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tv   PBS News Hour  PBS  July 21, 2016 3:00pm-4:00pm PDT

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captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc >> woodruff: good evening, i'm judy woodruff. >> ifill: and i'm gwen ifill. >> woodruff: we bring you the newshour tonight from the quicken loans arena in cleveland, ohio. site of the 2016 republican national convention. >> ifill: a defiant ted cruz shakes up the republican convention, as nominee donald trump prepares to take the stage. >> woodruff: and i sit down with the party's vice presidential pick, mike pence, on what he'd bring to a trump presidency, and the nominee's recent foreign policy remarks. >> it's been a long time since nato was created and i also think donald trump has spoken very wisely about the need to rethink the mission of nato. >> sreenivasan: i'm hari sreenivasan in washington.
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>> ifill: all that and more on tonight's pbs newshour. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: >> lincoln financial-- committed to helping you take charge of your financial future. >> and by the alfred p. sloan foundation. supporting science, technology, and improved economic performance and financial literacy in the 21st century.
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>> supported by the rockefeller foundation. promoting the well-being of humanity around the world by building resilience and inclusive economies. more at rockefellerfoundation.org >> carnegie corporation of new york. supporting innovations in education, democratic engagement, and the advancement of international peace and security. at carnegie.org. >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions: and individuals. >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you.
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>> ifill: for donald j. trump, the moment is at hand. the republican presidential nominee addresses this convention, and the nation, tonight. it comes as the campaign is making a bid for unity, after a day, if not a week, of division. correspondent lisa desjardins begins our coverage. >> reporter: today's walk- through for donald trump and daughter ivanka at the podium where they will each speak tonight was customary. and then, came the mike test: >> i love the media. they're so honest. they're such honorable people. i love cleveland. i love ohio. it's great to be here. thank you everybody. and they're doing a great job. and the police are doing an incredible job. thank you very much. >> reporter: but much of the day was dominated by what happened last night when trump's primary challenger, texas senator ted cruz, balked at endorsing the nominee.
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>> stand and speak and vote your conscience. vote for candidates up and down the ticket who you trust to defend our freedom and to be faithful to the constitution. >> reporter: as he finished, cruz was booed off the stage. ( crowd booing ) and his wife heidi was escorted off the convention floor to safety, while trump delegates vented their anger. >> i'm ticked! who does he think he is? he lost. he's a poor loser. i'm ashamed of him. he's done as far as i'm concerned in the republican party. >> reporter: some cruz supporters, on the other hand, defended their man: >> i don't blame him either way. you know, it was a very bruising primary. i think some of trump's attacks on him were nasty and personal. and so i can understand why there's still some hesitation, but again, it's a decision of conscience. >> reporter: later, trump took to twitter to say: "ted cruz got booed off the stage, didn't
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honor the pledge to support the party's nominee. i saw his speech two hours early, but let him speak anyway. no big deal!" during the primaries, trump had referred to cruz as "lying ted" and attacked his family members. this morning, the senator showed no sign of backing down, at a breakfast for his home state's delegation. >> i am not in the habit of supporting people who attack my wife and attack my father. that pledge was not a blanket commitment that if you go and slander and attack heidi that i'm gonna nonetheless come like a servile puppy dog and say 'thank you for maligning my wife and maligning my father.' >> reporter: cruz would not say if he'll vote for trump, but said he would never vote for democrat hillary clinton. trump campaign chair paul manafort argued that the show of party divisions may actually rally republicans behind trump. >> in a backhanded way, even with what senator cruz did, we
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think mr. trump's commitment to unifying the party was enhanced last night. senator cruz, the strict constitutionalist, chose not to accept the strict terms of the pledge that he signed. so as far as the contract was concerned, he was the one in violation, not anybody else. >> reporter: all of that demonstrates why unity will be at the top of the agenda on this fourth and final night of the convention, with the theme "make america one again." speakers leading up to trump's keynote address are expected to talk up solidarity, leadership, and trust, all in an effort to shore up support for their candidate. the line-up includes tech billionaire peter thiel, a co- founder of paypal, and oklahoma governor mary fallin, co-chair of the republican platform committee. many of those outside the quicken loans arena, are braving scorching heat to show their opposition to trump. demonstrators took to the streets this afternoon, and plan to rally again this evening. over the convention's first three days, there've been about two dozen arrests-- far fewer
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than initially expected. for the pbs newshour in cleveland, i'm lisa desjardins. >> ifill: we head down to the convention floor/podium now. npr's weekend edition sunday host rachel martin is with us this week and next for our joint pbs newshour/npr coverage of the conventions. rachel, what are you watching for tonight? >> reporter: well, there's a whole lot of electricity in the hall, as you might imagine, gwen, because this is the big night. this is when donald trump comes outs and accepts his party's nomination to be president of the united states, but as you heard in lisa's reporting, it's been a tumultuous few days and there are a lot of sore feelings after ted cruz's speech last night, so people here today are ready to turn the page. they're going to be looking to donald trump to if yo unify this party. in the speech he's about to give, we'll hear a lot of the themes we've heard throughout the week -- an unsteady world, it's a chaotic world.
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he wants to be the strong and steady arm that can steer america in the right direction. could be the most scripted thing we've seen him, but his son said he might go off script, which his supporters are probably looking forward to. judy and >> woodruff: earlier today, i sat down with vice presidential nominee, indiana governor mike pence here in the cleveland arena for an in-depth interview about the convention, the race ahead, and how his own views match up, or don't, with those of the man who chose him. governor mike pence, congratulations on your nomination to be vice president. >> thank you, judy. we're very humbled. >> woodruff: in your speech last night, i don't think there were very many dry eyes when you gestured up in the stands to your mother. >> nor mine. >> woodruff: and you thanked her, you went on to talk about your family growing up, what was that moment like? >> it was very emotional. very emotional.
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my father emigrated to this country. my mom grew up in a family of immigrants. to the hill i could walk out on -- to think i could walk out on stage and accept my party's nomination to the vice president of the united states and to share that moment with my mother and my wife and three children was almost inexpressible. >> woodruff: speaking of family, one of the other major speakers last night was senator ted cruz, who in saying why he's not endorsing donald trump, cited his own family. he said he could not bring himself to support somebody who had criticized his wife and father, and he's referring, of course, to donald trump, saying his father was involved in the assassination of john f. kennedy. do you understand why this is a hard thing for senator cruz?
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>> senator ted cruz is my friend. i'm glad he came to the republican national convention. i was glad we heard also from marco rubio, chris christie and a great speech from scott walker. but i recognize primaries are difficult. we had a field of outstanding pry -- outstanding candidates and primaries get a little rough. it takes time for people to get beyond those things. i'm glad he came and shared our conservative values and i think as time goes on, you will continue to see more and more republicans, independents and many democrats rally to that cause and we'll elect donald trump as the next president of the united states. >> woodruff: you have said very corch complimentary thingst donald trump, and you have spent
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your gyre life as a deep believer in christian conservative values. that has not been a center piece of donald trump's campaign. do you think you will be able, with your own beliefs, to persuade him on issues like lgbt rights, on, i don't know, the issue of abortion? do you think you can change his views in those areas? >> well, i think donald trump is pro-life, and i believe in the sanctity of life, and we've had some heart-to-heart conversations about the supreme court of the united states and about the importance of making sure that our next president appoints justices to the supreme court who will not only uphold the rule of law but that will advance the principles enshrined in the constitution of the united states. i'm grateful for donald trump's pro-life views, and i'm grateful he's expressed those views so publicly and openly. look, the american people know
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that there are issues that divide us very quickly, and they're issues that are often matters of the heart for every american, but the challenges facing our country today i think have even more even to do with america's place in the world with a struggling economy that isn't producing the jobs that americans long to see with the kind of economic policies that seem to have other countries winning and america losing. donald trump is speaking about those issues, judy, and i think that's why not only do you see tremendous unity in the republican party but a lot of independents and democrats that are being drawn to this movement, and i'm excited about the chance to continue to carry that message across the country. >> woodruff: let me ask you about foreign policy. donald trump gave an interview in the "new york times" where he said if russia attacked one to have the small baltic nations, that h he would come to their aid only after reviewing their
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commitment to n.a.t.o., whether they fulfill their obligations to us, as he put it. this is a departurer from not only republican views but mainstream thinking in this country. it's been supported by a majority of presidents going back to harry truman. what do you say to the citizens of the n.a.t.o. countries that donald trump is prepared to come in their aid. >> donald trump made it clear he would stand by our allies and hold up our treaty obligations, n.a.t.o. america keeps its word and donald trump keeps its word. but what we're also going to do is say to our allies that it's time for them to pay their fair share. we provide an enormous amount of resources, particularly with regard to military resources, to
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countries all over the world, and in many cases those countries are not compensating the american taxpayer for the commitment we're making to their security. >> woodruff: doesn't this inject doubt as to whether america will be there to support them? >> no, i don't read the "new york times" every day, but i think the article said we would absolutely, is the word he used, absolutely stand by our allies and treaty obligations. but that's not -- it's a separate question, but it's just as important that we don't continue to burden the taxpayers of america with these commitments all across the globe that we say to other countries with whom we stand in solidarity and in their defense and the defense of their freedom that we need you to partner with us. i mean, it's been a long time since n.a.t.o. was created, and i also think donald trump has spoken very wisely about the need to re-think the mission of n.a.t.o. it was a cold war alliance, but
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now we face, in many ways, a more asymmetrical threat with the rise of radical islamic terrorism in rethinking n.a.t.o.'s mission and its ability to confront that threat to our freedom is just as important. >> woodruff: he made a couple of other points in the article, one having to do with turkey where there is been enormous turmoil and attempted coup, he said he didn't believe the u.s. should try to pressure the president of turkey who has been rounding people up, imprisoning people, shutting down news organizations. where are you in terms of whether the united states should be supporting and espousing democratic values, small-d democratic values in other countries that are going through a situation like this? >> i don't think we have to choose between standing by a strategic ally and articulating our commitment to democracy and
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individual freedom. we've done that throughout our history. with regard to turkey, i have been to ankara. turkey is a democracy. we certainly, in the future, ought to encourage our ally to live up to their own democratic institutions and ideals. but make no mistake about it, with the rise of radical islamic terrorism in the world, with the rise of i.s.i.s., our alliance with turkey is more important than ever before. the ability to have access, to move resources into the region and also, most importantly, to engage turkey fully in the battle against global terrorism, it's about protecting the american people. so absolutely yes, we should stand by our allies, but we should also stand by our ideals and work with our allies and encourage them to live up to the democratic institutions and
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traditions that they enjoy. >> woodruff: you've long been a proponent of free trade. >> still am. >> woodruff: how do you square that with saying we would scrap nafta and other treaties in a second unless he could make sure that other countries like canada and mexico do something to benefit american -- >> i support free trade and donald trump supports free trade. trade means jobs. jobs in the united states and my home state of indiana are support bid international exports. but it doesn't mean that we don't work hard to make sure that those are good deals. inafta has a provision in it tht called for periodic reviews of countries who had signed the treaty to ensure that the deal was working for everybody. what i hear donald trump saying about that deal and about other trade deals is let's keep looking and make sure that, as we continue to expand our economic relationships with countries around the region and
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around the world, that we're doing it in a way that's a win for the american worker and for american jobs. >> woodruff: last question. a lot of, i should say the talk at this convention from the stage and delegates has been pretty harsh criticism of hillary clinton. we've heard "lock her up," we've seen the signs "hillary to prison," talk of indicting her. as someone who's been outspoken against negative campaigning, do you think it's been over the top as even some republicans have said and do you think it's been a wasted opportunity, so far, to talk about what's positive about donald trump? >> well, first, i think that's what freedom looks like. the american people get to express themselves in the ways at the they choose -- in the ways they choose. but i have to tell you, in this convention, i've sensed a tremendous amount of energy and
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unity not around the personalities but around the choice we face this fall. in donald trump, you have someone who will bring real change to washington, d.c. he's a bold leader, distinctly american. he doesn't play by the old fashioned rules. he's going to washington, d.c., break up the status quo, and i believe get this economy moving again and having america standing tall in the world. hillary clinton by contrast is the very embodiment of the failed status quo that republicans, democrats and independents are tired of and weary of. now, i want to be clear -- >> woodruff: but for the last three months "lock her up" has been a refrain we have been hearing. >> people are frustrated. $19 trillion in debt that just hasn't been piled up in democratic administrations, it's been nearly doubled in this administration. i've battled against big spenders in my own party when i
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was in congress. the truth is the american people are looking at washington, d.c. and saying enough is enough. we want a different type of leadership and different direction for this country and i truly believe that donald trump will be the next president of the united states. >> woodruff: different, but does it have to be so negative is my question. >> i think we have to lay out the choice for the american people. it's a choice between change and the status quo. i do believe, we get out, work our hearts out, carry our message to the american people, a positive vision, but also laying out the choice and the stakes, i truly believe we'll have a great victory for the american people this fall. >> woodruff: after a tough campaign. governor mike pence, the republican nominee for vice president. thank you very much. >> thank you, judy. good to see you again. >> woodruff: from there we go to our team of analysts here in the booth who will be with us all evening. david brooks of the "new york times," the newshour's mark shields, and amy walter of the "cook political report."
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so let's talk a little bit about what you heard david brooks. mike pence and donald trump? >> he calms things down. he's a very conventional conservative, very pretty orthodox conservative, somebody who's been involved in republican circles forever, sweet disposition, and takes the things donald trump says and makes them seem normal. when you to have the things the trump campaign has to do is make him seem like a normal candidate. pence is good at that. >> woodruff: amy? he h's incredibly on message. this is the one person you don't have to worry about freelancing. what we've seen at this convention and from some of the other candidates in the race for vice president like newt gingrich, they're going to go off on their own rif and tangent. mike pence is going to do what the trump campaign needs him to do, period, exclamation point. the other thing the pence
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campaign does besides soothe trump, is you can send mike pence to any one of the battleground states where the senate majority is on the line and candidates will want to stand with him, even the candidates who won't show up at trump rally. >> woodruff: you have to listen carefully to judy's conversation with mike pence to realize he's actually disagreeing with the gray whose ticket he's on, so when he says he's going to go and have a heart to heart when they have mild disagreements, not that people care when presidents and vice presidents agree all the time, does that mean he can engineer a change of heart if he feels strongly about something? >> probably not. that's not the historic role of vice presidents. they don't have that much influence on the presidential candidate that's won the nomination. the only person with a vote in the vice presidential nomination is the presidential candidate. mike pence is the first
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reaganesque figure, in the sense ronald reagan was an upbeat, reassuring and civil. in the appealing figure in the conversation with judy, there wasn't the adversarial or the chip on the shoulder. that's not part of mike pence. his speech was quite reaganesque in putting a smiling face on conservatism which has been missing this week. >> it should be said this is not like the distinction between joe biden and barack obama or ronald reagan and george bush. this is not like we have two guys in the party and they have some differences. this is here and here. mike pence is a futuristic politician, donald trump is a fear oriented, backward looking, closed in politician. >> ifill: blest talk about other things going on. we'll hear from trump the big acceptance speech.
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all along it's been overshadowed about what ted cruz did last night. they're not talking about mike pence or what donald trump is expected to department of they're talking about ted cruz poked the candidate in the eye. amy. >> i've never been in a convection where so much time and energy was spent on what's going to happen in the next election than this one. ted cruz did it most aggressively by basically coming out to somebody's party and, you know, just spilling the drinks everywhere. every other candidate has also gone up there and done a much more subtle way of saying, you know what, i have a different vision of where our country is going and where the party needs to go than donald trump does. i'm going to stand up here and say that he's the nominee. that doesn't mean they're all lining up behind him. this last day, though, this is donald trump's day. he's not going to rescue this convention. it's still going down in history
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as being unconventional and disruptive, but he has a chance here to make a good impression, and i think the good news for him is that the bar is much lower than it was before we started this. >> woodruff: mark shields, what is the burden for donald trump? >> well, the burden, just one quick thing on ted cruz and that is he had a chance, like ronald reagan did in 1976 in kansas city, to make the case for electing -- or, you know, really separating himself as a distinct political figure. he chose not to, and as jeb bush and john kasich chose not to endorse and honor their pledge to endorse, they stayed away. he came to the room to do it, high-risk politics for him. as far as our nominee trump, tonight, judy, he's got to excite his base and unite the country. it's a mood for change in the
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country, but the problem with donald trump is the change he represents to the majority of americans is not assuring, it's unreassuring, and i think that's his job tonight, especially to lay out a jobs program. >> woodruff: david brooks. first, on cruz, i start with the proposition that trump is not a normal politician. he doesn't cross the threshold and this will end very badly for him either in november and beyond. and if you start with that premise what ted cruz did while nakedly ambitious was courageous and probably the right thing to do if your party is sliding into some sort of chaotic land hollowed out, then if you stand to thwartist ri, you will be reminded and rewarded in years to come as no other would be. donald trump picked law and order as his theme so he has to persuade americans their fundamental problem is violence and crime and terrorism is the
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first thing affecting their lives and they need a guy like him. i'm not sure that's true but that's the tax he assigned himself. >> ifill: david brooks, mark shields, amy walter, thank you very much. tune in later tonight beginning 8:00 p.m. for the special npr/pps coverage of the republican national convention in cleveland. now back to hari sreenivasan. >> sreenivasan: in the day's other news, donald trump raised hackles at nato after suggesting he would not automatically defend allies against russia, unless they pay more of the cost. he told "the new york times": "if they fulfill their obligations to us, the answer is 'yes'." the head of nato said two world wars prove peace in europe is also important to u.s. security. in france, investigators say the man behind the deadly truck attack in nice may have started planning a year ago. mohamed bouhlel killed 84 people last week when he hurtled down a beachside promenade packed with bastille day revelers. now, a search of his phone
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suggests he'd been thinking about it for months. >> ( translated ): it found photographs dating back to july 14, 2015, yes i said 2015, of nice's fireworks. and it found a photograph of a newspaper article dating back to january 1, 2016 appearing in a local nice newspaper, headlined and i quote: 'man charges into a restaurant terrace with a truck.' >> sreenivasan: five suspects already in custody are facing terrorism charges for allegedly aiding in the attack. federal police in brazil say they've broken up a possible terror plot during the summer olympics. brazil's justice minister says 10 suspects pledged allegiance to the islamic state group and talked of striking during the games. he says they had no specific targets yet. the olympics begin in rio de janeiro on august 5. the highest tribunal in sports today rejected russia's appeals to let its track and field athletes compete in rio. they have been banned over allegations of systematic, state-sponsored doping. ian payne of independent
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television news reports from lausanne, switzerland. >> the court dismissed the request filed by the russian olympic committee and 68 russian athletes. so 68 russian tracken field athletes are banned from rio unless they can prove they've not been involved in doping. so stars such as double olympic poll vaulting champion elena who trains in russia will not appear. she described the position as the if you remember of athletes. the i.o.c. must decide whether to ban the entire russian team which han 82 medals in 2012 including 22 govmentdz russian sport has been in the dark for the last 18 months and this week a report claimed russian secret agents swapped positive drug tests at their laboratory surgt so muchy winter games. in russia, the reaction was of sadness and agoer as they prepared for the games. for some reason, clean sportsmen
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who have never been caught doping would have to carry this responsibility for someone else. elsewhere, the reaction was different. >> i definitely feel you should take action. if you feel banning the whole team is the right action, then i'm all for it, you know what i mean? >> the attention will switch to the international olympic committee who also have their headquarters here and legally have the right to ban the entire russian team. >> sreenivasan: the i.o.c. executive >> sreenivasan: the i.o.c. executive board meets sunday to consider that question. back in this country, florida's state law enforcement agency will investigate the police shooting of an unarmed black man, in north miami. behavioral therapist charles kinsey says he was trying to return an autistic patient who had wandered off monday. cellphone video showed kinsey down on his back with his hands up, and identifying himself,
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before he was shot. he spoke from his hospital bed yesterday. >> i'm standing and said, sir, why did you shoot me? in his words he said, i don't know. as long as i got my hands up, they're not going to shoot me, is what i'mwthinking. wow, was i wrong. >> sreenivasan: the police chief said his officers had been told there was a man with a gun, threatening to kill himself. it turned out the autistic man had a toy truck. the u.s. justice department filed suit today to block two major mergers in the health insurance industry. aetna wants to buy humana for $34 billion, while anthem is trying to buy cigna for $48 billion. justice officials say the deals would hurt competition, and consumers. the companies say getting larger will help them cut prices. fox news channel c.e.o. roger ailes has resigned. parent company 21st century fox announced it late today, and said it's effective immediately. ailes faced growing allegations of sexual harassment. and, on wall street, stocks gave some ground after a week-plus rally.
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the dow jones industrial average lost 77 points to close at 18,517. the nasdaq fell 16 points, and the s&p 500 slipped seven. and, the national basketball association is moving next year's all-star game from charlotte, north carolina, over a state law on transgender bathrooms. the statute requires people to use public restrooms matching their sex at birth. a league statement says it wants all people to feel welcome at its events, and will choose another city. >> sreenivasan: vice president joe biden spoke with turkish president about demock sivment this comes as a crackdown after last friday's coup in turkey continues and today the parliament cemented emergency legislation giving the government expanded powers. from istanbul correspondent
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marcia biggs begins our coverage. >> reporter: across turkey this morning, reactions to the declaration of emergency ranged from fearful to welcoming: >> ( translated ): i think it could make things worse in a country where we have no freedoms. >> ( translated ): i think this is the right move under the current circumstances. we are going through difficult times. >> reporter: the move follows last friday's failed military coup attempt, which killed nearly 250 people and wounded hundreds more. in his announcement last night, turkish president recep tayyip erdogan vowed to cleanse what he called "viruses" in the armed forces. >> ( translated ): this measure is in no way against democracy, the law and freedoms. on the contrary it aims to protect and strengthen them. >> reporter: erdogan's government had already embarked on a sweeping crackdown of mass arrests and mass firings since the coup.
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but parliament's overwhelming approval of the state of emergency fully authorizes him to impose laws by fiat, hold prisoners in jail longer and take other actions. turkey's markets reacted with a slide, as the lira tumbled to a near-record low. and governments around the globe reacted cautiously. germany called for emergency rule to end as quickly as possible. and in washington, the white house also urged ankara not to go too far. >> the united states is not going to micromanage the situation in turkey. but i think we are going to send a clear, unmistakable signal of support for the democratic institutions of turkey. >> reporter: journalist andrew finkel has lived in turkey for almost 30 years. he spoke to us in istanbul. what does this mean for erdogan and his power? >> that means he will be free to move against people he perceives to be his opponents and his enemies. >> reporter: are there any limits to this? >> it would be a brave person to try to impose these limits. even before the coup we were
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headed down an autocratic path >> reporter: erdogan's government blames opposition cleric fetulah gulen and his followers for the coup. gulen now lives in the u.s., in exile. >> he preaches a non-violent variant of islam, most people would call it a moderate view of islam, but his followers were active and many believe his followers pursued a policy of getting themselves in positions of authority in the bureaucracy police, judiciary, et cetera ,et cetera, in order to affirm the movement. >> reporter: here in turkey, many of those followers attended more than 650 schools founded by gulen that teach some 200,000 students. once strong allies, erdogan and gulen finally broke in 2013 after gulen accused erdogan and his party of corruption, even supplying videotaped evidence.
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>> mr. erdogan resented the gulenist move on to occupy positions of power. >> reporter: can the country handle losing all these people, can it keep running? >> it's 60,000 people, one third of the officer corps, colonels or generals or above. you know who's guarding the store. >> reporter: the numbers of people affected by this purge are staggering. 30,000 people were suspended from their jobs in civil service, 9,000 people were taken into custody, 21,000 teachers had their licenses revoked. yet among all these people, we were unable to find anyone who felt free enough to talk to us about it. >> reporter: senel karatas is the director of istanbul human rights authority. this week she has been helping the families of soldiers in custody, allegedly tortured by government authorities after the coup. we spoke to her yesterday. >> reporter: what does the purge mean for you, someone who fights human rights violations on a daily basis? >> ( translated ): since the
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coup, we've seen an extreme rise of abuses and maybe suspension of human rights. people are very it was really good that so many people have solidarity against the coup and prevented it. but some people on the streets started to use this atmosphere as an opportunity for revenge >> reporter: are you scared for yourself, for your country? >> ( translated ): the state of emergency is the main concern for the future of democracy. it will lead to a rise in human rights abuses and we will fall into despair. >> reporter: since our interview, turkey has now suspended its commitment to the european commission on human rights. the deputy prime minister insisted today that "standards of the european court of human rights will be upheld," but he did not elaborate. for now, senel says she will wait and see, and continue her work. for the pbs newshour, i'm marcia biggs in istanbul. >> sreenivasan: turkey's commitment to the court is but one challenge facing europe in the wake of the attempted coup. from the fight against isis to stemming the flow of migrants and refugees from the middle east and africa, we explore
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europe's options. earlier this evening, i sat down with frederica mogherini, the e.u.'s top diplomat. she is in washington for a donor conference, raising money for humanitarian aid to iraq. thanks for joining us. >> thank you very much for inviting me. >> sreenivasan: all right, so first things first. in the past week, turkey has been going through a significant amount of turmoil. there was an attempted coup, they have detained and fired tens of thousands of people, they are now declaring a state of emergency, and they're saying they want to bring back the death penalty. aren't these the type of violations of human rights or civil liberties that should stop them from becoming a member of the e.u.? >> what is happening in turkey is extremely important for europe and america and we were saying together with secretary kerry as it was important to stop the coup, it is very important that the reaction to the coup is one that takes into consideration human rights, rule
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of law, and we're seeing in these days things that are completely unacceptable, being that against the word of university or media, the judiciary, and we are saying very clearly and loud, both europeans and americans together, that, yes, the state institutions needs to be preserved democratically, so the president, government, parliament, but that fundamental freedoms have to be respected and protected and we're going to continue this way. >> sreenivasan: what's the leverage that the e.u. has? will you say to turkey, if you do this, you're not going to become a part of the e.u.? >> we said it clearly, first, if you introduce that penalty that was abolished exactly for negotiations to enter the european union, if you reintroducing the death penalty, you won't become a member of the european union. that's clear. >> sreenivasan: you've slowed the flow of migrants coming from
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turkey into greece. if they can keep people coming from turkey to greece, perhaps theine can take people from syria. what if turkey says, stay out of our business, we have to deal with the attempted coup and take the measures we have to take and what if they decide to let people through and go back to europe again? >> the deal we had with turkey had nothing to do with the swap. what we have decided to do and are doing is to support the hosting of syrian refugees in turkey as we're doing in jordan or lebanon. that's the humanitarian thing and, by the way, it's also a security issue. i'm here in washington today because secretary kerry invited the anti-daesh coalition security meeting, it has to do with manage the situation in syria, with the influence in countries and turkey is hosting the largest number at this
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moment. we have to make the lives of sit's in refugees sustainable and the turkish hosting communities sustainable, so it's humanitarian. it's aimed also at preventing radicalization among the syrian refugees. it's important. it's in our interest. it's in the interest of the old interpretational community, and we're going to continue that way. >> sreenivasan: when you talk about radicalization, that is something europe is facing much, much closer than even the united states. what do you do to try to stop the attackers that struck in paris, brussels and nice? >> it's important america and europe stays together and works together in this respect. we have a partnership between america and europe that is as strong as ever and it's extremely important to face the challenge together. it's not something that comes from the outside of our societies. we see it here and in europe.
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it's people that were born and raised in our own societies, so there is part of our work that is focused on defeating daesh on the ground in syria, iraq, but also libya and elsewhere, but is also a cull cure, i would say, a social part of the work, that is aimed at preventing our own youth to get radicalized. take the case of nice, somebody who was radicalized in a few weeks' time, so somehow violence is somehow pre-seeding the radicalization. it has nothing to do with religion and much more with violence. so this is what we're doing together with our friends and a strong component on the asian partners in this effort because the risk is not only for europe, it's for the united states, for the middle east, obviously, but also for asia, as we've seen in many different places. it's a global effort, and this is why we need america to stay
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engaged. >> sreenivasan: speaking of america, you've said part of the strategy going forward for the e.u. is to strengthen e.u. relations with the n.a.t.o. allies. the republican candidate for president just said he would make n.a.t.o. response to a crisis conditional on those countries paying more for the protection. what do you think of that? >> you know, in europe, we are strengthening our defense capabilities, including, also, investment in defense capabilities. but i think that everybody here in america understands very well that n.a.t.o. has provided peace and security, not only for europe, but for all the western world, for so many decades. it's part of our history. i think it's part of our future. when n.a.t.o. is investing in security also in europe, it's doing that also for america's security. >> sreenivasan: is there a position that the european union might take if donald trump does come into power and if he wants to implement the strategy?
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>> i have my own personal opinions, preferences, political views, but the point is europe and america need to work together, are bound to work together. in a world like this with terrorism, conflicts, crisis, dangers everywhere, you need friends, and europe and america are the best friends we can find on both sides of the atlantic. so on the european side, we are committed to work with america in any circumstances, with any president that is elected. what i can say, though, is i remember well when obama was elected in 2008 in his first speech in chicago, he was saying about restoring friendships and alliances that were, let's say, going through difficult times. i think he dillard o -- deliverd on this and i can only hope the next president will do the same. >> sreenivasan: frederica mogherini, thanks so much for joining us. >> thank you.
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>> sreenivasan: next, our series 'the end of aids' wraps up in south africa, where this week, many of the world's top scientists, researchers and advocates are meeting in durban. among the topics: is the end of aids really a possibility? perhaps no nation has paid as steep a toll from aids as south africa has. but, as correspondent william brangham and producer jason kane report, few other nations are doing as much to push back against the virus. this is the final report in our series, which has been supported by the pulitzer center on crisis reporting. >> brangham: as the world races to end the h.i.v./aids epidemic, many are looking to south africa, which has more ground to cover than anywhere else. they're sending out fleets of bike messengers to deliver life- saving drugs. they're testing as many people as they can, educating others, running some of the world's top, state-of-the-art research labs. they're even trying this: surfing lessons as h.i.v.
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prevention. south africa has more people infected with h.i.v. than any nation on earth. over six million people here are infected. and only half of those are being treated, so south africa also has one of the greatest challenges. >> one out of every five people living with h.i.v. in the world lives right here in south africa. >> brangham: salim abdool karim is one of the leaders of south africa's fight against h.i.v./aids. he runs caprisa, a major research lab in durban. >> we estimate there are about 1000 new h.i.v. infections in south africa each day. >> brangham: every single day? >> every single day. and what's critical in that, it's not just that there's all this h.i.v., but that young women are a key factor in the highest incidence populations. >> brangham: this is the desmond tutu h.i.v. foundation youth
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centre in masiphumelele township in cape town. this is the place that uses surfing, among other things, to keep kids engaged in its h.i.v. program. here, linda-gail bekker is trying to prevent young women from ever getting h.i.v. in the first place. some studies indicate that up to 8% of teenage girls will become infected every year in parts of south africa before they reach their mid-20s. >> these are unprecedented around the world. we have to do something about this. >> brangham: bekker's center is trying something few other places in the world are trying: they're offering uninfected teenage girls "prep"-- it stands for 'pre-exposure prophylaxis.' and as we've reported in this series it's a once-a-day pill which greatly lowers your risk of becoming infected if you're exposed to h.i.v. >> you need to take your pill every day so that you can stay protected by the pill. >> brangham: bekker says, this isn't just crucial h.i.v. prevention for these young women, it's also empowerment. too often, she says, young girls
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here have very little say in their own sexual lives and sexual health. >> by not taking your pill you might be in risk of getting h.i.v. >> for the first time, we have something that works if people take it, but it works for them. it's in their hands. so, young woman can swallow a pill a day, she is in control, she decides whether she swallows that pill or not, and she does not have to have a conversation with her male partner about what he does or doesn't do under the circumstance. >> brangham: of course, these innovations come after a very dark history that drove the spread of h.i.v. in south africa. for years, apartheid-era laws created a system where black men were forced to travel long distances from their rural homes to find work, often in the nation's mines. many slept with h.i.v. positive sex-workers, and then brought the virus home to different regions. but even after the end of apartheid, and as the h.i.v. epidemic deepened, former- president thabo mbeki questioned
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whether h.i.v. even caused aids. >> how does a virus cause a syndrome? >> brangham: mbeki was widely criticized for hindering south africa's response to the epidemic. one study estimates his policies led to the deaths of over 300,000 south africans. mbeki was president when mpumi mevana was diagnosed with h.i.v. >> i was diagnosed in the corridor by the doctor in johannesburg hospital. 'no, my dear, we can't help you in this situation, because you're h.i.v. positive.' so, i went home that day, thinking that, this is the end of the story for me. i'm waiting for the day i'm going to die. this 37 year old single mother from soweto is almost completely blind, because of a virus that can strike h.i.v. positive people who aren't getting treatment. but, in a sign of the times, mevana is now being treated in one of the most innovative clinics in johannesburg. the "right to care" clinics treat more people with h.i.v. in south africa than anyone else. it's 9:30 in the morning, and they've already seen 300 patients so far. they see 12-15,000 a month.
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ian sanne is the founding director and c.e.o. >> this clinic happens to be the most efficient clinic in south africa. it's probably one of the largest. >> brangham: sanne's goal is to bring the most modern technologies to bear on h.i.v. treatment in south africa. they've built a robotic pharmacy to speed drug dispensing >> first you insert your card in there... >> brangham: they've built this prototype atm-like machine to dispense h.i.v. drugs far away from clinics. they use electronic medical records, and barcoding throughout the system. and wait times in many south african clinics can be more than half a day, but here, sanne says they average less than an hour he says: remember, south africa still has over three million people more people who aren't being treated today, so every facility nationwide has to scale up: >> in my view, we don't have a choice. we actually have to make this work. >> how do we successfully run this world's biggest treatment program? >> brangham: dr. aaron motsoaledi is south africa's minister of health, he points out that south africa
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has made huge gains in recent years. in 2004, only 400,000 were being treated for h.i.v. today, 3.4 million are. in 2004, 70,000 babies a year were born h.i.v. positive, but treatment has brought that down to less than 6,000 a year. but motsoaledi says achieving these advances in so short a period of time has stretched the country's resources thin. >> there's no way on earth you could increase the number of doctors proportionately within a decade. >> brangham: so for now, the burden of south africa's expanded h.i.v. care falls the hardest on its health care workers: nobuhle ndlela is a nurse in a rural part of kwazulu-natal in eastern south africa. her day starts early: getting her girls off to school before she drives to the h.i.v. clinic where she works kwazulu-natal is one of the most h.i.v. infected regions on the planet. at the local hospital, people routinely show up with advanced aids. they're often also infected with
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tuberculosis, another epidemic that's plaguing south africa. t.b. is the leading cause of death for hiv positive positive people here. it's estimated that in many pockets of kwazulu-natal, one out of every three adults is infected with h.i.v. at the clinic where ndlela works, she says the stream of patients coming through her door is overwhelming. too much. i used to see 260, usually, per day. but, on the fourth of this month, april. there were 305. >> brangham: 305? >> yes. >> brangham: in one day? >> in one day. so and it became even difficult for me to observe the patient properly. >> brangham: one of those patients was this woman with her back to us. she asked that we not show her face, or use her name she's just been diagnosed with h.i.v. she said she stares at the sheet of paper with her result on it for hours in disbelief. >> i was, i didn't expect it to be like that. i was so shocked and surprised.
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so disappointed. i don't know how to explain it. >> brangham: she says she was infected by her boyfriend, who didn't know or didn't tell her about his own status. she hasn't yet told her two young sons the news. why? >> i'm not ready to tell them, even my family. i never said anything to them. so, it's not easy. >> brangham: what are you worried their reaction is going to be? there's a lot of people in this community that have it, it's-- there's no shame in having this disease. >> they will think i'm going to die. they will not feel comfortable about it. >> brangham: it obviously doesn't feel this way to her, but she's one of the lucky ones. consistent h.i.v. medication, which she'll now get, can prolong her life for decades. she can still work, still be a mom. this is the challenge for so much of south africa today-- find the people who are infected with h.i.v. but don't know it. persuade them to start treatment and sustain that treatment for
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the rest of their lives. >> the problem is, it's not that we don't know what to do, it's a challenge of trying to do what we know works. and to do it at a scale, where we can really make a difference. >> brangham: after a long day treating hundreds of h.i.v. patients, nobhule ndlala is tired but not defeated. she has a few hours with her daughters, to pray and to sing and to rest before she starts again wrestling against an epidemic. for the pbs newshour, i'm william brangham in kwazulu- natal, south africa. >> sreenivasan: you can explore the entire series, "the end of aids," on our website pbs.org/newshour. that's it from washington for now. i'm hari sreenivasan. >> ifill: and from here in
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cleveland, that's the newshour for tonight. he promises an end to what we call provety and violence at home, war and destruction abroad and major tax relief and millions of new jobs. that's the "newshour" for tonight. i'm gwen ifill. >> cleveland, that's the newshour for tonight. but stay with us, we'll be back right here at 8:00 p.m. eastern for live special coverage of the republican national convention. >> woodruff: and i'm judy woodruff. for all of us at the pbs newshour, thank you and good night. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: >> lincoln financial-- committed to helping you take charge of your financial future.
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>> and the william and flora hewlett foundation, helping people build immeasurably better lives. >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc captioned by media access group at wgbh access.wgbh.org
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>> this is "bbc world news america." funding of this presentation is made possible by the freeman foundation, newman's own foundation, giving all profits from newman's own to charity and pursuing the common good, kovler foundation, pursuing solutions for america's neglected needs, and aruba tourism authority. >> planning a vacation escape that is relaxing, inviting, and exciting is a lot easier than you think. you can find it here, in aruba. families, couples, and friends can all find their escape on the

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