tv PBS News Hour PBS August 30, 2016 6:00pm-7:01pm PDT
captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llcca pt >> ifill: good evening. i'm gwen ifill. >> sreenivasan: and i'm harien sreenivasan. judy woodruff is away. >> ifill: on the newshour tonight: the europeaunionhe orders apple to pay over $14 billion in back taxes to irelanc after uncovering a sweetheart deal between the company and dublin. >> sreenivasan: also ahead this tuesday, a look at the ground game this presidential election- - how the candidates are bringing their campaigns to key states and voters. >> ifill: and, iceland struggles with a tourism boom as rushes of crowds take over the country'ser breathtaking landscapes, residents feel increasingly overwhelmed. >> this country is not forco icelanders any more. it's more for tourists. i'm looking at maybe we just have to move abroad.ha and this is going to be a tourists' country. >> sreenivasan: all that and more on tonight's pbs newshour.
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lincoln financial is committed to helping you take charge of your future. 6of these institutions >> and with the ongoing support 6of these institutions >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting.at and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. rr >> ifill: this was primary day in parts of the country-- with two big-name republican senators looking to fend off challengers. in arizona, john mccainna campaigned for a sixth term-- a day after turning 80. and in florida, marco rubio sought nomination for a second term, after dropping his
presidential bid. also in florida: democratic congresswoman debbie wasserman schultz faced bernie sanders- backer tim canova.er >> sreenivasan: good weather sent thousands more african migrants sailing for sicily today. dan rivers of "independent television news" reports atvi least 11,000 people have been rescued since sunday. >> they have risked everything to get this far, and now their desperation overwhelms them. some plunge into the water to swim the last few yards to safety. many must have feared they would never make it. this vessel was carrying more than 500 migrants, mostly from the horn of africa who have beee packed into this small boat found drifting 13 miles off the coast of libya.ya the first off were dozens of children who might not fully appreciate the change they werey in. it was thanks to a spanish aid agency that they were plucked to safety. >> they were really desperate. for us, it was likely hard. what we saw is basically many mm
children, many babies and a lot of women, which is kind of exceptional because, many general, there are more men traveling than women and children. for them, especially, this crossing is really, likely difficult. >> reporter: it shows how desperate they are when 5-day-old twins are found aboard, born into migration barely a week old and already homeless. >> sreenivasan: the international organization for migration reports more than 100,000 people have reached italy by boat this year. more than 2,700 have died in the attempt. >> ifill: in italy: grieving survivors of last week'sof earthquake paid final respects to loved ones today. hundreds gathered at a state-hu sponsored funeral in amatrice, where at least 231 people were killed. firefighters and first responders stood along caskets under makeshift tents, as family members looked on. later, a mass was held, andr,
mourners released white balloons. >> sreenivasan: one of the islamic state group's leading figures has been killed in northern syria. a statement by the militantsit today said abu muhammad al-uh adnani died in aleppo province. he's the isis leader who declared a modern-day caliphater across syria and iraq, two years ago. >> ifill: at least 10,000 people may have died so far in yemen's civil war. that estimate today-- from the u.n. humanitarian office-- is nearly double any previous figure. the fighting in yemen has lastei for 18 months. >> sreenivasan: in economic news: france joined germany today in dousing hopes for a free-trade deal between the u.s. and the european union. a top german official said sunday that negotiations have failed. today, french president francois hollande added his skepticism,dd in a speech in paris. >> ( translated ): the negotiations are bogged down, positions have not been respected, it's clearlysi unbalanced. so rather than prolonging talkst it is better to make sure that we can advise all parties that france will not be able to agree on an accord which has been
prepared that way. >> sreenivasan: the potential agreement has run into growing opposition in both the u.s. and europe. and britain's vote to leave the e.u. has further damaged prospects for a deal. >> ifill: back in this country: president obama commuted the sentences of another 111 federal prison inmates. that makes more than 670 during his time in office. they'd been convicted of non- violent drug crimes. the president has argued that sentences in such cases are too long, and he's called for congressional action to lessen the penalties.ie >> sreenivasan: and on wall street: stocks gave back some of monday's gains.ai the dow jones industrial average lost 48 points to close ato 18,454. the nasdaq fell nine points, and the s&p 500 slipped four. >> ifill: still to come on the newshour: apple told to pay more than $14 billion in back taxes to ireland, mass graves are uncovered as isis loses ground, teaching teachers aboutc the minority communities they serve, and much more.
>> sreenivasan: the european commissioner ruled today that ireland must collect $14.5 billion in back taxes from apple. the announcement fueled new tensions between the u.s. and europe over the role of multinational corporations, how they are taxed, and whether it should be considered a subsidy. the anti-trust regulator for the e.u. said ireland had given apple a sweetheart tax deal forx well over a decade, with special laws that effectively allowedct apple to pay less than one percent corporate tax. the e.u. accused apple of setting up two companies in ireland with a head office that only exists on paper. the profits from european stores all go to the ireland "head office" and are essentially untaxed. apple said it would appeal theap decision and denied the characterization. in a statement, the company's chief executive tim cook said the european commission is
trying to "rewrite apple's history in europe, ignore ireland's tax laws and upend the international tax system in thea process." the company has more than $200 billion in cash. i spoke with commissioner margrethe vestager, who announced the decision. thanks for joining us. first off, what gave apple an edge in ireland that was unfair in the eyes of the e.u. >> we havee. a longstanding tradition of state aid which means benefits, advantages to a selected company, and that may come in any form as a piece of land, a favorable loan, a grant or a tax benefit. b of course, any member state can have their own tax legislation.e we would never question that. but thet. thing is that you cant give a specific company a benefit or an advantage which is not open to orthocompanies. >> sreenivasan: is there evidence there was specific to apple and not all the other
companies doing business in ireland?bu >> yes, it is. this arrangement is due to two things which are none of our concern -- how apple is organized and the iran tax legislation. but the thing that is specific is two tax rulings -- or are two tax rulings that are directeded specifically to apple, and tax rulings are, by nature, specific because they are directed from the government or from the t authorities to a specific company, and this is only for them. it is not for other companies. >> sreenivasan: one of apple's concerns today in a call with reporters, the c.f.o. said the tax rate you cited this morning during your press conference, they said i said it before, it's a completely madeup number, we made $4 million in taxes in ireland in 20 14-rbgs we're on of the largest taxpayers in the country. >> well, the thing is that it is important for profits to be paid
where profits are made, and whah we have seen is that the irish tax rulings allowed apple to put the huge majority of their profits into a so-called headquarter or head office. this head office only existed on paper. it had no employees, no premises, no real activities, and it wasn't taxed, not in ireland or anywhere else, and that, of course, then led to the result that apple paid very, very, very little in taxes compared to their profits. in some years as little as 0.005%. >> sreenivasan: is this parten of a broader effort to redefine how multi-national corporationsa pay taxes? we heard you're also going after mcdonald's and reportedly amazon? >> well, the thing is i do state aid control, and state aid
control do not redefine taxation as such. that, of course, takes the legislature to work. and that is why we've worked with the european council and with the european parliament inu order to change legislation, to make transparency greater, to have country-by-country reporting, for tax authorities actually to know what other tax authorities are doing, but it is for the legislature to change that. what i do is what we have a long-standing tradition of doing and ado long-standing court practice of doing which is to control state aid seen as specific advantages to specific companies. >> sreenivasan: doesn't thisis draw into conflict the role of the european union or the commission versus countries andu their sovereignty and how they're able to lay out their tax laws? >> well, the sovereignty of the member s.a.t. is protected -- of the member state is protected by our treaty and i, of course,co
with respect that 100%. 1 i have sworn to respect the treaty. two things have to be in place at the same time, both upholding national legislation as tax legislation and, at the same time, the european legislation that we have made in common that the e.u. state aid rules. and here we have a situation where you have irish tax legislation, but a breach of european state aid rules because illegal state aid was handed out. >> sreenivasan: for thean record, we did invite apple and they didn't have anybody available today but they said in a statement this could have a profound harmful effect on job creation in europe.eu do you expect that? >> europe is a wonderful placeac to do business. d it's a single market with more than 500 million potential customers.ot you find research and developmentar of highest quality there, very skilled people, good
people to employ, wonderful infrastructure, so you're moreso than welcome to come to europe to do business, and i think you can have a very good business here. the thing is what we don't liket so much is when you come to europe for tax avoidance.av >> sreenivasan: is there a concern that there is an uncertainty between how the e.u. rules on different laws inside member nations could create a climate where a company mightt not come to europe but might base themselves somewhere else? >> i think there is an issue here also of corporate culture because, if you're in a country where the tax rate is 12.5% as the ireland and you pay less than 1%, also substantially less than 1%, also reconsider if everything is all right. and 12.5% is, in the first place, a very low corporate taxation compared to other european member states. >> sreenivasan: margrethe
vestager, thanks for joining us. >> it was a pleasure, thank you for having me.ur >> ifill: cataloging the atrocities committed by the so- called islamic state group in syria and iraq, is a difficult, sometimes impossible task. a new report from the associated press attempts to document the mass graves holding some of the group's victims. the a.p. found 72 mass grave sites around syria and iraq. one of the sites held as many as 1,700 bodies. for more we are joined by associated press reporter lori hinnant, one of the authors of o the investigation. lori, thank you for joining us.n 72 mass grave sites. how were you and your colleagueo able to find them and document them? >> well, we used a variety of sources. we first went to rocky kurdistan where there are at least 35 masm graves on sinjar mountain alone,
most holding the bodies of minority azidi.i we talked to the government outside mosul where six to eight inmates were killed and another in a natural geological pit.pi we asked the government in baghdad what they knew to try angulate the other information. we also went into archives of news reports when sites were discovered. for syria we can't go in.in >> ifill: do mass graves also mean mass killings? that isme to say, did all of the bodies you found in the gravesa come from single episodes, single assaults? >> not necessarily. although largely, they did. even for some of them. it's not clear who are in the
graves, they have not been excavated and are untouched. others are in territory unseen. the pit outside mosul and another in syria, for example, we know from islamic state's propaganda they buried hundreds if not more bodies in them and they tossed them in without a thought. we have no idea why the people were killed exactly or when. so in those cases, yes, theh victims are killed at different times. in sinjar, they were all killed at the same time. >> ifill: do we know how theyho were killed? gunshots, sometimes in some cases illness? >> ill fess seems unlikely. it's mostly gunshots. the assault on sinjar, for example, it was some gunshots,s, some were beheaded, a few run over by cars.er in the site that holds the bodies of about 1700 iraqi soldiers, they were all gunned down after being forced to lie down on the ground.e same with the shiite prisonerse of the prison in mosul.
>> ifill: you saidmo that in syria it was difficult to physically get to the actual grave sites. then how were you able to document what happened?pp >> well, we relied on multiple sources so, so we didn't waitwa for one person to say there is a mass grave here. we tried to findma a variety of sources including locals. some people sent photos which we could help by geolocating and coordinating with what islamic state's own propaganda said. they made no effort to hide what they're doing. >> ifill: are the bodies that are being retrieved be identified? >> that's the complicated thing now. theyat largely aren't being retrieved for a variety of reasons -- want of money, want of political will and very, very unstable areas. sinjar mountain although largely taken back by islamic state still remains a part of it within a n -- a no man's land.
some areas arey traps trapped. some bodies have been identified. relatives can find personal belongings and sometimes i.d.s. >> ifill: has anyone been charged or jailed or in any way punished for the deaths? >> there has been justice done in one case, quite recently in the death of the 1700 iraqi soldiers. on august 21st, 36 men were hanged who had been convicted in the killings. >> ifill: as part of this investigation, and you talked to people who were survivors and witnesses, were you able to talk to any of the relatives of people who think their lovedir ones might be in one of these graves? >> we went to an area outside a town in iraq and met a man who originally was just there tot tell us about the graves. he was one of the leaders of the
village and he wanted to tell us about the graves and how much they wished at the they would be excavated and that the people who were buried in there would get a proper burial, and it took time before he finally acknowledged that in fact two oo his adult sons were among the victims of that killing. after a little while, he and i talked for a lit longer, and he invited another young man downdo from the hillside town just above where the killings had taken place, and said he actually saw the killings. turned out that the young man whose name was arkon had never spoken with the father abouth what happened the day his two sons died. he discuss theed events of this horrific day, that they feel as though they're reliving everyer single day that they pass the grave. >> ifill: will this father ever be able to retrieve the bodies of his snons.hi >> he hopes to. he sounded very resigned to it. he said he wanted thean international community to understand that they couldn't
keep reliving the sorrow all of the time. all he wanted was a proper place for his sons to be laid to restr >> ifill: lori hinnant of the associated press, thank you very much. >> thank y you. >> sreenivasan: stay with us. coming up on the newshour: the gap in the presidential t candidates' ground game. and why icelanders want tourists to stop coming to their island nation. but first, urban school districts are tough places to be a teacher, but also where the best and the brightest are needed the most. in chicago, which is dealing with one of the worst budget crises in years, recruiting and holding on to good teachers is t an uphill battle. the district also faces a common dilemma, even as the student body is growing more diverse, the teaching profession is not. one university teacher training program is trying to step up to
the challenge. lisa stark, of "education week, has the story. >> reporter: it's summer in the city of chicago, the nation's third largest public school district. and these aspiring teachers are getting to know each other, then first step in an intensive summer fellowship to prepare them to teach in urban schools. >> i want to be a teacher in chicago public schools.ch >> because i think i can make a really big difference. >> and make sure other studentso who come from backgrounds like myself get these opportunities. >> reporter: these fellows-- 21 of them-- are all students att illinois state university, training to be teachers. they have high hopes, but most, like morgan brauer, have little or no experience in the inner city. we first met morgan the day before, at her home about an hour away. tell me about this neighborhoodb how you grew up? >> so i'm from the suburbs of chicago, rolling meadows
specifically. >> reporter: morgan typifies america's teaching force-- mostly white, mostly female. >> i grew up, it's everyone basically goes to college. there is not really any question, like i was going to college, that was that. i think that's kind of why i want to teach in chicago public schools is because they don't have the same opportunities that i did growing up in the suburbs. so, it's going to be a new experience. >> reporter: this morning,in morgan is leaving for this unique teaching fellowship that takes her out of rolling meadows for a new home in auburn gresham, a predominantly african-american community on chicago's south side. one of four neighborhoods fellows are placed in for one month-- all with high poverty schools, many with high crime rates as well. it's a nonstop four weeks
assisting in the classroom in the morning, volunteering in the afternoon, classes and seminars fill evenings and weekends. >> reporter: all to help them appreciate and understand the culture of these communities. >> thank you. >> and they hope when this is all finished that you will come back and be a teacher for their community. >> reporter: robert lee runs this fellowship, called step-uph >> this infusion, allowing candidates to experience first hand and start to confront their, their own race, their own class, their own sources of privilege leads to a much stronger teacher when they enter the field. >> reporter: only seven years old with 144 participants so far, it's a small program but one that takes enormous effort, including finding funding, about $8,000 a fellow. >> that's where the challenge is
going to be. >> reporter: virtually every teacher college requires so- called cultural competency training, but professor carol lee says many programs come up short. >> the notion of culture competence is often pitched as something special that you need to know if you're working with colored kids. and i'm saying i don't care where you're teaching, the cultural competence means that i have to go into that community with the humility in order to learn. >> reporter: one of the key ways that step-up fellows learn, is from the host families. >> good morning! good morning, hello! >> reporter: yolanda smith wille provide morgan meals and a place to sleep, but most importantly, lessons that can't be taught inh the classroom. >> yeah come on in.>> >> reporter: what do you hope morgan leaves this neighborhood with? >> just to learn about us and don't believe the hype. >> reporter: what is the hype ir
your view? >> that we're shiftless and violent. and i just want us, want her to see the human side of us, not what is portrayed on the media. >> we're so thankful that you'rn watching over her while she's here. >> i sure do, me and god. >> reporter: not all of the fellows are from the suburbs. asia-ana williams grew up in chicago. >> i'm like a little nervous. this is going to be my first time teaching so i don't knowno how i'll do and that's like scary to think about. >> reporter: asia-ana was recruited by illinois state while in high school as part of an effort to encourage studentso of color to become teachers. >> i want to come home to students who look just like me, who have been through things just like i have, and help them the way my teachers helped me. >> reporter: she too is in an unfamiliar neighborhood-- the largely hispanic community of little village.
it didn't take her long to feel at home. >> this is really good, so tryea it. >> my host family can't get rid of me now, i love them too much! they're pretty much stuck with me. >> reporter: the velazco family has taken in fellows since the step-up program began seven years ago. what do you tell these student teachers who come to your house? >> not to have the savior mentality. they're not coming in here toe save people. they're here to be part of the community. and they really have to know where the kids are coming from in order to be able to teach them better, to reach them, toto inspire them. >> reporter: finding host families, and local schools is done with the support of community groups, such as the one run by carlos nelson in auburn gresham. >> the teachers in our schools have daunting tasks, and it'sha way beyond just being able too teach kids math and reading. but they're also having to deal
with social emotional challenges, kids that haven't had a full night's sleep, that haven't had a full meal. and that's why we need to prepare educators to be more in tune with teaching the kids in our south side community. >> reporter: the hope with a program like this one is if teachers are truly trained to teach in urban schools-- not only will they take jobs here, but they'll stay.ak >> hey guys, what's up. >> reporter: assistant principal vanessa puentes hernandez, who has worked in the district for a decade, has seen teachers come and go. turnover in some chicago schools is as high as 50% over four years. >> it takes a village, it really does. and so it's important to learn about the community that you work in because you want to beu
invested in that, not as an outsider coming in and maybe gaining some experience and leaving, but as someone who truly wants to create change. >> that's a lot of work! that's a sacrifice... >> it really is. >> they care so much about their community.y. it's kind of sad to see like how much effort they're putting in, and they still get seen in suchn negative lighting. >> reporter: most of step-up's graduates end up in chicago or other high-needs schools. >> you're right! >> reporter: and over 80% are still in the classroom afterss five years. >> don't fall! >> we all came from so many different backgrounds, but i think that the common ground was always that we all wanted to be good teachers. these schools deserve good teachers, just like any other school district. >> reporter: and you want to be one of them? >> i want to be one of them. i am going to be one of them. >> reporter: and with the help of this program, she's likely to
have some company. >> one, two, three, shuffle! >> reporter: reporting fromng chicago, i'm lisa stark of "education week" for the pbs newshour. >> all right y'all, it's been real. >> sreenivasan: turning now to politics: how much have team clinton and team trump invested in their on-the-ground outreach- - their "ground games" if you will-- to get their supporters out to the polls this fall? correspondent lisa desjardins and digital politics editorli daniel bush tackle that in their new piece out today on our newshour website. and lisa desjardins joins meeb now. so you went out to different campaign facilities, offices out in these key states. what's the difference when you go intowh them?go >> this is an important difference. now we're in the crucial lastst two months of this campaign. the map, i think, tells the story the best. this was not easy to pinpoint.
let's look at the trump campaign offices. he has 88 offices in key battle ground states that pretty much will decide the election. >> sreenivasan: the bigger the circle, the more offices. >> exactly. now the clinton map. you see a very stark difference there. clinton has more than three times as many offices as donald trump right now going into labor day, the traditional start of the presidential campaign season. one thing i have to note, the donald trump campaign says more coming, they say about over 1001 will come on line in the next week, but they're not open now.o this is especially a problem for them in key states. let's look at four key states where we know things could be decisive. pennsylvania. right now, donald trump has 24 offices in those states.st hillary clinton 136. florida we know has been decisive in the past. p donald trump just has one office open there. >> sreenivasan: one of the
questions would be how important are those offices? what's the work that happens at those offices?fi and does it matter in this election? >> right, why should we care about the ground game? seems like inside politics. the ground game decided at least the last two elections, maybe going back farther to evenev george w. bush as well, this is critical, these are the places where volunteers identify and sway voters, phone banks happen there, canvassing operations.e, this is the breathing heart of usual campaigns. doesn't matter this year. the trump campaign says, no, n that they have an operation that defies convention, that theyhe like that, they don't need as many on the ground offices. they say, instead, their groundswell of support is a different type of campaign, and they think that this traditionar type of tactic is something they don't need as much as other campaigns. >> sreenivasan: they're also saying they're going mobile.mo they have r.v.s instead of fixed locations.d >> that's right.ht we know the trump campaign has
had a resource problem up until now but haven't had funds until now. one way they have been dealing with this is they have launched mobile r.v.s in florida.fl they have one office there but three r.v.s cruising aroundcr the state. they say they want to reachnd ot to voters, even if they don't have the canvassing and phone bank operations to the extent clinton does, they say they want to go to grocery stores and register voters.re >> sreenivasan: are theyar trying to reinvent the process? >> they say they are, but i think it remains to be seen on whether they do that or not.no as i said, they haven't had a lot ofha resources until now, they've just had a good fundraising month in the lasthe month. we'll have to see how they spenp the resources. the data game is what reinvented things with team obama. the trump campaign do, they use digital or how do they get the groundswell of support to show up at the polls? these campaign offices are the heart beat of pumping out voters
not just for donald trump but every republican on the ballotlo so it's something the entire party is watching.wa >> sreenivasan: with all of this, even with the lopsided three-to-one advantage-disadvantage, trump will say he'sto been pretty successful so far, he's our guy and didn't do anything by the book going into this. >> and may be right, he's put relatively few resources, not that much work in these states and he's not that far behind inn a lot of the key states, tied in nevada, closing the grape in states like michigan, withoutwi having to do too much. the danger for donald trump is should he come close to election day and have a wobble on the campaign trail, have a moment where voters are in down, he doesn't have this campaign infrastructure to fall back on.o so it's a bit of a gamble, lo the trump campaign says we like how we're doing without all this spending. >> sreenivasan: you can read the full report online by lisa desjardins and dan.da
thank youer for joining us. >> my pleasure. iceland was one of this year's "it" destinations for vacationers. but people there are learning that more tourist money can also mean more problems. special correspondent malcolm brabant has our story. >> reporter: with it's volcanic underbelly and unspoiled prehistoric landscape, iceland has suddenly become one of thes hottest destinations. >> my name is oóloöf rr atladoóttir. and i'm the director general oft the icelandic tourist board. for me, iceland is the possibility of enjoying solitude in spectacular wide open spaces.
>> reporter: iceland is certainly spectacular. the gulfoss waterfall-- part of the so-called "golden circle" of attractions not far from the capital-- is said by some to rival niagara falls. and it's not surrounded by highg rise hotels. but can you get solitude? that's debatable. iceland is a location for "game of thrones" and fans of the hit series are partly responsible for the island's new popularity. so much so that it's difficult to grab a shot of pure nature without getting photobombed by people taking selfies. >> my name is mark heasman. i run a children's charity in london. it's a delightful country. so far we've been in reykjavik. but we're now just about to go out on a three-week expedition around the interior, so we can't wait to get away from the people. >> reporter: we met heasman in the thingvillur national park, another destination on the golden circle route. it's a world heritage site and place of great national importance to icelanders as a
legendary meeting pointet throughout the centuries. >> this particular point seems really crowded actually for somewhere that's so special andc so unique. it's actually a bit disappointing to see it full ofl tourists. but then people need to see it, i guess. >> reporter: fishing used to be iceland's most important industry. but it's now been overtaken byn tourism, which accounts for a third of the country's foreign currency earnings. since 2010, there's been between a 25% to 30% increase in the number of visitors each year. and so this year, 2016, looks like being a record season with government agencies predicting 1.8 million arrivals. >> my name is ian sykes. i'm a retired lecturer in hospitality and tourism from scotland. and i now live in iceland just outside reykjavik with my wife. and i run a guest house here. i believe iceland really needs to get a grip of tourism. get a hold of it.
and if it really hurts, actually, it might hurt just control the numbers and get everything sorted. at the moment it's just more and more tourists and money in the till without a real thought for the future. >> i think that the growth hasow been very rapid. and it is very challenging to meet such a rapid growth. yes we have had growing pains. yes, however iceland is still full of spots where you can still enjoy the solitude. there are a few places that become like other most popularop tourism destinations like the eiffel tower in paris or these hot spots they tend to become crowded in iceland as in other places, but iceland still provides the possibility for a very singular experience. >> my name is gunnar thor johannsesson and i'm a professor in geography and tourism at thea university of iceland. reykjavik. my specialty is tourism development. tourism policy and planning.en p and destination development.
we need to invest in soft things like knowledge. we need to invest in education and training. we need to invest also in concrete and steel. we need to invest in the road system. we know that some of the more serious challenges that tourism is facing is that some of the infrastructure in some of the hot spots of tourism is not t strong enough. >> radical answer would be to put a ceiling on the number of people that come until we're really quite happy that we have the infrastructure to cope. because at the moment people are coming on short three-day holidays, enjoy iceland, but ar, going away saying fantastic country, but it's expensive, an, there are no toilets, and it's all crowded. >> i actually don't think that's very possible because it that would mean putting a cap on private enterprise in a way, in a very strange sort of way. s and i don't think i wouldn'
believe in that, but i do think that we can both organize andiz plan certain destinations within iceland so it grows more harmoniously. >> my name is halldor mar andr i'm a graphic design student and i'm about to be booted out of my home because of air.b.n.b. o >> reporter: the shortage of hotels and guest houses in iceland has led to an explosion of residents renting out their homes to tourists using the air.b.n.b. website. halldor mar doesn't believe new legislation tightening the rules on air.b.n.b. rentals will help potential tenants.nt he claims future rent may account for 70% of his earnings, which tempers his enthusiasm for the tourist influx.
>> they're taking away our homes, you know. it's good that they're coming.y' but it's not really their fault. i don't think they're aware of the problem, but the landlords. everybody here wants to make money. and get into the tourism marketi and that's the problem. >> hi, my name is aáshildur bragadoóttir and i'm the directr of visit reykjavik. we are not facing any problems in my opinion. but of course we have to beav concerned because the growth has been so much. more than anyone could have expected. and there are some challenges we're facing because of that. it takes like two to three years to build a hotel, therefore air.b.n.b. has become more common in reykjavik, and that's a question we're facing now. w are there too many citizens
lending out their houses? >> i think it's also positive not to ban air.b.n.b.so altogether. now we have a limit. there's a 90-day period where you can rent out, or a certain amount of income you're able to have before you have to applyve for a license. and this means actually that normal people are able actually to take part in this boom, this tourism boom. >> this country is not for icelanders any more. it's more for tourists.or i'm looking at maybe we just have to move abroad. and this is going to be a tourists' country rather than iceland. let's call it tourist land rather than iceland from now ono i guess. >> the tourism will drop off in the next three years. the numbers will stabilize. i don't think they're going toth reach the numbers they think. and then there's going to be a kind of over supply and people are going to start to go
bankrupt basically because they're going to be cut pricing each other. >> my name is stephen gilles and i'm a student at the massachusetts maritime academy and also a world traveler. what moves me about iceland is that there's such little pollution unlike a lot of the other places that i've been in the world. i just came from dubai and we went into the middle of thee desert and i was still finding pollution, plastic, rubbish. and you come here and you go to the middle of nowhere you won't find that. it's unspoiled. it's surreal. >> reporter: and in northern iceland, this whale watching trip delivered what it promisedd the majestic and rare sight ofth normally solitary humpbacks feeding in pairs. despite the downside of high prices and crowds, the island is unforgettable. for the pbs newshour, i'm
malcolm brabant in iceland. >> sreenivasan: if you are planning to travel to iceland oi some other destination, you might want to take a tip from travel novelist and poet russele banks. in this age of social media, selfies and selfie sticks, he s considers the differences between a traveler and a tourist. one way to distinguish a tourist from a traveler is a tourist carries a camera or phone and takes pictures with one or both.ot a traveler carries no camera and uses his or her phone mainly to maaco occasional phone callsls home or when lost for the g.p.s. i used to carry a camera when i traveled, but almost never took any pictures with it and apologized when i returned home. until i realized that my
reluctance to point and click was really a reluctance to line up and edit and frame whatever i was seeing or hearing or smelling. the fall of the morning sunlight against the glittering sea. the crinkled face of an old woman selling spices in the market. it was, i believe, an instinctive reluctance to remove myself from my experience, an experience that could only occuo far from home and habit, where the rules as much as the landscape were unfamiliar. to photograph it was somehow to reduce and domesticate my experience and ultimately to kill it. i i knew this but still felt somehow apoll jettics for not having brought back a photographic record of the deat of my experience. sometime in the early 1980s, i was invited by a few magazines and journals to take a trip anywhere you like, the seychelles in the middle of the indian ocean, alaska, the andes and write about it and get paid
for it, travel writing, the photography would be taken care of by a professional, i could leave my camera at home, and did. instead, i brought a notebook and, every night before sleeping, i spent a half hour and sometimes more remembering and recapitulating my day, even when nothing happened, when i met no one of interest or went nowhere beyond the veranda outside my bedroom and read the local newspaper or chatted briefly with the housekeeper because there was alwaysys something happening in my head.y when we are dislocated not relocated we think new thoughts, deal with unbidden strange emotions, reflect on our path in a fresh way from a new perspective. we remember and surprisingly saddened by a brief flirtation we have not thought about in decades. reread the thousand page model our smartest friends insist is a work of genius and somehow we didn't get it first
time around and gave up 50 pages in. it's now more than 30 years i've traveled wut a camera and snapped no pictures with my iphone, and i never apologizeo for it. instead, when i travel, every night in a hotel room or a cabin or a tent, i sit down and write sometimes by candlelight anli account of my day, whether i'm writing for hire or just traveling on my own. my notes have the effect of organizing my attention for the next day, making me a sharper observer, a more careful listener, a more thoughtful guest. i don't do it to show to anyone else or so i can reread my notes months or years later and remember the joyce and pains of that particular journey. no need. the simple act of writing it down in the first place imfrints journey in my soncious memory, stores it there like a buried treasure. it's my private treasure and only i possess the map.
>> ifill: on the newshour online right now: our public mediafi partners at kcts in seattle introduce us to a transgender musician who gave up a very important aspect of his art toar embrace his gender identity. find that on art beat and much more on our website: pbs.org/newshour. >> sreenivasan: and that's the newshour for tonight. on wednesday we explore a program that turns college students into inventors. i'm hari sreenivasan. >> ifill: and i'm gwen ifill.fi join us online and again here tomorrow evening.rr for all of us here at the pbs newshour, thank you and good u night.
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