tv PBS News Hour PBS August 17, 2016 3:00pm-4:00pm PDT
captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc >> woodruff: good evening. g i'm judy woodruff.f. >> sreenivasan: and i'm hari sreenivasan. >> woodruff: on the newshour tonight: changes at the top of donald trump's campaign-- wedo talk with the new manager, asksk why and what will be different. >> sreenivasan: also ahead: from raging fires on california's charred lands to deadly flooding in louisiana, we take a look at the country's battle with extreme weather. >> woodruff: and powerful national security hacking tools leaked online put computer networks at risk. >> sreenivasan: plus, an inside look at the world's most active volcano-- how one geologist is using the constant flow of data to learn more about the hawaiian landmark. >> well, with most volcanoes, you want to know when it's goino to erupt.
and so that's a primary concern. but in this case, where we have an eruption that's been going on for over 30 years, the bigruar question is, when is it going to stop? >> sreenivasan: all that and more on tonight's pbs newshour. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: ♪ love me tender >> we can like many, but we can love only a precious few, because it is for those precious few that you have to be willing to do so very much. you don't have to do it alone. lincoln financial helps you provide for and protect your financial future because this is what you do for people you love. lincoln financial-- you're in charge.
>> supported by the john d. and catherine t. macarthur foundation. committed to building a more just, verdant and peaceful world. more information at macfound.org g >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions: >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting.s and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. >> woodruff: the republican presidential nominee is bringing new leaders to his campaign team-- and not for the first time. john yang begins our coverage.
>> reporter: there was a new seating chart in donald trump's campaign headquarters, trump tower. the republican nominee was stils in the center chair, but the cast of aides around him has changed. that's because overnight news broke of a leadership shuffle-- the second in less than two months show him losing ground. the team's staff and operations will be run by the new campaign c.e.o., stephen bannon.on he's new to political campaigning, and is taking a break from his job as the top executive for the conservative "breitbart news" website. trump also promoted senior adviser kellyanne conway to campaign manager. conway-- a longtime pollster-- will focus on messaging, as she did on "fox news" this morning. >> it's the busy homestretch to election day, and we just need to sort of beef up the senior level roles in a way that we are dividing and conquering. >> reporter: then there's paul manafort, the campaign chairman who will keep his title. his role going forward is unclear.
last night, trump stuck to his script at a rally in wisconsin. >> i'm asking for the vote of every african-american citizen struggling in our country today who wants a different and much better future. he in milwaukee steel reeling from unrest touched buf a a police shooting that left a 23 year old black man dead. >> the violence, riots and destruction that have taken place in milwaukee is an assault on the right of all citizens to live in security and to live in peace >> reporter: trump was slated today to receive his first official intelligence briefingal as the republican nominee. that's despite telling "fox news" on tuesday what he thought about the work of u.s. intelligence agencies: "look what's happened over the last ten years. it's been catastrophic." democratic nominee hillary
clinton should be getting intelligence briefings as well. but her campaign today wouldn't answer questions about it. clinton herself stopped in cleveland, ohio today, trying to fortify her polling lead in a critical swing state. >> i think it's fair to say that donald trump has shown us who he is: he can hire and fire anybod he wants from his campaign. they can make him read new word from a teleprompter. but he is still the same man who insults gold star families, demeans women. there is no new trump. this is it. >> reporter: trump, though, is expected to take a new step in t his campaign tomorrow: airing his very first general election ads in swing states. for the pbs newshour, i'm john yang. >> woodruff: we'll talk with trump's new campaign manager, kellyanne conway, right after the news summary. >> sreenivasan: in the day's t other news: turkey announced plans to release some 38,000 prison inmates to make room for people rounded up after lastst
month's failed coup attempt. prisoners with two years or less left on their sentence will qualify for early release. but the most violent criminals will not be eligible. turkish authorities have detained roughly 40,000 people0 linked to the coup plot. about half of them face formal charges. >> woodruff: back in thiss country, the white house pledged $17 million to help fight opioid and heroin abuse. it will help law enforcement agencies halt drug trafficking and prevent overdoses. but the obama administrationth urged congress to do more. the president signed a billl aimed at addressing the opioid crisis last month. but it fell far short of the more than $1 billion his administration requested to fight the epidemic. >> sreenivasan: the nation's commuter and freight trains have shown little progress in installing safety technologies mandated by congress. that's according to a new report out today from the federal railroad administration.io the safety system uses g.p.s. and radio frequencies to automatically stop or slow trains, preventing collisions
and derailments. it was supposed to be installed by 2015. but congress had to extend thatt deadline until at least 2018, after projects were delayed by a lack of funding and technical obstacles. >> woodruff: technology firm cisco announced it will lay off up to 5,500 employees-- roughly 7% of its workforce. the world's largest manufactureu of computer networking equipment has seen a slowing demand for its products. but it's tried to shift its focus into software and cloud- based networking in the face of growing competition. >> sreenivasan: on wall street, stocks managed modest gains m after minutes from the federal reserve's last policy meeting signaled it could raise interest rates "soon."st the dow jones industrial average gained nearly 22 points to close above 18,573. the nasdaq rose a point, and the s&p 500 added four points. >> woodruff: and, controversy continues to brew behind the scenes at the olympic games. brazilian police arrested europe's top olympic official--
patrick hickey of ireland-- at his rio hotel room, and charged him with ticket scalping. meanwhile, a brazilian judge ordered american swimmers ryan lochte and jimmy feigen to stay in rio, claiming they gaveve conflicting accounts of being robbed at gunpoint last week. lochte has already returned to the u.s., but feigen is still in brazil. >> sreenivasan: still to come on the newshour: donald trump's new campaign manager on the latest shakeup, louisiana flooding and california wildfires, the increasing frequency of natural disasters, an english community that could lose its e.u. subsidies after voting for "brexit," and much more. >> woodruff: and we return now to the changes at the top of the trump campaign and what led to all this with robert costa,h national political reporter for "the washington post."
robert, welcome back to the program. so it was just two months ago, we saw a change at the top ofto the trump campaign. so what happened? >> that change two months agog saw paul manafort, the campaign chairman, take control of theke trump campaign from corrie lewandowski the long timee campaign manager and it was a change of philosophy back then from let trump be trump to a more disciplined strategy, more party unity, more focus on a scripted message. trump has scrapped that manafort playbook, however, over the weekend, deciding to go witho this new team, steve bannon from breitbart, kellyanne conway the long time poll ster who he is fenldly-- friendly with, because trump, is looking at the last 08 days and says to himself, hehe wants to do it his way, run from the gut, run from his instinctss >> woodruff: tell us about stephen bannon. who is he?is he is not someone we have known associated with the campaign although we know he's been closc to mr. trump.
>> he's a colorful and populist figure on the american right. someone who's not closely associated with the republican party. hasn't run an presidential campaign before. has rarely, if ever, been involved with political campaigns am but he has beenam running this website breitbartt news which is popular for its nationalist themes. its advocacy against illegal immigration. he has become close to figuresse like sarah palin over the past decade. and this profile on a certain segment of the american right has brought him close to trump. his politics overlap with trump's own.. and he has been someone who has provided trump with informal, can dad-- candid advice over thc past year and trump has developed this rapport an turned to bannon. >> woodruff: so roberts wa, do your sources tell you we should expect to see change in trump's behavior on the campaign trail and the campaign trail itself. >> bannon's strategy according
to people closete to both trump and bannon is to run a less partisan campaign than paul manafort may have advised for trump in recent days. and what i mean by that is a populist campaign that does not stress political issues in the traditional way you see in a general election campaign ofig right versus left. what we should expect to see interest from trump according tr people who were meeting with him today say full-throated nationalist message, something that isna based on rallies, meda appearances, in trying to rouse those voters, working-- workingo class voters in swing intait-- states. >> woodruff: what is meant by nationalist message?is >> it something that is based in trump's pitch about immigration and trade and the economic frustration that trump believes is out there in much of the country. and it is a sense that jobsjo should stay here. products should be made here. foreign policy should be crafted from an almost isolationist
perspective, america first as trump often says. >> woodruff: so robert, the people you talk to inside the campaign, do they still believe they can win this?th i mean we know the polls have been difficult in the last month for mr. trump. >> they believe it is a difficult path ahead.ah but they look at two things. they think suburban voters in places like north carolina, ohio and pennsylvania remain intrigued by trump. interested in perhaps switchingi over to trump in the final stretch, even if they are skittish at trump at the moment and moving toward clinton in the polls. if trump can change his message to zero in on those voters by focusing on national security, pop lism and nationalism, the trump campaign thinks they havee a shot. the other thing they will try to win overth is more women voters, that is where kellyanne conway comes in, she spent her career trying to get republicans to t appeal more to the woman voter. >> woodruff: and finally, robert, do they lead you to believe this is the last change we'll see in the campaign? c
>> you never know with donald trump. he kept this decision close to his vest over the weekend. did not tell many party leaders, if any, that he was going to make this overhaul in his campaign. is he someone who runs a small operation compared to most presidential campaigns. and he is someone who is alone, loner in american politics. almost an isolated figure who believes his own calls on political issues, on strategy, matter more than any kind of consultant's advice. >> woodruff: robert costa with "the washington post," we thanko you. >> thankth you. >> woodruff: we now get an inside view of today's changes in the trump campaign from its new campaign manager, kellyannen conway. kellyanne, hello, it's good to see you. we just heard robert costa say this has to do in part with donald trump, frankly, wanting less discipline, wanting to be himself on the campaign trail.n is that what is going on? >> well, first of all, judy, thank you for having me.. and i appreciate your
congratulations. so everybody is always talking about the donald trump pivot, pivot is style when they give him advice. don't say this, don't say that. you should do this, you shouldn't do that.t and i think when he says, youou know, he gets tired of being told by different people inside and outside of what to doe and how to speak, it doesn't free him to talk about the issues, which is where he really wants to take this campaign. i think the discipline you have seen this week is in giving those speeches, on monday about radical islamic terrorism where whether people liked the speesm and solutions or not, at least they can look at them. they can look at the road map,d they can look at the several point plan and decide whether or not that is the commander in chief they would like to trust. yesterday he followed it up with a very unusual, very robust policy speech really taking the case to hillary clinton and putting her on the hot seat to explain why after decades of public service herself, while she has been a politician for decades and why in all of our big cities we have democratic mayors. and we have a rise in poverty
and crime and homelessness, a rise in unemployment. so i think he's taking the case right back to hillary clinton c which is really his best shot at winning the presidency.re >> woodruff: what we just heard from robert cost blancast and it's been reported, the other n person or the new personnel vaited i should say, in the campaign is stephen bannon who does come from breitbart news. and why would donald trump turn to him?? he is someone who has never run a campaign before. he has been associated with a pretty controversial news website. what does mr. bannon bring? >> donald trump said it best, judy, where he said i know them well. and i want people who want too win, and who believe i can win, and who are warriors. and i think bannon is the guy ready for the right kind of battle. realizing that this is a pretty simple choice.h you either want donald trump's view of free market health carea where it is portable, it is affordable and accessible to more people. or you want more of aetna pulling out of 11 to 15 states
just yesterday, announcing 430 million dollars worth of losses over the last two years. that followed united health care saying it would suffer a billion dollars in losses by being on the exchange. these are serious issues that impact people.e and to bob costa and to your point, judy, women are the chief health care officers of their households. these health care exchange realities on obamacare are very real to them. as the chief health care officers. and we would like to know if mrs. clinton owns obamacare, in other words, if she feels it iss a good policy moving forward. would she move to a single payor system a la bern ye sanders. are there pieces of obamacare, she would scrap or ones she thinks are worth keeping. we need those questions answered. the pivot really needson to be n substance. when you start talking about issues and not just individuals, when you start talking about principles and not just personalities, then we're having a conversation befitting of the voters. >> woodruff: well, let's tryel to understand what this is, because again we heart robert costa describe an approach that
is going to try to be not so partisan, not so quote unquote republican versus democratic. but we know that the breitbart news website is-- it has been called at right, a movement of hard right idea logs and white nationalists who scorn traditional conservative-- conservatism, is that the philosophy mr. trump is embracing no, it's not, and i guess that is someone's opinion or characterization of a websitb or stories on a website. but at the same time, i would like to point out, because is think too much of the reporting has said that this is a reset, this is a shakeup. the fact is, just over there in trump tower today, the core four, manafort and gates, bannon and myself, we met on any number of issues. i we reviewed the last cuts of our ads that are going up this weekend. we sat in, all four of us sat in on the round table with national security and terrorism and
foreign policy experts. i believe you showed some footage from there.fo we are all working together.e this is an expansion of a team in these critical last couple of weeks. and i think what is veryat important is that the candidate trusts the people around them. and you see who is there. despite what hillary clinton c said today, that was a complete lie. nobody got fired at the trump campaign today.gn nobody is feeding him-- i found that to be really unbecoming to talk about donald trump reading new words off a telleprompter. this has to go both ways, she is pretty insulting about him, and i appreciate that it is actually gettingte covered here.er >> woodruff: let me ask you a little bit more, kellyanne conway, though, about where you do stand in the polls. you are a pollster, you have made it your career. how do you read the polls? donald trump right now is running behind in virtually every single battleground state. >> well, he is.e but with varying margins. and judy, we're happy that it is august and not october or november. we recognize that there is work
to do.is r and some of that work is among independent voters, some is among republicans and some is among the work to be done among democrats who in the same polls say that they just don't trust or much like hillary clinton. so we feel if they are open to our message, we are going to work hard for all of those votes, that is what campaignsvo are for.fo campaigns are really for combining the message, thehe messenger, the delivery, the opportunities, the ground game, the data operation. all the riches really comingll into place. and have i to credit manafort and gates for put sog much of that together before we arrived. secondly, if you look at the a horse race numbers in these state-wide polls, judy, they look really great for hillary clinton. but if you go just a little bit underneath you see many of the fundamental measurements arer still very poor. you have in the virginia poll, for example, you have 54% of virnlgians saying they are unfavourable towards hillary clinton.le there is not a lot she can do to change that because they know her. k 68% the selection of tim kaine doesn't matter, 56 pest of the
white voters say they are unfavourable toward her. t she really needs to work on those as well. >> woodruff: i want to squeeze in one last question.ti that is the scrings of the philosophy of this cam main as nationalist, almost isolationist, is that something you accept? >> no, i-- in fact, i emphatically reject it. and as i said, judy, just hours ago, i sat in a round table with former and current congressmen, with generals, with elected officials at very high levels with national security and foreign policy experts and thata was not the conversation around the table. i assure you we allowed theow press in. so no, i reject it but i'm not surprised critics and nay sayers have to do that.ha the only thing i would ask is that the clinton campaign an many of their sim pathizers is,s when you are asked a question about hillary clinton, try not to say donald trump every other word. that is where criticisms like that come from. if you have a real debate on the issues, you go back and look at the radical islamic speech on monday, go back and look at theh law & order speech in the
minority speech yesterday, you find that that characterization is patently false. >> woodruff: i think i was hearing robert costa quote people he was talking to from f inside the campaign but we can straighten that out later. kellyanne conway, again, newly named campaign manager for donald trump, thank you very much. >> thank you, judy. >> sreenivasan: two majoren disasters in two different parts of the country have sent tens of thousands of people fleeing from their homes, and caused millions of dollars in damage. are these just freak events, or are they in some way related to climate change? william brangham brings us the latest. >> reporter: it's called the "blue-cut" fire and it's wreaking havoc in southernso california. the massive blaze closed major roadways like part of interstate-15 that connects los angeles and las vegas. and last night, officials issued evacuation orders for more than 34,000 homes-- that's some
82,000 people. >> i think this is the worstst that i've ever seen, you know. and it's kind of getting used to the idea of being homeless. >> reporter: the fire erupted yesterday, in the cajon pass, a critical corridor just north of san bernardino, only 60 miles from los angeles. it quickly expanded to more than 45 square miles. ten air tankers, 15 helicopters and some 1,300 firefighters were deployed within 24 hours. they faced hot, windyey conditions. >> the fuels are extremely dry and very explosive this time of year. and in my 40 years of fighting fire, i've never seen fire behavior so extreme as it was yesterday. >> i was able to get up this morning and get some eyes on it from the air. in a word, it was devastating. a lot of homes lost yesterday. there'll be a lot of families that come home to nothing. >> reporter: governor jerryrr
brown declared a state of emergency for the "blue-cut" area, as he did earlier this week for a major blaze north of san francisco. that fire has since started to fade. the man suspected of sparking it-- as well as 16 smaller fires over the last year-- has now been charged with arson. 1,700 miles across the country, a different kind of disaster is unfolding in louisiana, where some of the worst floods inds history have hit the state. as the water begins to recede in some parts, the numbers are stark: at least 11 people havet died, 30,000 people have been rescued, and 40,000 homes damaged. >> we lost everything. god, just about. we got out safely and all of ou friends are safe, so that's the main thing. >> reporter: so far, about 68,000 people have signed up for assistance from the federalro emergency management agency. the american red cross says the
flooding has triggered its largest disaster operation since superstorm sandy in 2012.n the catastrophes in california and louisiana have again raisedi the question: are these events caused in part by global climate change? both events follow a july that was the planet's single hottest month since records began in the 19th century, and many computer models have indicated that as temperatures rise, droughts and extreme weather are likely to follow. to help us sort out what's driving these extreme events, we turn to two scientists well- versed in these matters. barry kiem is the climatologist for the state of louisiana, andu a professor at louisiana state university, and adam sobel is professor of environmental science at columbia university. he also directs its initiative on extreme weather and climate. thank you both for being here. barry, i would like to start with you. before we get into the science of all of this, can you just tth tell us how are things in baton rouge right now? >> in baton rouge they are improving but across the broader area there still are some issues.is things are slowly starting to
simmer down a little bit. right now across most of my immediate region people are starting to rip out carpets and gutting houses. we're already starting to clean up. >> this was obviously a historic amount of rainfallat fell on your state and that flooded you all out. can you give us a sense of the context of how serious these storms were and just we be thinking about these in terms of climate change? >> this event say tropical disturbance. it was a very weak, i would class fieev it practically as an easterly wave. the amount of rainfall amounts were staggering, to put this in perspective, a 100 year rain event in this region is roughly 14 inches. a 1,000 year event is about 21 inches. well, we have about eight, seven or eight sites across south central louisiana that exceed the 1,000 year mark. and in fact, we have one site that had over 31 inches of rain. now a thousand year event is 21
inches, and this was 31 inches. so that ought to give you some context on just how severe this rainstorm was in this area. >> in that context, do you think of this as something that we would expect to see with climate change or is that not part of your thinking. >> well, no single event really tells you anything about climate change specifically. and even one year's worth of events, and admittedly this past year has been very strange.be we had the floods in south carolina. texas had some serious floods. we even had a major flood earlier this year in louisiana. we even had an earlier one thisi past october which was quite extraordinary. so it does seem like there is something unusual going on. but i still wouldn't quite characterize this as being a sign that the climate has officially changed.e we are just in a very unusual period right now. and this could be indicative of climate change but it's way, way too early and we need a lot more data and understanding of the science to be able to say something con cluesively like that. >> woodruff: adam sobel, ioo would put the same question to
you. in california we have seen this historic draught, it dried out the landscape t is partly why we have seen the explosive fires across the state there, but again draughts are not unusual for california, the same way floods are not unusual for louisiana. how do you see these in relation to climate change? >> well, i think you have to talk aboutou each event separately. so let's start with theve louisiana event. iui think the california situatn is a little different and haser been going on for a number of years. there have been a few studies on that event. but since we're talking about louisiana and the floods now, just for some general context, i mean, across the united statesss as well as most places in the world where there is adequate data to ask the question, we see increases over the last decades or in some cases last century in the extremity of severe rain events. we see heavy rain events becoming heavier and a larger fraction of the rainfalling at heavy events. this is what our climate projections tell us should happen as thens climate warms, although to uncertain degrees but st quawl taitively
consistent and we expect it as a warming climate mean there is more water vapor in the atmosphere. now it's true that each individual event is the result i of many factors, and climate change is most one of them, an usually a small one. so a lot of things have to happen for an extreme event to occur. otherwise it wouldn't be an extreme event.ev climate change can at most push the odds a little bit in one direction. so i mean, we now have a new emerging area of science called extreme event atrix where people actually do studies and have ways of making probable statisticob statements you can't say this was by climate change or conclusive of climate change but you can say it is more probable or give thean it occurred, ma make it such and such percent more extreme. they haven't those studies haven't been done in the louisiana event. my guess is they will be done pretty soon, they can get done quickly now. and i would cautiously predict that they will show some increase in the likelihood of this happening due to climate change, although i wouldn't want to put a number on w it. that is the broad context.
i think it is the kind of thing we expect to see more as the future produces and the kind of thing we have been seeing. but i agree that to make stronger statements than that about a specific event, it is certainly possible to overstate the connection but there is a lot of science behind thee statement that there may be some connection there.re >> barry, back to you. i'm just curious, do you think that this is what we have to become accustomed too, that what was once an extreme event is now just the new normal. and if so, what does that meanea for policy makers? >> yeah, well, we're certainlyrt in a period right now where we have seen quite a few extremes. we've had some periods in thes past where we have had clustering of really big catastrophic rainfall events in the past as well. but i tell you, the last decade or so really does raise some eyebrows. and very, very suspicious. what this means for policy implications, i mean this is just so complex, so politically loaded that i mean it's really
tough to navigate through these waters, so to speak. and so it is really hard to say a whole lot conclusively on whan kind of policy should proceed ae a result of these recent extremes. >> adam, with relation to the fire in california and the many people appointed to the very long draught that has dried out much of california and makes these fires more common and more violent when they actually occur, how do you see climb at change in relation to that particular event? >> right, so if we look at theso draught in california, they've actually been several studies of it. done by my colleagues at columbia, and those studies show the complexity of studying events like this because theev answer depends how you ask the question. if you ask about just the lacke of rainfall, of course the cause of a draught is just lack of rainfall. then the studies have tended to come to a conclusion that this event is not fundamentally caused by climate change. that said, once you have a lack of rainfall, the hotter temperatures that we see as a result of human influence on climate cause water to evaporatp
from the soils more quickly andy so you have overall a dryer land surface and lower reservoirs and all of that, and there there is a climate change influence.en so if you ask about the lack of rainfall, this event appears toa be largely natural is what the studies show but if you ask about the overall dryness of california, there does seem to be some influence of higher temperature which is a result of climate change. so the studies come to different conclusions in part because they ask different questions.ti but i think that is the complicated answer to that question. as far as we know now. >> woodruff: adam sobel, barry kiem, thank you both very muchuc for being here. >> thank you. >> my pleasure, thank you. >> woodruff: stay with us. coming up on the newshour: how revealing a secret n.s.a. code leaves us all vulnerable, and we take you to the edge of a
hawaiian volcano to discover what makes it erupt. but first, there are reports that the united kingdom's process to begin leaving the l european union may not begin until later next year, delaying the u.k.'s so-called "brexit." the june vote to leave may have surprised many there, but it came as welcome news to the island nation's fishermen. they've long complained about european union rules, and now they're hoping "brexit" will help them revitalize a fishing industry they say was damaged b e.u. policy. p from southwest england, special correspondent jennifer glasse reports. >> reporter: fishermen have brought their catches into brixham harbor since the middle ages when it was the biggest fishing port in southwest england. the harbor and the fleet have changed over the centuries, and skipper mike sharp hopes there are more changes to come. that's why he voted for the u.k. to leave europe. >> we have all the dutch, and the french, and the belgian
fishermen, and mainly the spanish as well coming to land to take our fish out of ourur waters which we want to-- you y know, i think we still can let them come in, but we can decide how many comes in. >> reporter: european union- mandated quotas stipulate what kind and how many fish the trawlers can bring in. sharp and other fishermen here claim the quotas favor boats from continental europe. e.u. rules also limited the size of fishing fleets.fl >> when i started fishing 30 years ago there was 60 beam trawlers, now there's. 17 so i'd like to see it builtlt back up. >> reporter: a larger fleet could mean hundreds more jobs, for deck hands, engineers, welders and onshore, processing, buying and selling fish. brixham fish market is already the largest on england's south coast, handling about $35bo million of annual trade worth a
this market itself was modernized in part with e.u.iz funds. >> a lot of the fish we sell in england we sell from this market here goes abroad. i think just because we're out of the e.u. i don't think they're going to stop buying our fish, they're still going to want our fish. >> reporter: fish buyer steve farrar says his children voted to stay in europe because theyop want to be able to study and work there. >> oh, i don't want them that badly. >> reporter: he voted to leave because he says it was a question of democracy versus control from europe the bureaucrats in europe. >> i felt very much that if i couldn't vote a politician in or out, i didn't want them making decisions over my life, or my children's lives, or my grandchildren's lives, and that was the fundamental issue really. >> reporter: robert simonetti exports fish and serves it at a local restaurant serving it, including what else, british fish and chips. he doesn't think his out vote to leave will change much for his businesses. >> for me it was all the
immigration thing i think that't a big issue for everybody. you know we want control about who comes into our country really, the people we don't want, the criminals.e if you're coming here to work and be part of the community, we don't care what color you are whether you're white, black or yellow.or >> reporter: waitress wendy lanyon says any sacrifices made to leave europe will be worth it. >> i do believe it's going to be hard for us as a country, but nothing like what they made out it was going to be. but we've survived before without being in the european union and we'll survive again'l i'm sure we will. >> reporter: despite the anti- europe sentiment here, this harbor town has deep historical ties with the continent leaders. dutch prince william of orange landed here on the fifth of november 1688, and he became the king of england, ruling alongside queen mary. napolean bonaparte never actually set foot on land, but his ship was just offshore, before he was sent into exile. over tea, local historian edgar lawrence says it's no surprisee
britons voted to leave. >> i'm old enough to have voted for the common market, but what we got isn't anything like what we were told it was going to be and it's just got worse and worse. >> reporter: and what do you think brexit will do for brixham and devon and cornwall? >> depends very much on the politicians. we know what we want it to do, but will they agree to everything we want, which europe doesn't seem to want us to have. >> reporter: the picturesque beaches of devon and cornwall counties attract tourists that bring in revenue, but not enough to keep the local economies afloat. this area once produced tin and copper and china clay, but all you can see of the mines now are now abandoned shells.
after the mines closed there was a steady decline in manufacturing and other industries, leaving this one of the poorest areas in europe. cornwall alone has received hundreds of millions of dollars in european aid. support that's now at risk.t the e.u. had pledged $650 million through 2020 to cornwall to continue to support new businesses, build infrastructure and complete high-speed interne- access to the region.on the head of the local county commission is trying to ensure the money keeps flowing whether from europe or the u.k. t government. >> i don't think the economic argument played a very big part in the decision. it was more on fear and a dislike of brussels. people like to blame somebody for the ills of the country and brussels was getting the blame. so it wasn't in that sense economically logical, it was very much a reaction vote. >> reporter: one of cornwall's poorest areas is redruth.
this food bank gives out free provisions to the needy. vikki rostron and her partner are both unemployed and have six children between them. she has no interest in politics and didn't vote. v >> i didn't know enough about i to think about it to be honest,i it isn't, wasn't something i wanted to do, you know. >> reporter: the food bank's founder says the brexit vote won't hurt cornwall becauseus european money has not produced the right kind of jobs since the local economy has evolved. >> those jobs are not here any more and they're still not here, whether it's european money or british government money, those cyber jobs are not here in cornwall, and that's what we struggle with. >> reporter: some in cornwall want the government to bring back heavy industry-- not a viable prospect.
european funds have been spent to create 21st century solutions to cornwall's limitations. >> a lot of that money is nots visible, so it doesn't build a school or a sports center, it builds a road, or it builds a business park, or it helps to develop a digital industry and people, the man in the street, they don't see that. >> reporter: back in brixham, the fishermen head out to sea.er they say they've done their part persuading the country to vote to get out of europe, now it's up to the politicians. negotiations are expected to take two years or many more. the fishermen of brixham hope officials in london and brussels won't leave them high and dry. reporting for the pbs newshour, i'm jennifer glasse in brixham, england. >> sreenivasan: the national security agency's primary mission is to spy on the electronic communications of countries and people overseas.
over the weekend, though, sophisticated code the n.s.a. developed to penetrate computere security systems was posted online. this serious breach comes amid the ongoing revelations of the hacking of the democratic national committee and other organizations, allegedly by groups linked to russian intelligence. for more on this we turn to "thn washington post" national security correspondent ellenor nakashima. and paul vixie, he designed and built some of the software thate is the backbone of the internet today. he is now chairman and c.e.o. of farsight security, a computer security firm. ellen nakashima what happened this weekend, what got released? >> over the weekend, apparently on saturday, mysteriously a cache of nsa hacking tools was released online through file-sharing sites such as bittor ent and dropbox. it really was not noticed until about monday when the computer security community started commenting on it and pushed into
whether the nsa had been hacked. >> sreenivasan: paul vicesie if these look tools to break out are out, these are the tools the american government was using what is the consequence if it is in the public sphere? >> well, i think every day everybody is trying to hack everybody. so this is not huge news. what's big news about it is that these tools were built by the u.s. government. some of the lock picks as you call them are now obsolete. they are relying on vulnerabilities that have sincei been closed because the files are about three years old am but at least one of them is active against a very current piece of equip frment cisco. and it is going to lead to a lot of break-ins while the patcheshe are prepared and shipped and then applied. >> sreenivasan: ellen nakashima, what about the idea i
that some of these are as recent as 2013. does the nsa know if this was a hack, if this was something more recent? >> the nsa officially is not commenting, but former nsa operators personnel i've interviewed were actually recognized the tooled that were released and said they were, indeed, legitimate. and they don't believe that the nsa was actually hacked. they think it is more likely that perhaps one of the operators at the agency inadvertently uploaded a tool set, an entire tool set of tools to a server, a staging server in cyberspace, and didn't recognize that and did not pull it back down.do and once it was out there, other
adversaries, other spy agencies around the world are also sometimes sitting on these same servers, one of them might have noticed it, got it, took a copy of it, and got it. without the nsa realizing it. >> sreenivasan: paul vixie,i how many people, companies, governments does this make vulnerable? >> i haven't seen an estimate ot the market size but really we've got at least one of these vulnerabilities that is stillat current and the patch is being prepared now.. unfortunately some of the oneson that are not current are also going to work. cuz many enterprise networks are not patched up to date. they can't afford the constant churn of updating their equipment, updating their software. so even though some of the vulnerabilities that have been used by these tools are no longer current, they're stillil going to-- those picks are still going to fit quite a few locks.
i don't really-- i would say in order of magnitude, anywhere between one tenth and one half of the customer bases for the largest fire wall vendors should really be worried right now.w. >> sreenivasan: that still sounds like a pretty large number. number.that say large the internet was originally academic. and when it was built, every one that could reach you was trust worthy. and of course that changed in the mid '90s when we commercialized and privatized the internet. and at that time we started developing this fire wall technology that was meant to limit sort of who could reach you or how various people could reach you. and what that means is the inside of these networks is very soft, full of soft targets. and tends to rely on fire wall to keep it safe. so any time you have a key that will unlock the fire wall and let you do whatever you want too the other side, you suddenly vay
very target-rich environment. >> sreenivasan: ellen, the people that you have spoken to, are they concerned that kind of the design of these key was tip off to whoever is using these tools exactly who the nsa targets, how they target them,et how they create the breaches in these fire walls? >> well, absolutely. so that is one of the issues with you know a disclosure like this. and i should say theree are also some former employees who think is more likely that some disgruntled insider stole all the tools and then put them out there perhaps for some personal profit. but in any case, now that they are out there, they are available to other hackers, other spy agencies who could either target companies running these fire walls, or also look and watch to see what the nsa is targetk and exfill traiting as
well. >> sreenivasan: ellen, in the con tesks the sort of cyberwar that seems to be escalating between russia and other countries, the fact that this happens now, what are your sources telling you about how these tools could end up in the wrong hands in a political context? >> look at-- i don't think we have any hard evidence as to who is behind the release. at this point i think it's largely circumstances that somes people think it might be russia. the timing is certainly notable or suspect coming as you notedte on the heels of some of the hacks of the dnc and the d triple c and the releases of hacked exmails by the d m.c. that have been linked to russia or more recently of hacked personal cell phone numbers and email addresses of democratic
lawmakers. that also appears to be coming from russia. so some people think that maybe this is another signal from russia to the obama administration, to the whiteh house that is no doubt right now discussing how they might t respond to all of these russian hacks and prove kaitions. it's a signal to them to say hey, you know, if you are thinking about a retaliating ing some way, calling us out, stepping up sanctions or even responding in kind in siesh space, think twice because we can cause you some pain.in >> sreenivasan: briefly paul vixie, is there certain in the computer security community, whether the nsa can keep its secrets safe?et >> there is. the nsa needs a lot of fairly controversial data and tools in order to accomplish its mission. we depend on that type of data, those kind of toolings not being generally available.
so with this disclosure and with the edward snowden disclosures of a couple of years ago, there is some concern that maybe there are some types of data, some types of tools that should not be created at all because there just isn't a way to keep them perfectly safe. >> sreenivasan: paulpe vixie, ellen nakashima, thanks so much. >> woodruff: finally, science correspondent miles o'brien joins a researcher who ventures close to the glowing heart of an active hawaiian volcano to learn what makes them tick. it's the latest in our weekly. "leading edge" series.e" >> okay. >> reporter: if you want to learn what makes a volcano erupt, you need to go right to the otherworldly source-- the crunchy, oozing, red hot source. at least that's what geologist mike garcia does.
>> voilaà! >> reporter: wow! that's amazing.zi amazing indeed. welcome to the most studiedos volcano in the world: kilauea. garcia and i came here to this surreal landscape on the hawaii's big island by helicopter. on our way, we got a glimpse of the red rock cauldron of magma through the sulphur tainted steam. kilauea is one of the longest currently erupting volcanoes on the planet. the lava started flowing ined january of 1983. >> so the mantle is producing an enormous amount of hot material that's coming out of kilauea. this is probably one of these most active periods of the historical records of kilauea.al >> reporter: the eruption waxes, and wanes, at times spewing fountains of lava, and in thens 1990s threatening and destroying nearby homes. but of late, it's been more spectacle than menace, a slow motion window into what liesw beneath the surface. through it all, there is one
constant here besides flowing lava: garcia. he has been studying kilauea for 30 years, hoping to improveil eruption forecasting. >> well, with most volcanoes, you want to know when it's going to erupt. and so that's a primary concern. but in this case, where we have an eruption that's been going on for over 30 years, the big 3 question is, when is it going to stop? >> reporter: he comes here looking for data-- in this case, a piece of freshly cooked earth just out of the oven. he dunks it in water, freezing the moment and its chemical composition in time; a geological instagram packed with data. >> we know its birthday. we know when it was erupted. and you might ask, well, why do we care? because the lava composition changes hourly, daily, or even monthly. >> reporter: and somewhere in there might be some sort ofn telltale sign of whether it'sta going to continue erupting or not, right? >> absolutely.
in science, one of the key things we do now are time series studies, where we collectol samples repeatedly during the course of an eruption or in the ocean because it's evolving all the time. >> reporter: back in his lab atl the university of hawaii in honolulu, graduate studentlu kendra lynn does her part to understand kilauea, shaving rocks into 30 micron slices and then analyzing them using an electron microprobe. she is interested in this green mineral called olivine. it is the most common mineral that forms at kilauea. what can we learn from it? >> because it's the first thingi to crystallize in these magmas, it tells us a lot about the u mantle source, where the magmasa came from, and it can also tell us a lot about the magma's history. >> reporter: this is just one of many tests the team routinely t conducts to analyze the elements and isotopes in the newborn rocks. >> each of the processes within the volcano leaves a fingerprint. so, over the years, we've been
able to develop an understanding of what those fingerprints are and what they tell us about what's going on in the volcano. >> reporter: and over the years he has amassed an impressiveed collection of rocks. not just from kilauea, but from volcanoes all over the hawaiian islands. >> so this is july 23rd of 1997d and this one looks a little grayer. >> reporter: it's not quite as shiny, for whatever reason. >> but you can see the imprint. >> reporter: why would that be? >> well, it was a little cooler> at the time it was quenched. >> reporter: if only these rocks could talk. fortunately, garcia is pretty adept at reading them.ci one of the things he focuses on is the temperature of the lava. >> so, what we've seen is a long-term decrease. initially, the lava temperature was low. l it increased. the eruption roared upward. and now it's been slowly waning
as, and we see the temperature of the lava is indicating a decrease. so we think this eruption mightt end in the near future. but it's ended several times in the past. it was quiet in 1997 for a month, and then it restarted. >> reporter: back at the lava flow, garcia told me his work is not as dangerous as it seems-- a calculated risk for a good scientific cause. all right, so what is the strategy for walking? how do you know what to step on? >> we need to avoid areas that look shelly, indicating that the lava has drained out froms underneath. so we try to look for places that it looks solid so we can avoid collapsing in on the lava flow. >> reporter: i'm just gonna follow you, how's that? >> very good. >> reporter: but while we were here, some newly minted, stille hot hawaiian earth melted the soles right off of his shoes. wow! just like that. is the other one already gone?
>> no, no. oh, you're absolutely right. >> reporter: holy-moly.ol wow! all in a day's work for an intrepid geologist determined to go with-- and to-- the flow.-- >> success! >> reporter: miles o'brien, the pbs newshour, at the hawaii volcanoes national park. >> sreenivasan: tomorrow night at 5:00 p.m. eastern, tune in to our homepage, where you can watch a livestream of a forum on "race and the race to the white house." newshour's special correspondent charlene hunter-gault and henry louis gates, jr. will host a panel of guests. that's tomororw, and more is on our website: pbs.org/newshour. and that's the newshour for's tonight. i'm hari sreenivasan. >> woodruff: and i'm judy woodruff. join us online and again here
tomorrow evening. e for all of us at the pbs newshour, thank you and good night. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: lincoln financial is committed to helping you take charge of your future. ♪ >> supporting social entrepreneurs and their solutions to the world's most pressing problems-- skollfoundation.org. >> supported by the rockefeller foundation. promoting the well-being of humanity around the world by building resilience and inclusive economies. more at rockefellerfoundation.org
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