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tv   BBC World News America  PBS  September 8, 2016 2:30pm-3:01pm PDT

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>> this is "bbc world news america." funding of this presentation is made possible by the freeman foundation, newman's own foundation, giving all profits from newman's own to charity and pursuing the common good, kovler foundation, pursuing solutions for america's neglected needs, and aruba tourism authority. >> planning a vacation escape that is relaxing, inviting, and exciting is a lot easier than you think. you can find it here, in aruba. families, couples, and friends can all find their escape on the island with warm, sunny days, cooling trade winds, and the
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crystal blue caribbean sea. nonstop flights are available from most major airports. more information for your vacation planning is available at aruba.com. >> and now, "bbc world news america." katty: this is "bbc world news america." reporting from washington, i am katty kay. displaced by years of fighting, some syrians are finally getting a chance to escape. but their future is still uncertain. are they ready to be commander-in-chief? the presidential candidates lay out their visions for america's national security. and they may look very different -- they may look similar but scientists now say giraffes are not all the same. there are in fact 4 separate species of the tallest mammal in the world. katty: welcome to our viewers on
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public television in america and also around the world. u.s. secretary of state john kerry is traveling to geneva for talks with russia's foreign minister on trying to reach a truce in syria. the two countries are backing opposite sides in the conflict but the hope is they can reach common ground for those in areas of deepest need. today displaced civilians were allowed to evacuate. reporter: the road out is paved with guns, tears, and loss. these families in the u.n.'s words have faced four years of unrelenting siege. children starved. starving people ate grass amid fighting and bombardment. many of the children are too young to remember peace.
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the departing families have fled from a neighboring enclave emptied at the end of august in an evacuation condemned by the u.n. for the regime, both places were nests of terrorists. local men said they were just defending themselves. these are forced evacuations. siege and starvation make people desperate. children were dressed in their best clothes for the journey. the families are still proud. but this was no party. "we have left behind tragedy," she says. and it is a tragedy everyone
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shared. two sons were killed and so were 2 granddaughters. >> my heart was broken for my two children. they were looking for food, and they never came back. my two granddaughters, 10 and 15 years old, were visiting their grandmother. a mortar hit the house. five people were killed. those are my memories of the last four years. reporter: life here, she said, was like death. the faces of some of these civilians, you can see the strain they have been living under for such a long time. massive disruption in their lives, huge tragedy. but for the government, this is a good day, because they are strengthening their hold on the area around the capital, and for president assad, that counts as
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an important step forward. and for the rebels, all this adds up to a defeat. syrian army soldiers searched everyone leaving. they seem to respect the opposition fighters who emerged under a local truce. after a few minutes, the two groups warmed up enough to pose for pictures. what do you think of this man? he has a picture of assad on his uniform. >> i don't hate him. he is a syrian man. i don't hate him. i am a syrian man also. for me, i want all people who killed us and killed our children and attacked us to be judged and put in jail. that is what i want. reporter: when is all this going to end? >> i think when assad is gone. reporter: some rebel fighters
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could follow the civilians out if offered safe passage. this war might have years left in it, in this part of the suburbs for now, it looks to be over. jeremy bowen, bbc news, damascus. katty: the fighting in syria has been one of the many factors behind europe's migrant crisis, and six months after the eu signed a deal with turkey to reduce the flow of people crossing by boat to greece, people are still coming. the numbers of arrivals are now in the hundreds, not the thousands, each day, but some 60,000 are ready trapped in greece with no prospect of moving on. our europe correspondent reports. reporter: it all looks so calm. the tourists are here, indulging, enjoying their greek summer idyll. in the background, the refugees linger, trapped as europe's crisis festers. out at sea, the boats have
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slowed. greek coast guards scan the water. but tonight, nothing. europe's deal with turkey is having an effect. turkish patrols deterring more crossings. arrivals now around 100 today, not 1000. it is here on land where the crisis has shifted. this man arrived from homs in syria two months ago. >> no one cares about us. reporter: he is now stuck in a temporary shelter, hoping for refugee status, but with no end to the process in sight, like 60,000 others in greece. >> there are people here for six months and they are still waiting. for me, i am two months, so maybe we will wait two years or more. i don't know.
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reporter: adding to their frustration, the refugees can't work. they are reliant on handouts. it's charities, not the eu, that's feeding them. for one woman and her family, it is demoralizing, degrading. it is not what they expected in europe. >> we escaped death, war. how can they reject us? where is their humanity? we are in europe. europe is always talking about human rights. they must protect us. reporter: the refugees have made their own shanty, and islanders believe the eu is deliberately slowing the asylum process to deter more arrivals. >> the eu wants to minimize the flows, so leaves this procedure to take months for the refugees. reporter: the eu's policies have to an extent secured europe's borders for now.
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but they have left greeceand and the refugees already here in limbo, unclear when or two where they will ever move on. katty: the war in syria felt on the shores of greece. their appearances were back to back but that did not stop the u.s. presidential candidates from going head-to-head in new york last night. on national security they laid out their different visions while taking shots at each other. the debate continued today with hillary clinton blasting donald trump over the way he spoke about vladimir putin. mr. trump judged his opponent's performance as horrible. nick bryant has more. nick: the music came with a thumping marshall beat, an aircraft carrier within sight of ground zero. hillary clinton entered hoping to stress her experience in the post-9/11 world. but instead found herself being interrogated about the e-mail scandal that has dogged her
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campaign. mrs. clinton: it was a mistake to have a personal account. i would certainly not do it again. i make no excuses for it. it was something that should not have been done. nick: but that wasn't good enough for this veteran in the audience, who has handled classified material himself. >> you have thoroughly corrupted our national security. mrs. clinton: i communicated about classified material on a wholly separate system. i took it very seriously. >> please welcome the republican nominee for president, donald trump. nick: as a potential commander-in-chief the , billionaire faces questions about his knowledge, temperament, and what some see as his bromance with vladimir putin. mr. trump: if he says nice things about me i'm going to see great things about him. he is a leader. the man has very strong control
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over his country. it is a very different system and i don't happen to like the system but in that system he has been a leader far more than our president has been a leader. nick: he was also rest on his boast that he knows more about the so-called islamic state then america's generals. >> do you know more about isis than they do? mr. trump: i think under the leadership of barack obama and hillary clinton the generals have been reduced to rubble. they have been reduced to a point where it is embarrassing for our country. nick: president obama seems to echo widespread reduces him of moderator matt lauer for not challenging mr. trump's controversial assertions. president obama: listen to what he said and follow up and ask questions on what appears to be contradictory or uninformed or outright wacky ideas. nick: and while we are on the subject of westerns from journalists, listen to this exchange with libertarian presidential candidate gary johnson. >> what would you do if elected about aleppo?
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mr. johnson: and what is aleppo? >> you're kidding. mr. johnson: no. >> aleppo is in syria. it is the epicenter of the refugee crisis. mr. johnson: ok, got it, got it. nick: but that is a sideshow. it is the two main candidates who are vying to be commander-in-chief. hillary clinton was slammed for her use of a private e-mail server. mr. trump praised vladimir putin but criticized the generals he hopes to lead. the forum in which they hoped to project their strengths as america's next commander-in-chief, instead highlighted their weaknesses. nick bryant, bbc news, new york. katty: so what did we learn from last night's forum? i spoke with short time ago with "washington post" columnist david ignatius. how would foreign policy be different under president clinton and president trump? do we know?
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david: clinton is stressing continuity and is generally supportive of barack obama's foreign policy. the lead substantive item from last night's forum was that she would not commit ground troops in iraq or syria, in line with what president obama has done. i think that for donald trump, the mystery of what his foreign nedicy would be like deepe last night. there has been discussion all day in the united states about this extraordinary comment supporting russian president vladimir putin, a person who in the last several years has invaded crimea, has sent a military force into syria that is significantly changing the balance of power in the middle ,ast to the u.s. disadvantage and now it is alleged is conducting covert cyber action in the united states during our election season.
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to have one of our political candidates say he prefers the russian president as a leader to our own president, barack obama, astonished people today. i think it is going to be a source of continuing worry. does trump really mean he would be more comfortable with putin, making deals with putin, than hillary clinton? katty: his support for putin, when you push it, seems to come down to that one line last night in the debate. "he said nice things about me so i will say nice things about him." hard to see what else he likes apart from he is tough. david: i think there is mutual flattery between putin and trump but i think there is something deeper. trump characterizes himself as a dealmaker, big guy. he wants to sit across the table with another big guy, vladimir putin, and make deals that stabilize the world. he essentially says what's wrong with that? why shouldn't we sit together and make a deal over syria? i'm the guy who can do it. the problem is this comes at a
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time when russia is testing the united states in virtually every space across europe and the middle east. i know it has shocked some of our military commanders today, who also were reeling from trump saying our generals are an embarrassment, buried under the rubble. i asked a four-star today, how does it feel to be under the rubble, and i got an unsmiling response. katty: how did hillary clinton prepare for her first big debate against donald trump on foreign policy? david: this is a trial run. she saw as we all did that you think would be her greatest strength, her experience, knowledge of the most deeply classified matters or involvement in tracking and killing osama bin laden, has been vitiated by the e-mail scandal. she has got to find a way to respond to that so she is not stuck on that question in the first presidential debate. katty: david ignatius, thanks very much for coming in.
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a quick look at other news from around the world. france's interior minister says three women arrested in connection with a car loaded with gas canisters abandoned in paris were likely to be planning an imminent attack. he said one of the detained women stabbed a police officer as he tried to arrest her before being shot and wounded. he says the three women had been radicalized. israel has begun work on a massive underground barrier along the border with gaza designed to prevent palestinian militants from tunneling across. defense officials say the concrete barrier will be dozens of meters deep and ultimately stretch along the length of the border with gaza. hamas militants have used underground tunnels in the past two attack israelis. death in the air is a pretty strong name for a report, but the world bank is warning that air pollution is one of the biggest causes of premature death, and the vast majority of us are at risk. the findings show that one in 10 gets are now related to air
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pollution and the economic cost is $225 billion every year. in dehli, the problem is clear. reporter: air pollution is one of the worst causes of premature death in india. by one estimate, half a million people die every year because of it. there are a number of reasons for air pollution the number of cars on the road, the burning of fossil fuels. but in particular, it is this matter that is the most deadly -- the toxic particles or dust caused by fossil fuels or other forms of pollution which you cannot see through the naked eye, but which can have deadly effects. it can lead to respiratory problems, they can cause heart disease, even need to lung cancer. not surprising that urban centers such as cities are the worst affected. india is set to have, according to the world bank, 6 of the most polluted cities in the world.
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capital, has the dubious distinction of being the worst of all. that is why there is increasing pressure on the government to take drastic measures to try to curb this massive problem. katty: oh, my god, that looks awful. you are watching "bbc world news america." still the come on the program, it is the addictive game played around the globe. the story around tetris you probably never knew. president obama wrapped up the weeklong trip to asia, his last as u.s. leader. on his final stop, the afghan and east asia summit in laos, mr. obama said an international ruling found no basis for china's claims in the south china sea was binding, and dismissed criticism by what some of the described as a less than warm reception in the region. reporter: first there was carpetgate. president obama trip to china
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took an awkward turn when aging literally failed to rollout -- beijing literally failed to roll out the red carpet for him. then there was this. reporter: philippine president duterte using offensive language to describe the american leader when he was asked what he would do if president obama raised the issue of human rights with him. have diplomatic gaffes overshadowed much of the message he was trying to deliver to asia, but the president brushed them off. i don't takema: these comments personally because it seems like this is a phrase used repeatedly, including directed at the pope and others. just a it seems to be habit, a way of speaking for him. reporter: president obama also repeated his concerns over the south china sea, saying that the rule of law in international waters must be maintained.
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this was president obama's final trip to asia. he has visited this region more than any other american leader and has made the pivot to asia cornerstone of the u.s. foreign policy here. but in recent years he has had to contend with the rise of china in the region. how the struggle between the united states and china plays out will be a key test of president obama's legacy in asia. katty: tetris -- it is perhaps the world's most popular and addictive video game. it has been played in space and even has a spot at one of new york's most prominent art museums. few of us who have worked feverishly to make the blocks line up probably know about the soviet programmer that developed it and the fight to bring the
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game to a mass market. it is all revealed in the new book "the tetris effect." tetris comes to europe and north america in 1987. not a lot gets out of the soviet union before the wall comes down. how did it managed to get to that market? >> it is amazing that it did. it was an early viral hit before there was any kind of consumer internet to speak of, much less in russia. a programmer working on high-end stuff -- artificial intelligence, voice recognition. in his spare time he decides to re-create a child game he loved on this primitive computer he had and pass it along to friends . you make a copy of the disc and walk it along to someone else and it eventually found its way to hungary, where a western game publisher saw it and said i have to get this and sell it to the west. but how do you make an intellectual property licensing deal with the soviet union? they have no concept of what that is. katty: did he manage to make money out of tetris?
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it has been a massive hit for, what, three decades. >> more than 30 years. initially when there was interest in the game, the soviet government at the time said we own everything, this is ours, we will keep you on as a consultant. but any money that does come in, and a big part of the controversy here was the soviets trying to collect the money they thought they were owed, all flowed to them. after the soviet union fell apart, alexey was able to reassert his portion of the rights. katty: give us a sense of the scale of tetris's reach. 425 million downloads on mobile phones alone. >> it has been a billion-dollar business over the last 30 years. the initial killer pairing of the nintendo game boy --the handheld thing from the 1980's -- and the tetris game with it, 40 million combined packages of that. you can play it on any product that comes out -- any tablet, any phone, any game console. ea, which makes mobile games for
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iphones, they have sold 5 00 million copies of a 30-year-old game on iphones. katty: tetris was the first-ever big video time suck. >> oh, it definitely was, and it led to things like bejeweled, candy crush, and you can see it in things like pokémon go, because there is no instructions to read and it works in any culture and any language. katty: would you claim there is an intellectual upside? >> cognitive scientists over the years have independently found that tetris, because of the way it is a visual-spacial exercise, doesn't require the language centers of the brain, is great for stimulating the brain for research. they make you play it and put you in a pet scan machine and figure out what it does to the activity in your brain. they found it makes your brain more efficient. katty: that is the argument that my children use all the time! the book is "the tetris effect."
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thank you for joining me. >> thank you. people aw, to most giraffe is a giraffe. but scientists have discovered there are 4 different species. victoria gill has gone to the zoo to explain the differences. they are africa's gentlest giants. but these animals are in decline as their natural habitat is shrinking. that threat was the trigger for an investigation. geneticists and conservationists work together to sample giraffe dna to find more about these increasingly fragmented populations. and this revealed a genetic surprise. what the new results shows that there are four different species of giraffes, all very tall, and they look very similar. but they are actually as genetically distinct from one another as a polar bear is from a brown bear. the animals you see at the zoo are one of the 4 species.
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they are reticulated giraffes. the others are northern giraffes, southern giraffes, and masai giraffes. this might look like a very tricky game of spot the difference, but to conservationists, it is crucial information. >> understanding that they look different is just the start. now understanding the real genetic differences helps us understand there may well be big differences in mating behavior, reading patterns and those are , critical to conserving the species and important to understanding how threats might impact upon it, and how we save species from extinction. victoria: the wild population of giraffes has declined by 40% in the last 15 years. they're looking deep into the dna to help conservationists work out exactly what the animals need from the environment to help protect the habitats of the world's tallest mammals. victoria gill, bbc news. katty: they may be very
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different but they are all very cute. that brings the program to a close. i am katty kay. thanks so much for watching. i will see you back here tomorrow. >> make sense of international news at bbc.com/news. >> funding of this presentation is made possible by the freeman foundation, newman's own foundation, giving all profits from newman's own to charity and pursuing the common good, kovler foundation, pursuing solutions for america's neglected needs, and aruba tourism authority. >> planning a vacation escape that is relaxing, inviting, and exciting is a lot easier than you think. you can find it here, in aruba. families, couples, and friends can all find their escape on the
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island with warm, sunny days, cooling trade winds, and the crystal blue caribbean sea. nonstop flights are available from most major airports. more information for your vacation planning is available at aruba.com. >> "bbc world news" was presented by kcet, los angeles.
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captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc >> woodruff: good evening. i'm judy woodruff. gwen ifill is on assignment. on the newshour tonight, donald trump and hillary clinton trade barbs on major foreign policy issues after a town hall centered on what it takes to be commander in chief. then, the republican nominee still refuses to release his income tax returns. we take a deep dive into what they could tell us about donald trump the candidate and the businessman. and, catching a wave in california to learn about china's rise in manufacturing and how that's leaving some american workers out to dry. >> 95% of the boards being sold in the world weren't made by us in california, who started the suar

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