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tv   PBS News Hour  PBS  August 11, 2016 6:00pm-7:01pm PDT

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captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc >> woodruff: good evening, i'm judy woodruff. >> ifill: and i'm gwen ifill.f: >> woodruff: on the newshoure tonight, donald trump doubles down on his claim president obama and hillary clinton founded isis, as clinton lays out her vision for america'son economy. >> ifill: also ahead this thursday, the afghan army loses ground to taliban insurgents tightening their grip on afghanistan's key helmand >> woodruff: and, how new york city turned an abandoned railroad track into a beautiful park drawing millions ofo visitors. >> they see this, it's like they've discovered a found object, there's a sense of surprise and delight, it's real and authentic, it's not disney. >> ifill: all that and more on tonight's pbs newshour.
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>> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you.op thank you. >> ifill: from terrorism to taxes: the candidates duel over their visions of each other. hillary clinton talked economic policy. and donald trump repeatedly claimed that her failures, in the obama administration,ni allowed a deadly new enemy to emerge. >> oh boy, is isis hoping for her.s >> ifill: trump is stepping up s his effort to tie hillary clinton time as secretary of state to the rise of the islamic state.e this morning, in miami...
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>> you know, if you're a sports team, you have a most valuable player, the m.v.p. award. isis will hand her the most valuable player award.hae >> ifill: and last night in fort lauderdale, with this, about president obama:ll >> isis is honoring president obama.a: he is the founder of isis. he's the founder. he founded and, i would say the co-founder would be crooked hillary clinton. >> ifill: the republican nominee defended the line of attack, in a call-in today to cnbc: i t >> why is there something wrong with saying that? are people complaining that i said he was the founder of isis? >> i am wondering how you think that's going to play in some battleground states. >> i don't know whatever it is it is. >> ifill: the clinton campaign dismissed it all as trash- talking, and said: "it goes without saying that this is a false claim... he's echoing the talking points of (vladimir) putin and our adversaries to attack americanar leaders and american interests.t meanwhile, clinton ripped into trump's economic policies in a
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speech outside detroit. she charged he's outright scaree of free trade, and likened it to the olympics: >> if team usa was as fearful as trump, michael phelps and simone biles would be cowering in the ocker room afraid to come out to compete. (applause) instead they are winning gold medals. america isn't afraid to compete. >> ifill: clinton went on to cite a litany of issues that,th she said, trump remains silent on: >> he has offered no credible plans to address what working families up against today, nothing on student loans or the cost of prescription drugs, nothing for farmers or nothing for communities of color in our cities to overcome the barriers for systemic racism, nothing to create newmm opportunities for young people.e >> ifill: but even as clintong surges in the polls, there's new worry for democrats about a cyberattack blamed on russian
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hackers. "the new york times" reports they breached e-mail accounts of more than 100 party officialsnt and groups. that's on top of hacking of the democratic national committee, and the party's house campaign committee.atco d.n.c. chair debbie wasserman shultz was forced to step down when that news came to light on the eve of the party convention. house minority leader nancy pelosi addressed the issue in washington today:ea >> russians broke in. who did they give the info to? - i don't know. who dumped it? i don't know. but i do know this is a watergate like electronic break in. >> ifill: pelosi said she does not know whether her own e-mails were targeted. s and it's equally unclear what revelations may yet be coming from the hackers. we'll turn to the candidates' competing proposals on the economy, after the news summary. >> woodruff: in the day's other. news, american-backed militias claimed new progress in capturing the islamic state'sur last stronghold in libya. the militia forces say they'veay now liberated 70% of the city oe sirte.
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just a day earlier, they took control of several key sites there, including a sprawling convention center that isis fighters had used as a headquarters. >> ifill: australia is accusing asylum seekers of lying aboutf sexual abuse in offshore detention camps. more than 2,000 incidents allegedly happened on the island nation of nauru. but australia's immigration minister rejected the accounts today.n >> i just add a word of caution to some of the hype that's outwo there at the moment. if people have done the wrong thing, whether it's security guards, whether it's people in our employ directly orir elsewhere, then there's a price to pay for that. but bear in mind that some people do have a motivation to make a false complaint, and we have had instances where people have self-harmed in an effort to get to australia, and i'm not going to tolerate that behavior either.t >> ifill: australia refuses to accept asylum seekers trying to reach its shores by boat. it pays nauru and papua new guinea to hold them instead. >> woodruff: in the philippines,
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startling numbers today from aom crackdown on drugs. it began under new president rodrigo duterte, as of july 1. since then, police report killing 525 suspected dealers who, they say, put up a fight. in addition, they've arrested more than 7,600 suspects on charges of drug dealing. and, another half a million people have turned themselves in to authorities. human rights advocates are protesting the killings. >> ifill: back in this country, the u.s. drug enforcement administration balked at re- classifying marijuana as a lesser drug. instead, it stays on the list ot the most dangerous-- alongside heroin and ecstasy. there's a growing push to legalize pot. but the d.e.a. said it still ha. "a high potential for abuse."r >> woodruff: the scientists who found lead contamination in flint, michigan's water now say the problem has greatlyle improved. a team from virginia tech tested 162 homes in july and reported
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45% had no detectable levels of lead. that is up from just nine percent with no lead, a year ago. >> they're being implemented by the feds and state andre city ae really working and flint's system isots way to recover. now, that doesn't mean the current situation is acceptable. but this process of healing is going to continue. >> woodruff: for now, however, the researchers say all flint residents should continue to drink bottled or filtered watero >> ifill: on wall street, stocks followed oil prices higher aftet an international report forecast greater stability in the oil market. the dow jones industrial average gained nearly 118 points to close at 18,613. the nasdaq rose close to 24 points, and the s&p 500 added 10. >> woodruff: and, at the summer olympic games, americans finished one-two in the women's
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gymnastics individual all-around. simone biles cemented her placem as the best in the world, taking gold, and aly raisman was right behind her to grab silver. also today, american kayla harrison defended her olympic judo title from 2012. >> ifill: still to come on the newshour, how the presidentiale candidates' tax plans couldid affect your budget. a major setback for afghan security forces in helmand province. the new normal of slow economic growth, and much more. >> woodruff: few things are certain in life, and this campaign has certainly defied tradition. but when it comes to taxes, it's become clear: there are pretty big differences between the two major party candidates. lisa desjardins reports, part oa
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our ongoing look at issues shaping the election. >> reporter: taxes, among the most powerful of government policies, this week became the first head-to-head policy speeches between hillary clinton and donald trump. starting with trump, monday. >> i am proposing an across-the- board income tax reduction, especially for middle-incomeid americans. >> reporter: trump's plan? he would simplify the tax system to just three, smallerr rates and fewer deductions - his top rate would be 33% versu3 the current 39.6%. we don't yet know who would see which rates.o he's more specific on the estate tax, the tax on inheritances over $5.4 million. trump would eliminate that altogether, a benefit for farmers and wealthy families that republicans say is fair and positive. hillary clinton, in her economic speech in michigan today coulday not have disagreed more.
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>> multimillionaires should not be able to pay a lower tax rate than their secretaries. (applause) >> reporter: clinton would charge a minimum 30% tax onin incomes over a million dollars, and she'd raise the total tax rate to 43.6% for those making over five million. clinton would not change rates for the lower or middle class, clinton charges that trump's tax plan is a giveaway to themp wealthy-- especially one big change. >> in his speech on monday, he called for a new tax loophole-- let's call it the trump loophole-- because it wouldho allow him to pay less than half the current tax rate on income from many of his companies. >> reporter: clinton is talking about something complicated butg important, called pass-through here's how it works, classically, a business pays a 35% rate on taxable incomes. but some businesses, where the owner or family is the business,
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think about attorneys with their own firms, can pay using what's called a pass-through. in that case the business does not pay a corporate tax.t instead the company pays the owner and the owner pays an individual income tax of up to 39.6%. this exists so the owner isn't taxed twice, as a business and o individual. donald trump's plan would cut all corporate taxes to 15%. and he would set a new 15% rate for these 'pass-through' incomes, a huge cut that could apply to his own businesses. he responds that clinton and democrats overtax companies. >> all hillary clinton has to offer is more of the same: more taxes, more regulations, more bureaucrats, more restrictions on american energy and american production. >> reporter: different visions:> trump offering tax cuts to all, especially the wealthy. clinton pledging to tax the
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wealthy more and use that money for programs for the middle and lower classes, includingd targeted tax credits. for the pbs newshour, i'm lisa desjardins. >> woodruff: clearly there areuf still many other details to both of their plains, but let's focus in on some of the bigger differences of their approaches with neil irwin. he reports on business and economic issues for the "new york times." and, david wessel, director of the hutchins center on fiscal & monetary policy at the brookings institution, and a contributing correspondent for the "wall street journal." and we welcome both of you back to the program. so i think both of you agree with what we've just been hearing, the biggest differencet between clinton and trump are over how their tax plans treat the wealthy. david, spell that out a little bit more for us. what's the difference?er >> well, hillary clinton has a very clear strategy of increasing taxes on the wealthye she would increase the estate tax. she would increase the marginalr
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income tax rate on the highesthe income earners. trump, on the other hand, would lower taxes for pretty much everybody, but he would disproportionately lower them forrt people at the top and he would do away with the estate tax. in a sense, she wants to use tht tax code toinar oat gap between winners and losers in our economy, and we doesn't make that a priority. he wants to lower taxes and says that that will somehow unleash a burst of economy >> woodruff: neal, remind us how do we define "wealthy here? >> with hillary clinton the biggest surcharge is for people making over $5 million a year. y that's the very, very wealthy. but she has other provisions that affect people a littletl further down the income scale, some provisions making sure people making over $1 million pay at least 30%. that deals with the issue warren buffet talks about where middle-class people can have a higher rate than people when
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make their income through capital gains, to shift the burden to the affluent. a >> woodruff: let's talk. what the two of them would do when it comeses to corporationsr and businesses.d and i know there's a lot here, you know, we could focus on. but mainly, what are the differences between the two? >> the main difference is that donald trump wants toha cut thet tax on businesses, and she does not. it's pretty simple like that. she has a number of targeted tax breaks for businesses to encourage them to do things that she and her advisers think would be good for the economy-- more apprenticeships, more profit sharing. but he is willing to cut the rate, allow them to write off a lot more stuff more quickly. now, one advantage he has, he doesn't pay for and of this stuff. so she's very carefully, you increase this, you cut that. she's not making the long-termr deficit better but she's not making it worse.wo he seems unconcerned with that
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so he can give a lot more tax breaks. >> woodruff: so revenue overall to the treasury would go down. >> a lot. trillions of dollarss. >> woodruff: be more specific on that, neil. lisa referred to something called the pass-through, where if somebody owns a ps-- again, without confusing everybody-- what does that effectively meanm >> it's ceend of a big deal. d donald trump talks about doing a 15% rate on business spectacular, not just corporations like apple or g.e., but on small businessesu including if i have a sole proprietorship, he wants apr 15% rate on that income as well. which means it creates great incentive, if you're a wealthy person looking at 40% rate under the current tax code, you can get that down to 15% if you can somehow route that spectacularac through a business, through a partnership. what we'll see if that happens is a lot of people trying toee o that. >> right, so what's interestingt
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is if you're a wage earner, if you get a paycheck from your boss, there's no way you're going to be able to take advantage of this. but if you can somehow turn yourself into a little company-a a lawyer who say partner, or you're some kind of a baseball player who says, "i'm now-- i'mi david wessel incorporated," then i can take advantage of this. so a whole set of people, if they can organize themselves as businesses can take advantage of this. ordinary wage earners can' >> woodruff: and is it expected that would happen, neil? >> it is. the law can try to do things to try to fight it. we already see some of this that happens to avoid payroll taxes.l it is, clearly, one of the issues that will have to be resolved. >> woodruff: in connectionio with this woo often hear donaldn trump talking about the corporate tax rate in this country is way too high. h the effective rate, dade, as i understand it, is lower. companies end up paying less than what they are charged on paper. >> the statutory rate, the rate
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in the law is 35%, but when you look it the all the deductions we give businesses, theth effective rate is lower, in the 20s. for some companies it's higher. for some it is lower. there is moment numb washingtonw to redo the corporate tax code, take away some of these deductions and credits and lowel the rate.te it's been politically difficult because there are winners and losersd and neither candidate hs gotten specific about how they do that. >> woodruff: i want to ask you both about the middle class, but before we do, neil, what about the challenges in the estate tax. this is the tax people are charged when they die. how do clinton and trump deal with that? >> with trump, it's simple.s he wants to get rid of it entirely. right now, the cutoff for a married couple is $10.9 million. meaning you have to be a multi-millionaire when you die to face that tax at all. he still wants to get rid of it. hillary clinton wants to reduce the exemptions to $7 million for
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a married couple so it would affect more people than it does now if hillary clinton got her way. >> woodruff: what would the the effect be on revenue? >> we don't get a lot of revenue on the estate tax. t we know the direction.i but i think what neil says it really important, of every 1,000 people who die in a given year, only two pay an estate tax.ta it affects only the very rich. r it's more of a talking >> woodruff: we hear republicans refer to it as "the death tax." >> right.ta i don't, you know, they do thatt >> woodruff: let's talk about, neil, the middle class, and let's be clear about what income bracket we're talking about. we see differences between the two of them and what they would do with the tax rate. >> donald trump has a middle-class tax cut.ut it's fairly small. it's moving one of the key brackets from 15% to 12%. one estimate, the proposal his is based on would cut after-tax income for middle-class familiem by something like 0.2%, 5% for
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the richest 1%. he does have that tax cut in there. hillary doesn't. the question is, is the scale something that will move the dial and change living standards for middle class americans and the numbers just aren't that big. >> woodruff: we should say david trump has been saying clinton favors raising taxes on the middle class. c >> in her proposals she has laid out, she does not raise taxeses on the middle class.e >> woodruff: how do you single out the differences there on what happens to the middle class? >> as i said, because trump is cutting taxes for a lot off people and not paying for it, he's able to offer some tax cuts, like the one neil described. hillary clinton has someom targeted tax cuts, like increasing the tax break for child care, which she has now responded to in a vague, and evolving way. i think when you step back, what hillary clinton is really saying is, look, some people are going to have to pay more taxes.. i'm going to come up with a plan that puts all those tax
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increases on people who make more than $250,000 a year. i'm not going to be able to doe very much for people who make less than that. i'm not going to cut their taxes much, but i'm also not going to raise them. >> woodruff: what would you to do that, neil. n and we should say whatever candidates say during a campaiga is not necessarily what they can get passed once they're elected? >> that's true. t there is also stuff on child tax credit. hillary clinton talks about it i as a credit that will help middle-class, lower income families for child care. donald trump wants to do it as a deduction. that would mainly apply to the wealthiest americans, upper-middle-class familys. that's another distinction.peat >> we should mention they both talk about college and studentde loans in different forms. hillary is talking about making college debt free. so that would be obviously o things targeted to the middle class. i think hillary clinton is saying look i want to spend a lot of monpre-k.and m infrastructure and that will help people get jobs and higher wages. >> woodruff: there is a whole lot to look at, and this is
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taking a big by the out of it. i neil irwin, david wessel, thank you. >> ifill: as the summer's political and foreign policy debate has focused overwhelmingly on the rise of isis, an old foe continues to threaten lives and security in afghanistan. the taliban have been closing in on the capital of helmand providence, forcing residents to flee as the afghan army struggles to contain i'm joined from kabul by special correspondent jennifer glasse. jennifer, welcome, you have been to the capital. tell us what is important about that and what is happening there? >> well, the people down there is very concerned. the taliban in the last week or so have basically encircled the city, taking many of the road leading into and out of the town. 30,000 people have been b displaced in the last couple of
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weeks alone, and the afghan army is struggling to contain the taliban and keep them out of the provincial capital. now, if the taliban were to assault provincial they have some help down there, afghan forces have sent reinforcements. they have help in the form of american air strikes. u.s. fors say there have been at least 25 u.s. air strikes in the past two weeks alone as the taliban have mounted that offensive. probe the biggest problem iss they are controlling many of the routes in and out of the city including the main roads between lashkar gah. helmand has always been a contested province. the fighting has been particular he fierce. f more than 125 u.s. soldiers have lost their lives there, t including one soldier who died in january in fighting in helmand providence.he about 400 british soldiers, as
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well as 100 or so coalition forces have died. it has always been a heavily contested province, but fact f that the taliban are making advances on the provincial capital i think shows they are resurgent, gwen. >> ifill: you talking about the 25 air strikes. what visible effect have they had? >> certainly, they helped move the taban back or from forming in big groups. that's what we've seen since the drawn-down of u.s. forces, the withdrawal of nato forces, the end of 2014. without that air power, the taliban were able to group in large numbers and that's what the air strikes are helping. u.s. officials also say thereay are combat enablers on the ground in lashkar gahnhelmand province. that could mean fighting forces on thema f ground. that could also mean spotterstt who target the air strikes more effectively. there are also several hundred american advisers who went down
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there last year to help reform the 215 army corps in lashkar gah, in helmand province, trying to hold them together. but the afghan force is clearly struggling. >> ifill: why are the afghan forces, why do they appear to be so weak, after all of the support they have gotten, notte only from the u.s. but training and advising. what has gone wrong, if exg? e >> there are a number of problems. upon a lot of it is inexperience. it is a relatively new force. u.s. officialsne say they are better this year than last year because they have some combat experience. they have a little bit better strategic experience, but there have been american advisers down there helping with the force. problems with leadership-- manyh of the generals and officials down there have gone bn changed or moved out. problems with strategy. s so one of the things that the afghans used to do was go and set up checkpoints on roads. they, of course, were easy targets for the taliban.
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what u.s. forces and other nato advisers are trying to help them with is to actually go and taket land it that they need to take,, hold land that they need to hold. but it's definitely been a strug nettle last week or so around lashkar gah, as the taliban have made a concerted effort there,t in some cases blowing up bridges. the afghan security forces also a fledgling air force. >> ifill: and the taliban, how strong is this. we went back and forth in kunduz not long ago. >> it's not really whether at this point lashkar gah, falls or not. last week the taliban went into a district south of lashkar gah, went into the center for a brief point of time and the army pushed them it's not whether they can holdol the in kunduz they only held the city center for about three days. the knock-on effect of that was really very dramatic.
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it instilled fear in people.p they did around they garthed a lot of intelligence and people's namess in kunduz. k and the concern of the people in lashkar gahfthey are able to get into the city, as close as they are, it shows they are a resurgent taliban and people ara very concerned, not just in helmand province but around theh country that the taliban haveib been able to make such gains. >> ifill: jennifer glasse i don't think us tonight from kabul. thank you. >> it was good to talk to you, gwen. >> woodruff: stay with us.f: coming up on the newshour: how new york city's high line changed the way we think aboute parks. virus hunters tasked with tracking down the next outbreak before it happens. and a filmmaker and poet making her olympic debut. but first, one question looming over this election is whether i america's best economic days are behind it.
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this week, productivity, which can impact wages and growth, declined for the third straight quarter, the longest slide since the late '70s. some economists are asking whether we're in a new normal of slower growth and whether something fundamental has changed. economics correspondent paul solman has been looking into that question.g here's a second look, part of our series on "making sense" of financial news which airs thursday. >> reporter: president obama's last of state of the union featured this proud proclamation. >> anyone claiming that america's economy is in decline is peddling fiction. >> reporter: but really? tell that to eminent economist robert gordon, a democrat, who's peddling a distinctly non-is fictional new book, "the rise and fall of american growth." >> did you know that the cable car dates back to 1870? the beginning of what i call the special century when life was revolutionized in the united states. >> reporter: a century that ended in 1970, 46 years ago.
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gordon's thesis-- that slower growth is the new normal in the u.s.-- has sparked a major debate in economics the past few years; his book was a hot topic at this year's meeting of the american economic association io san francisco. >> it's what you call a magnum opus. >> reporter: that's nobel laureate bob shiller, president of the group, who organized a session on the new book and chaired it himself to spotlight gordon and his special century thesis. >> a century that freed households from an unremitting daily grind of gainful manual labor, household drudgery, darkness, isolation and early death. >> reporter: there seems little dispute in economics these days that 1870-1970 was technologically special. >> nobody who hasn't cooked over a wood stove or by the light of a kerosene lamp can reallyca appreciate what it all means. >> reporter: so it was an amazing century, right?az >> it was an amazing century. c we took so much muscle power,
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things that used to be done by horses or by humans, and replaced it with machines. >> reporter: but m.i.t.'s erik brynjolfsson doesn't buy the argument that the u.s. economy's best days are over. >> we're now just in the earlyt stages of what we sometimes call a second machine age, where we're beginning to do the same things for brain power, things p like artificial intelligence, computers and big data. and i think we're going to see a productivity wave the likes of which we've never seen before. >> it's just a hope that eric has that these new inventions of robots and artificial intelligence are going to change the world on a par with electricity and the internalic combustion engine. just think of the benefits of getting rid of the urban horse. think of all the horse droppings all over the street that we no longer have to think about and clean up. >> reporter: to counter those who consider his cavalierer dismissal of high technology soh much, well, "horse manure," gordon took us on an intimate show-and-tell. >> look at a few of the things that were invented in the special century after 1870, starting with the electric
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light, the greatest invention of all. and now let's look at two of the great inventions of all time. first we have running water, which eliminated the need to n carry water into the house in pails, and then we have thee flush toilet, which eliminated the need to go outside into the bitter cold to an outhouse. and here we have a double invention, central heating andnt air conditioning. we have the telephone invented in 1876. we have the television set, partly invented here in san francisco by philo farnsworth and then look what we have hidden down here, the refrigerator, which eliminated the contamination of food. here we have the golden gate bridge, an example of the, tremendous investment in infrastructure that made our economy grow so fast in theow middle of the 20th century. this bridge was finished in 1937. >> the golden gate is bridged! >> reporter: put them all together and, says gordon, there's been no comparablele stretch of economic growth, before or since.
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>> here is the basic point of my book. the early 20th century, the middle of the 20th century between 1920 and 1970, and all the years since then. and the role of innovation and technology is that black area at the bottom. and when we highlight it we see that in the middle of the 20th century we were growing three times faster than in the last 40 years. >> reporter: and not only were the really big inventions already on the market by 1970; this footage of the 1962 seattle world's fair suggests the ones we consider big today were already in the works. >> one day, you may be able to call home and automatically turn off the oven or from a public telephone, water the lawn during that dry spell when you are many miles away on vacation. sounds fantastic, doesn't it? >> reporter: critics like brynjolfsson don't dispute the wonders of the past. they just j think we haven't seen anything yet. >> it's been said that the
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greatest failing of the human mind is the inability toin understand the exponential function. and it's especially true in the computer era, where computer power doubles every 24 months or >> reporter: exponential growth like 2-4-8-16 and so >> and what that does is it leads us to overestimate what's going to happen in the short run because at first it's happening fairly slowly, but then weo underestimate what happens in the long run when things really take off. r >> reporter: bob gordon scoffs. >> computers have been riding this exponential wave for theen last 50 years, and it's notav shown up in productivity. >> reporter: in measured gdp. output per unit of labor, that is.oris >> we've gone from the mainframe to the personal computer to ther smartphone, and only in the late 1990s did we see a revival ofd productivity growth of the kind of magnitude to match the great old days of electricity and thes invention of the motorcar and the airplane. >> reporter: productivity, says gordon, has slowed to a crawl for years now, what's called long-term or "secular"ed stagnation. >> the last time people were l talking a lot about stagnation
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was in the 1930s.he and guess what? the next couple decades were the best decades ever for economic growth. >> reporter: admittedly, americans have been techno-s overoptimists before. >> the 9000 series is the most reliable computer ever we are all foolproof and incapable of error. >> reporter: the year 2001 came and went without any manned space odysseys of note. >> open the pod bay doors, hal.o >> reporter: much less ones with the likes of artificiallys intelligent hal. >> i'm sorry, dave. i'm afraid i can't do that. >> reporter: but most striking to us is the near-universal agreement about the headwinds now facing u. s. economic growth: problems in education, an aging population, a huge national debt, and most of all, growing inequality. economic historian greg clarkto said he's long been a techno- optimist.
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but after reading gordon's book... >> i am actually convinced now that the best of america iss behind us in terms of economic growth. >> reporter: ...clark titled his talk "winter is coming," a nod to the grim tv series about a more primitive time, hbo's "game of thrones." >> i titled it that way because i was struck when i looked at the future of the u.s. economy how much it was going to resemble the medieval economy in terms of the types of jobs that people are doing. gardening, food preparing, serving, cleaning, bricklaying, carpentry.rp you could get someone from 1400, put them on the job and in twoth hours they'd be perfectly functional. >> reporter: working, that is but hardly getting by. and to robert gordon, the connection between stagnant wages and today's political unease is obvious. >> because the heart of slowau wage growth is slow productivity
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growth. and added to that is the inequality that is siphoning off the little productivity that we've got into the top 1%. so the bottom 99% have good reason to be resentful and anxious. >> reporter: for the pbsor newshour, this is economics correspondent paul solman, reporting from san francisco. >> ifill: next, as we have seen with recent pandemics, emerginga diseases like zika and ebola cal cross continents and oceans with uncontrolled speed. scientists are identifying areas where new infectious diseases are most likely to emerge, where there are high risks of animal viruses passing to humans. one of those areas is southern china.ut hari sreenivasan brings us this report, which was produced inod collaboration with global health frontiers.
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we're in southern china, in one of the most beautiful parts of china with these amazing lyme stonstonehills and valleys and y scenic and picturesque. >> das is dedicated to protecting wildlife and public health from the emergence of disease >> the reason we're here is we're interested in theific of new diseases emerging out of the wildlife trade in china. like sars did and h.i.v. did in africa 40-odd years ago. a if we can get to the source of where they come from and reduce the risk, we could solve a huge problem and save millions of lives rather than waiting forha them to emerge and try to mop it up afterwards. a >> sreenivasan: at markets across china, like this one, people come in daily to buy
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chickens and duction. >> it increases the risk of a pathogen like avian flu from spreading because you have live chickens. if one of them is infected, it brings the virus in, and it spreads to this flock over a few hours, and then those animals are taken to different parts of the region.ifbr now, you could see this activity anywhere in the world. this is just like what happens in rural america and rural parts of europe. e the difference is here we're in a hot zone for emerging diseases. this is a place where we've repeatedly seen outbreaks from poultry moving into people andd spreading globally. >> sreenivasan: natural habitats can also contribute to the spread of >> we've got people fishing in the river.e we've got people washing in the river. we know there is sewage coming directly from the houses into the river. there is not much wildlife here but wild ducks will come down t the river as well and mix in and
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migrate with the viruses and spreades them backwards and forward into this mux. it's a big mixing vessel for pathogens. >> that i ever looking for signs of avian flu. >> the idea is if we can catch the viruses they carry here, we can prevent them going to market and potentially spreading disease. okay, ready. we take swabs from the mouth, and we take cloacal swabs.wa we put them in transport medium and ship them in liquid nitrogen to the lab for testing. avian flu is a virus that's common in many types of birds, but especially in poultry and waterfoul, it's a real killer.l
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and some of these strains can jump directly into people. so that's the problem. >> sreenivasan: viruses that s can cross over and infect humann have led to previous pandemics, including most devastated in recorded world history-- the 1918 flu, which killed more people than the first world war, more than 500 million infected worldwide, and as many as 100 million deaths over a two-year period.wh >> we're trying to say, "where is the next avian flu going to come from?re can we see it before it becomes a pandemic problem and stop it?" there you go. i look at this a little bit like earthquakes. we know earthquakes can be devastating, we know they're pretty rare, and we know where they happen.hqat so this is the same for pandemics. we know that this is a hot spot for pandemics. we know why it happens, but what we're not doing with pandemics that we are doing with earthquakes is reducing thee damage initially.. this has been going on for 5,000 years.
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>> sreenivasan: working withh echo health alliance in this part of china is field operations manager dr. guangjian zhu, a biologistna trained in the ecology of bats, which are known to be the source of the sars virus. >> this is a big tourist cave. shall we go? >> sreenivasan: daszak is concerned about a bat cave thatv is a popular tourist attraction. >> you have bats in this cave with all these tourists going through. the bats here in this cave are the same bats that carry sars virus. bats live in the cave all day long because they're nocturnal.n and when they're up there, they
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urinate and defecate, right on top of the tourists that are walking and all you've got to do is be that one person to breathe in at the wrong time, and suddenly you've been infected with a virus that is not only potentially lethal to people. it could cause a future pandemic. we sent you the samples from these bats. >> sreenivasan: daszak and his team have used mathematical models to try to understand what is driving these diseases. >> we went back to every known example of emerging disease-- h.i.v., ebola, wefl nile virus, sars -- and where it originated and said what are the things that are going on in those place? the two big drivers are growing human populations, land use change, and high wildlife diversity. >> sreenivasan: rapid global response to disease outbreak is essential to stopping transmission and saving lives. but daszak and his team of virus
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hunters believe that forecasting where outbreakses are most likely to occur is a critical part of a defensive strategy needed to prevent outbreaks before they emerge. for the pbs newshour, i'm hari sreenivasan. >> ifill: it's now a must for visitors to new york city-- taking a walk above far above the madding crowd, in a new kin of urban park. jeffrey brown took that walk with the man who helped create it.ow >> this is one of my favorite moments, where these tracks criss-cross, it's called a frog. >> brown: railroad tracks of old, in a park that has helped changed thinking about public space in cities across america today. recently i visited new york's phenomenally successful 'high line' park with its designer, landscape architect james corner. >> i think this is what a lot of
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people like, they come up here, they see this, it's like they've discovered a found object, there's a sense of surprise and delight, it's real andof authentic, it's not disney. >> brown: it really is real. >> and people get a kick out of it, especially in the context of modern day manhattan. >> brown: the original railway tracks, 30 feet above street level, were built in the 1930s. trains carried meat, milk and other cargo, sometimes making deliveries direct to manhattan companies. after trains stopped running here-- the last was in 1980-- the site wasted away; an eyesore that no one could figure out what to do with. until they did: create a new kind of public park.ti since its opening in 2009, the high line has attracted millions of visitors and plenty of attention from other cities eager to recreate its magic. james corner's firm, james corner field operation, worked on the high line with architects diller scofidio and renfro and
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famed dutch garden designer piet oudolf. >> it was a huge effort and a big leap of faith because the high line was really perceived by a lot of people to be a liability. it was seen to be derelict, abandoned, dangerous, dark, drugs, crime. >> brown: so very inviting. >> nothing good, nothing good. >> brown: so what do you think n has been the key to its successs >> when you came onto the high line, because the trains hadca stopped running and natural seeds had taken root, it was aro beautifully surprising and delightful one and a half milegh ribbon of green. so you had this green carpet in silence, a sort of strange haunting quality to so we believed that if we were to simply leverage that, make it more of a garden than it was then, allow for the kind of voyeurism, the exhibitionism that occurs on an elevatedth structure when you can peek intc
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openings and streets and buildings, that there would be something very charming about that. >> brown: "more of a garden:" so the high line features an astonishing assortment ofsh plantings that give a sense of nature thriving, even taking over, in the midst of the city. and the 'voyeurism' or 'exhibitionism' of walking on a raised platform: it's about the views across the city, and into buildings, and about watching and seeing your fellow human beings up close. >> it affects people's psyche, it affects their imagination, it affects how they relate to other people and it just charges up the positive energy about what it means to live in a city. they're theatricalizing everyday life, you can promote a new kind of civic, public value that i think is important. >> brown: theatricalizing? dramatizing? you mean it's not just a beautiful space, it's almost like a theater.s >> exactly.
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this is a bit of a balcony or a catwalk, if you will, where they can show off too. so, the interaction of people who want to be quiet andet recessive and look from a hidden spot, versus people who want to be sitting out front and center and be part of the show, there't a theatricality to that. >> brown: part of the theater on this day included a sculpture called "the sleepwalker," by tony matelli. >> so this is public art-- and it's irresistible-- >> brown: is he going to wink at us?e- >> he might if you stare at him long enough. >> brown: corner grew up in manchester, england, and has lived and worked in the u.s. since the 1980s.en he and his firm are now in grear demand, designing public spaces for cities around the country: seattle's waterfront... san francisco's presidio... a huge park in memphis... and much more, including cleveland's new public square, which served as a protest site
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during the recent republican convention. >> in the '70s and '80s, we spoke about a flight to the suburbs. people were leaving the city to live in detached homes with gardens and greenery. those same people are now coming back to the city and there's now in a sense a flight to the city. people want the cosmopolitanismt the diversity, the exposure, the amenities that a city provides.d they want restaurants and cafes and theaters and museums, and parks and public spaces. >> brown: if anything, the high line may be a victim of its own success. it can be clogged with people, and property values around it have skyrocketed, pushing allet but the rich, individuals and companies, further away. still, james corner sees a huge benefit in creating spaces for people of all kinds to gather. >> we're social animals and we want to have a place to live,li
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and we want to have a place to work, but we also want to have a place to participate with other people. and i believe it is now more fundamental to what it means to be a democracy to be able to, you know, foster greater understanding, greater tolerance, understand what it means to live in diverse communities and to embrace that as something enriching and positive. >> brown: the high line itself continues to expand, with construction of a so-called "spur," a block-long offshoot, starting in 2017. 30 feet above the streets of manhattan, i'm jeffrey brown for the pbs >> ifill: now, a poet and a filmmaker who also happens to be an olympic runner in rio.
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she'll be competing tomorrow and as you'll see, there are a number of connections for her between writing and the way she approaches >> my name is alexi pappas andas i'm a professional long distance runner with nike. i'm also a filmmaker, actress and poet. this summer i will race in my first olympic games in the 10,000 meters on the track. i'll be running for team greece. i'm a duel citizen and decided to compete for team greece because i can compete at the highest level, but i can also reach a young generation of girls who don't necessarily have the long-distance role models that we are lucky enough to have in the united states.ha so i'm very excited. i think i was a more serious poet before i was a more serious runner. what i find in writing that is so special, and in poetry in particular, there's such an economy of words..
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and i love having absolute freedom within boundaries. and in running, similarly there are limitations. you might have a certain lane you have to stay in or the number of laps or course. but within those boundaries, there's so much room for freedom and creativity and personality. breaking tape it happened like i imagine it would feel to throw open big double doors the kind from a mansion or doll house. i looked maybe like a very strong princess charging through the gate towards the castle i built myself. "tracktown" is a film that we've just made and premiered and is m inspired by my observations and experiences as an elite runner in eugene oregon. and when i moved to eugene to
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run a fifth year with the oregon ducks after graduating dartmouth, i found the town embraced running in a way that i had never seen before. as a storyteller, i want to tels stories that i can uniquely tell. and stories in highly specific worlds that most people don'tict get the chance to see. so "tracktown" is set in the running world but is reallyis about this girl, and what is her life like on the track. but also off the track. the olympics has been on my mind since my dad brought my brother and me to the 1996 olympics in atlanta. i wanted to experience something at the highest level. being there, you're among greatness. great minds, great bodies.ea in terms of being nervous about what people are concerned about in rio, it's not the first thing on my mind. i think a lot of athletes will
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agree, we've worked for more than four years for this dream,r for our whole lives. and nothing can stop most of ust from going to realize that dream. scary things the thing about scary things like spiders is that they do not scare me nearly as much as the things i want the most "things you're scared of" is a reflection of how i feel every as a runner, as a filmmaker, i wake up every day a little bit nervous, but in a good way. there's always a goal i have. maybe for that day or for longer term, an olympic dream. it's admitting that those pursuits are really hard butll really beautiful. i hope i always wake up having something that i'm a little bit scared and excited for.
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>> ifill: you can read more about alexi pappas, and hear her read more of her poems on our website at >> ifill: and that's the newshour for tonight. >> woodruff: and i'm judy woodruff. join us online, and again here tomorrow evening with david brooks and e.j. dionne. for all of us at the pbs newshour, thank you and good fdrintoksl t. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: >> lincoln financial-- committed to helping you take charge of your financial future. >> the lemelson foundation. committed to improving lives through invention. in the u.s. and developing countries. on the web at
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>> and with the ongoing support of these institutions >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like thank captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc, c captioned by media access group at wgbh access.wgbh.orgca
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this is "nightly business repo" with tyler mathisen and su. party like it's 1999. all three major stock indexes close at all-time highs on the same day for the first time in 17 years. >> new reality. macy's shuts 100 stores as fewer people head to the malls, and more people shop online, but what took it so long to make the move? >> hot market. tech startups are not just about young millenials. a growing number see a big opportunity by targeting boomers. those stories and more tonight on "nightly business report" for thursday, august 11th. >> good evening, everyone. and welcome. it is hot outside, and even hotter on wall street. not one, not two but


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