h.i.v. frofore this study began, but far fewer people are dying from it, and the virus is much less likely to spread. >> when people are taking a treatment that is changing a uniformly fatal disease to a chronic disease, they think about investments differently. they think about investing, for example, in, in their farming. maybe in their fishing. and they think about investing more and having their children
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go to school. >> brangham: but jon cohen says this still may come up short on the broader goal of ending aids. >> the whole idea of test and treat, it may or may not be enough to break the back of an epidemic. we really don't know. you know, it could be that you get to 90-90-90, and transmissions are still occurring at too high of a rate to really stop the epidemic from being an epidemic. >> brangham: the search study here will be wrapping up by 2020. it's hoped that if it's successful enough, these practices will be embedded into h.i.v. care more permanently throughout kenya and uganda, and perhaps, the rest of the world. for the pbs newshour, i'm william brangham on mfangano island, kenya. >> sreenivasan: you can explore our entire series "the end of aids," and meet the people behind the stories, on our website. also online right now, our coverage of all things convention related continues. stream gavel-to-gavel coverage and follow along on our live
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blog. check out our columnists today who discuss whether liberals can find any common ground with the g.o.p., and compare cleveland's declining middle class with the rest of the u.s. find all that and more on our web site, that's all from washington for now. i'm hari sreenivasan. >> woodruff: and from here in cleveland, that's the newshour for tonight. but stay with us. we will be right back here at 8:00 p.m. eastern for live special coverage of the republican national convention. i'm judy woodruff. >> ifill: and i'm gwen ifill. for all of us at the pbs newshour, thank you and we'll see you back here soon. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: >> xq institute.
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>> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc captioned by media access group at wgbh
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