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tv   PBS News Hour Weekend  PBS  August 27, 2016 5:30pm-6:01pm PDT

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captioning sponsored by wnet >> sreenivasan: on this edition for saturday, august 27: a national day of mourning in italy, following this week's earthquake that killed nearly 300 people. and in our signature segment, bringing back manufacturing jobs to the united states. >> over time, as labor rates continue to rise in other parts of the world at a faster rate than they are here in america, it would actually become cost competitive to do it here. >> sreenivasan: next, on pbs newshour weekend. >> pbs newshour weekend is made possible by: bernard and irene schwartz. judy and josh weston. the cheryl and philip milstein family. the john and helen glessner family trust. supporting trustworthy journalism that informs and inspires. sue and edgar wachenheim, iii.
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barbara hope zuckerberg. corporate funding is provided by mutual of america-- designing customized individual and group retirement products. that's why we are your retirement company. additional support has been provided by: and by the corporation for public broadcasting, and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. from the tisch wnet studios at lincoln center in new york, hari sreenivasan. >> sreenivasan: good evening, and thanks for joining us. as italy marked a national day of mourning, rescue workers spent a fourth day searching for survivors of the devastating earthquake, but found none. italian authorities say at least 291 people were killed when the overnight quake struck mainly in three towns on wednesday. almost 400 injured are in hospitals. today, italy's president and prime minister attended a state funeral for 35 of those victims, including two children in white coffins.
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the worst hit town is amatrice, and that's where newshour weekend special correspondent christopher livesay joins us. christopher livesay joint us. the funerals for all these people began today. >> that's right. in fact today was declared a national day of mourning, the prime minister and president both were here in attendance. it was originally scheduled to be a day of celebration, today would have marked the 50th anniversary of the town's famous pasta dish. it's where i'm standing right now it was at the epicenter of this quake. one of the sad stories you come across is the fact that because of this food festival, the town's population practically doubled because of all the visitors who were here from elsewhere in italy and even further afield. of course that celebration did not take place instead there was a state funeral in a town nearby
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here. there were lots of sad stories told there. one, however, was sort of uplifting it was story of two sisters, one who actually seemed to have sacrificed herself grabbing on to her little sister who is four years old. the big sister died but the little sister was able to survive. >> sreenivasan: what about the rescue turning into recovery efforts, those who are still missing? >> in this city there are approximately 20 people who are still unaccounted for. technically the rescue effort is still ongoing, there is 100 hour window which rescuers can still expect to find, hope to find survivors if the survivors have some access to water. however, that window is now closing, so the rescuers i speak to really don't seem optimistic they tell me this they only expect to recover bodies at this point. >> sreenivasan: this is not a region that's unfamiliar with
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earthquake, some of the buildings behind you were supposed to be retro-fitted to be stronger, what happened? >> that's absolutely right. well, that's a good question. in fact a state prosecutor has opened up over a hundred was it a question of the money never getting to where it should be? was it a question of corruption, in fact italy is a country that is no striker when it comes to corruption. that is a question that we're hearing asked when it comes to the reconstruction period. in fact the italian anti-corruption czar spoke out against that warning against mafia elain filtration. italy as you know is a seismic region, it's had lots of earthquakes in the past. there have been cases of these big lucrative building contracts going out to people with mafia
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connections. that's something that officials are looking out for right now. >> sreenivasan: all right. christopher livesay joining us. thanks so much. >> sreenivasan: in bangladesh, security forces said today they shot and killed the suspected ringleader of last month's terrorist attack on a cafe that left 22 people dead. victims from that attack included three students enrolled at u.s. colleges. police said the leader was a 30-year old bangladesh-born canadian citizen who had been in charge of isis operations in bangladesh. police say he and two other isis militants were killed during a raid on a building where they had been hiding on the outskirts the capital of dhaka. secretary of state john kerry is scheduled to visit dhaka on monday to discuss the isis threat and the string of killings of religious minorities and others in predominantly- muslim bangladesh. russian officials say at least 17 migrant workers from the former soviet republic of kyrgyzstan died today when a e officials say all the.nting victims were women, who were trapped in a dressing room as they changed into their work clothes. one official said the fire apparently was started by a
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faulty lamp on a floor where flammable liquids were stored and spread quickly through an elevator shaft to the dressing room. as many as half a million people from the impoverished former republic are believed to work in russia. competing with china for influence in resource-rich africa, japanese prime minister shinzo abe said today that japan will invest $30 billion over the next three years to nurture the continent's economic growth and infrastructure. abe told a summit of african leaders in nairobi, kenya, the money will upgrade electricity generation and transportation systems, and invest in health care and education. by comparison, china pledged $60 billion at a similar african summit last year and has far outspent japan and the u.s. on the continent. in north carolina, transgender- rights activists are calling yesterday's ruling by a federal judge a victory. u.s. district judge thomas schroeder blocked enforcement of a provision of the state's h.b.-2 law, which requires people to use bathrooms in
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schools and public buildings that correspond to the gender on their birth certificates. instead, schroder ruled, two transgender students and an employee at the university of north carolina must be allowed to use bathrooms matching their gender identity. university employee joaquin carcano said, "hopefully this is the start to chipping away at the injustice of h.b.-2." judge schroeder, appointed by president george w. bush, also said the plaintiffs are likely to succeed at trial this november in arguing that h.b.-2 violates title-nine, the federal law that prohibits gender discrimination in schools. today, hillary clinton received her first official national security briefing, as the democratic presidential nominee. the two-hour session with intelligence officials occurred at an f.b.i. office in westchester county, new york, near her home. republican presidential nominee donald trump received his first security briefing earlier this month. trump campaigned today in iowa, now rated by the associated press as one the six closest" toss up" states in the
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election. the other close states are florida, ohio, nevada, new hampshire and north carolina. >> sreenivasan: members of the university of north carolina community react to this week's ruling on the state's h.b.-2 law. learn more at www.pbs.org/newshour. >> sreenivasan: with the economy occupying a central place in this year's election, both presidential candidates are pledging to create more jobs. according to federal labor department, the united states lost nearly six million manufacturing jobs between the years 2000 and 2010. but some jobs once thought forever gone offshore to cheaper labor, are starting to come back. it's called reshoring, and newshour weekend's christopher booker has the story. this signature segment is part of our ongoing series "chasing the dream," about economic opportunity in america. >> reporter: to walk into the bollman hat company, in adamstown, pennsylvania, is to walk into the past. since 1868, america's oldest hat maker has made everything from fedoras to cowboy hats.
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and each part of the process-- from the way the wool is cleaned and felted, the materials pressed, and hats are shaped-- is a throwback to an older america. while still making hats largely the same way it did in its earliest days, this past january the employee-owned company added a new brand to their pennsylvania assembly line-- kangol. coming to prominence in the u.s. in the 1980s, the british brand was an integral part of hip hop-- a constant accessory of early rap luminaries like run dmc, grandmaster flash and ll cool j. founded in 1938, kangol hats were made in the u.k. for about 60 years before moving to china. in 2001, the bollman hat company acquired the global license to design, produce, and distribute kangol headwear. then in 2014, the chinese plant producing the kangol hats closed in order to move to bangladesh for cheaper wages, forcing bollman to find a new production facility. and like its role in hip hop, kangol is once again trendsetting, joining a growing
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roster of products formerly made in china. through a combination of state grants, online fundraising and company investment, bollman bought and shipped the kangol knitting machines from china to adamstown. don rongione is the company's c.e.o. how difficult has it been to about 10% and 15% a year and more and more customers shop online expecting faster delivery times. >> if we get to the same efficiency levels that we had in asia-- using u.s. labor rates-- our cost is fairly close. we don't have to transport the product, and over time, as labor rates continue to rise-- in other parts of the world at a faster rate than they are here in america, it would actually become cost-competitive to do it here. >> reporter: such calculations, are music to harry moser's ears.
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as the founder of the reshoring initiavea group working to bring manufacturing jobs back to the u.s., moser spends a great deal of his time trying to sell this type of cost calculation to american companies. >> when they first offshore, say, to china, the chinese wages were so low that the price differential was, say, 30% or 40%, but now that the chinese wages have come up, that gap might only be 15% or 20%. >> reporter: moser believes increased chinese wages make it difficult to justify the other costs associated with offshoring, like shipping, delivery delays, and the overhead that comes with maintaining large inventories. >> so, all these things that, each one might only be 1% or 2%, but when you have 30 of them at 1% or 2%, you can make up for a 15% or 20% price difference from china. >> reporter: today's he's pitching his reshoring initiative at mississippi state university in starkville, mississippi. >> so my favorite single case about reshoring is g.e.
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they brought back appliance production to an appliance park in louisville, kentucky. >> reporter: moser argues, companies could afford to bring nearly a million jobs back to the u.s. >> we conclude that about 25% of what is offshore today would come companies did the math. >> reporter: while u.s. employment in manufacturing started declining in the early 1980s, the massive job losses really didn't start until the millennium. between 2000 and 2009, close to six million manufacturing jobs were lost. but in 2010, the hemorrhaging started to slow. moser says, since then, 265,000 manufacturing jobs with around 900 companies have been created or reshored to the united states. >> so, we've gone from a net loss of over 200,000 a year, to a net loss of zero, so huge improvement. >> reporter: the jobs are in industries as diverse as appliances, autos, and furniture. in june, emerald home furnishings, a tacoma, washington-based company, moved some of its production from
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china to this facility in new albany, mississippi. manager terry treadaway says the internet and the need for faster delivery drove emerald's decision to reshore. >> i've been in furniture for 34 years. and i have traveled in china, but china today and the china 20 years ago are different. so there are changes coming. and i think, you know, we'll see more and more jobs move back to the states. >> reporter: before, a couch could take as long as six weeks to ship from china to a u.s. customer. from new albany, it can be built and shipped to the customer in seven to 12 days. mississippi also sweetened the deal. emerald home furnishings received a $1.3 million incentive from the state of mississippi to open this facility in new albany. in return, they promised to hire 150 new workers over the next three years. when they opened the plant this past june, the company says it received nearly 300 applications for 35 positions. they plan to hire an additional 25 people before the years' end. >> starting minimum wage is $10 to $12 and up to $16, $17 an hour.
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the company pays 75% of the employee's health insurance and 50% of their dependents. we also have 401(k). >> reporter: in neighboring alabama, hessaire, which makes cooling machines in holly pond, took over this shuttered jeans distributing center in april after they received a tax abatement from the town. president jerry fan purchased the business 11 years ago, at the time when it produced nearly all of its products in china. fan says his decision to reshore jobs in alabama was influenced by the desire to be closer to his customers and the availability of a more skilled workforce, even if that meant paying higher wages. >> part of our manufacturing is that we have to provide a certain level of customer service. and the people working for us, the skill levels, holly pond, we find they're problem solvers, and they're motivated. and so those are very important considerations. >> reporter: robert atkinson is among the skeptics of the impact of these recent manufacturing developments. he's president of the information technology and innovation foundation, in
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washington, d.c. >> we're not engaged in a renaissance. we're engaged in a partial recovery. what we are in the midst of is, it is not so bad as it used to be. so, yeah manufacturing is growing a little bit, but we lost over a third of our manufacturing jobs in the 2000s. it was decimated. and we're running essentially an $800 billion trade deficit. >> reporter: atkinson says harry moser's model is good, but absent substantial changes in tax, tariff, and trade policies, the u.s. will not return to it former manufacturing might. >> every other country's putting in place a manufacturing strategy, better tax incentives for investing in research, better tax incentives for investing in machinery, apprenticeship programs for their workers. you know, if we just sort of sit back and think we're going to win, win the race by the fact that we're americans, well, we're not. >> we've proven that the cost gap is low enough with china and countries like that, we can bring back hundreds of thousands.
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so, with some improvements in our terms of trade, in our competitiveness, it's reasonable that we will bring back millions. >> reporter: until that happens, the future of american manufacturing may well be determined by the efforts already underway in places like new albany, holly pond or adamstown. would you take, would you make this bet again? >> at this point, we're still in the early stages of climbing this mountain. our costs are way out of line with where they need to be. and we've mastered some of the quality, but not all of the quality. so, this story ends very happily if this is successful and we're making profits and providing for our employee-owners, which is our mission as a company. but it ends very sadly if america's oldest hat maker can't make this happen and be successful and survive. >> sreenivasan: president obama has decided to quadruple the size of a federal marine preserve around his home state
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of hawaii. by an executive order issued yesterday, the papahanaumokuakea marine national monument will become the largest ecological preserve on the planet, encompassing more than 580,000 square miles of land and sea. for more on the area and species that will be protected, i'm joined by matt rand, director of the pew charitable trusts' global ocean legacy project. matt, tell me, why this patch of ocean, what is so special? >> this is amazing place in the pacific ocean. the northwest hawaiian islands where it's a very special place over 7,000 marine species, talking about the oweddest living organism on earth. a deep sea coral that's 4,500 years old is found here. octopus, creatures only in this stretch of ocean up to 90% in certain locations are only found think stretch of the ocean.
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then of course all the magnificent fauna that everybody sees in the films like whales around turtles and sharks. the amazing sea bird life as well. it's a spectacular piece of ocean, we're so excited that it's now been protected. >> sreenivasan: how do you protect schools of fish from this area that decide to go outside and back in, this is one of the concerns that the fishing industry has had for some time. >> there are some certain species that definitely go beyond these borders, while they're in this huge refuge, it's a massive refuge, three and half times the size the state of california, these fish have an opportunity to reproduce and grow unmolested they have excellent chance of passing on their genes and repopulating. >> sreenivasan: put this in perspective of the larger ocean, three times the size of california, put that in perspective for all the ocean
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that's not protected this way. >> yeah, scientists are saying we need to protect up to 30% of the ocean. currently right now in highly protected or fully protected reserves we have about 3% of the ocean. we still have very long way to go, that said, we've come a very long way in very short timeframe. in fact when this area was first designated in 2006, the first version of it, by president push, that was the largest protected area in the world. we were down .05% of the ocean protected just ten years ago now we're at 3% of the world's ocean protected. this of course sets the standard for the rest of the world, hopefully a wake up call that we need to start taking bold action like the president just took. >> sreenivasan: what took it so long? why the gap in years between when george bush started this when president obama expanded
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it? >> new scientific information that's just come out in the last decade, really not that long when you think about it from the scientific perspective. they didn't know about the world's oldest living organism or the fact that these endemic sea creatures were found out in these further distances. they also didn't have as much scientific information about the importance of the large scale andary connectivity between all the different species and their need for such a wide range for protection. >> sreenivasan: in the spiritual and cultural connection to the native hawaiians has really come to the forefront. >> sreenivasan: put this kind of space in the context of climate change, what's the value? >> scientists are very excited about this area being protected now. fully intact ecosystems are much more resilient to the impact of climate change. and this particular location, they're very excited that it's one of the, if not the best largest climate refuge certainly for the ocean but also for the
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planet. it's situated in the tropics, but also in the further northern end of the island chain and the now protected marine reserve the water becomes quite cool. the scientists are hopeful that as the waters of our ocean continue to warm and become this area will be climate refuge where species, coral but also fish that are threatened from the changing of our ocean temperatures. it will hopefully as things change continue to be resilient and will be a huge refuge. >> sreenivasan: from the global ocean legacy, matt rand, thank you. >> thank you. >> sreenivasan: finally, british broadcaster itv went off the air this morning, leaving no
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programming for one full hour. but it was intentional. itv said it was shutting down to encourage viewers to spend the time exercising as part of the nationwide promotion to get brits to use local sports clubs for free today. some couch potatoes tweeted the only exercise they got was changing the channel. that said, reminder if you ever get the urge to explore space far from your television, can right ahead all of our work online at pbs.org on band through apple tv. that's all, have a good night. captioning sponsored by wnet captioned by media access group at wgbh access.wgbh.org
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>> pbs newshour weekend is made possible by: bernard and irene schwartz. judy and josh weston. the cheryl and philip milstein family. the john and helen glessner family trust. supporting trustworthy journalism that informs and inspires. sue and edgar wachenheim, iii. barbara hope zuckerberg. corporate funding is provided by mutual of america-- designing customized individual and group retirement products. that's why we are your retirement company. additional support has been provided by:
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and by the corporation for public broadcasting, and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you.
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steves: another great side trip from paris, marked by another glorious building -- this one dedicated to god rather than some king or noble -- is the city of chartres. here we see not the extravagance of rich elites, but the extravagance of medieval piety, a sight which, for centuries, heartened the weary spirits of approaching pilgrims. to this day, visitors come to chartres to see its cathedral, and they find that the city itself is a delight. and wherever you are in chartres, its massive cathedral seems to loom overhead. for over 800 years, the church has attracted travelers
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and inspired those who visit. the earlier church burned in 1194. it was rebuilt so quickly and lavishly that it has a much appreciated unity of architecture, statuary, and stained glass. it captures the spirit of the 13th century, the so-called "age of faith," like no other church. the architecture is gothic, which was all the rage in the 1200s. gothic architects create a skeleton of support with columns, pointed arches, and buttresses so that the walls no longer need to support the heavy stone ceiling, but are freed up to hold windows. chartres is most famous for its stained glass and statues. it's like a picture book of the entire christian story told through its art. in "the book of chartres," as some nickname the church, the text is the sculpture and windows, and its binding is the architecture. the individual figures create a cohesive ensemble, and, in this case,
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in a cathedral dedicated to notre dame, or our lady, it all leads to mary. here she is on her deathbed. then, angels gently whisk her upward so she can sit on the throne with jesus in paradise, where she's flanked by angels and crowned queen of heaven. the nave is vast -- over 400 feet long and the widest in france. and the gothic structure allowed for plenty of windows. chartres contains the world's largest surviving collection of medieval stained glass, with over 150 early-13th-century windows. the light pouring through these windows was mystical and encouraged meditation and prayer. stained glass was used to help teach bible stories to the illiterate medieval masses. while the faithful back then may have been illiterate, understanding the rich symbolism in each of these windows inspired them to live their dark and dreary medieval lives with hope.
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