tv PBS News Hour PBS September 9, 2016 3:00pm-4:00pm PDT
captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc >> woodruff: good evening. i'm judy woodruff. on the newshour tonight: north korea conducts its biggest nuclear test yet, creating what registered as a 5.3 magnitude earthquake and sparking swift condemnation from leaders around the world. then, 15 years after 9/11, the u.s. struggles to hand over security to afghanistan's military force as the talibanth makes a resurgence. >> we're trying to build an airplane while in flight.ig okay, so they're fighting a war while we're trying to build anwh army. this is very hard. >> woodruff: and it's friday.nd mark shields and david brooks analyze the week's news. all that and more on tonight's pbs newshour.
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>> woodruff: north korea is at the epicenter of world attention tonight. it blasted its way there today with a nuclear explosion that touched off shockwaves-- both seismic and political. the test drew global criticism, and raised fresh questions about what-- if anything-- can be done.do we'll have the full story, after the news summary. the u.s. presidential campaign also echoed today with talk ofal the north korean blast-- with two months to go till election day. lisa desjardins has the story. >> reporter: the north korea news forced both american candidates to respond: hillaryo clinton, after meeting with a national security panel in new york. >> we are not going to let north korea pursue a nuclear weapon with a ballistic missileic capacity to deliver it to the united states territory. that is absolutely a bottom line. >> reporter: donald trump argued
it's another of what he says were clinton's "catastrophic's failures". he spoke at the value voters summit in washington: >> just today it was announced that north korea performed it's fifth nuclear test-- it's fourtl since hillary clinton became secretary of state. it's just one more massive's failure from a failed secretary of state. >> reporter: the republican hit on a different foreign policy issue last night, when he spoke to larry king on r.t., a news channel run by the russian government. >> u.s. intelligence and law enforcement agencies reportedlye are investigating whether russia launched a covert operation to disrupt the 2016 election.t what do you make of that? >> i think it's probably unlikely. i think maybe-- maybe the democrats are putting that out-- who knows? >> reporter: trump's campaign said later he didn't mean to gog on russian state tv. >> he actually did an interview with larry king, and he said he
was doing it for his podcast; hh didn't know it would be on russia tv. >> reporter: meanwhile, clinton- - in kansas city last night-- signaled a shift in tone away from trump attacks, and toward her personal side, addressing the national baptist convention: >> i still remember my late father-- a gruff former navy man-- on his knees praying by k his bed every night.y that made a big impression on me as a young girl, seeing him humble himself before god. >> reporter: this going-positive push is multimedia, including this new tv ad, stressing herad message. >> we've got to bring people together. >> reporter: candidates-- and voters-- will take a break this weekend. both trump and clinton havent agreed to suspend campaigning sunday to mark the 15th anniversary of 9/11. for the pbs newshour, i'm lisa desjardins. >> woodruff: also today: early voting began in north carolina, the first of 37 states that allow the practice. a federal judge today refused to
stop construction of an oil pipeline near a north dakota indian reservation. but right after that, threeaf federal agencies asked they pause work voluntarily. the standing rock sioux have drawn thousands of protestors to support their cause. they say the project harms water supplies and disturbs ancient sites. wall street took a beating today on fears of higher interest rates and lower oil prices. the dow jones industrial average lost 394 points to close at 18,085. the nasdaq fell 133 points and the s&p 500 slid 53. the u.s. house of representatives has given final approval to letting families of 9/11 victims sue saudi arabia. 15 of the 19 hijackers were saudis, but riyadh strongly objects to the bill, and the
white house warns of a veto. still, republican congressman peter king of new york-- andr others-- say they're undeterred. >> this is the most basic constitutional right. this is an obligation. it's an obligation we in the congress have to not allow foreign lobbyists or foreign countries or anyone else to intimidate us. justice must be done. we want to make sure that there are no more 9/11s. this is one more step we can take to show foreign governments they cannot step aside. they cannot walk away if something is carried out where they're sort of looking the other way making believe it's not happening. >> woodruff: the vote came after house members from both parties marked 9/11 on the steps of the capitol. they paused for a moment of silence and then sang "god bless america", in the same location where they gathered immediately after the attacks, 15 years ago sunday. new warnings today on samsung's galaxy note 7 phone because the batteries can explode and spark fires. now, the consumer production
safety commission is telling people to stop using the phones and turn them off. and the federal aviation administration warns against bringing them on airplanes. samsung has issued a global recall. and, a nasa probe is off on a seven-year first of its kind mission to gather samples from an asteroid, and return them to earth. a rocket launched the probe from cape canaveral, florida on thursday evening. an hour later, the "osiris-rex" spacecraft shot out of orbit. it's heading for the asteroid "bennu", to bring back about two ounces of dust. still to come on the newshour:st re-evaluating the global approach to north korea after its latest nuclear test, mark shields and david brooks analyze the week's news, and much more.
>> woodruff: we return to our top story: north korea's latest nuclear test. and its reverberations around the globe. our chief foreign affairs correspondent margaret warner begins our coverage. >> reporter: north korea touteda its latest nuclear test as a major breakthrough injo deliverability. >> ( translated ): the nuclear test finally examined andly confirmed the structure and specific features of movement of a nuclear warhead that has been standardized to be able to be mounted on strategic ballistic rockets. this will enable the nation to produce at will and as many as it wants. >> reporter: that claim has yete to be substantiated. but today's test was the north's most powerful yet. international observers reported the underground blast had a seismic magnitude larger than any of the four previous tests. south korean officials estimate the blast had a yield of ten kilotons, a sharp increase from the six-kiloton test in january.
just as ominous, north korea has demonstrated growing success with ballistic missiles.is on monday, it fired off three medium-range rockets. all flew more than 600 miles before splashing down inhi japanese waters. last month, pyongyang also successfully launched ath l submarine-based missile.e- today's nuclear test drew swift condemnation. in seoul, south korea's president charged north korean leader kim jong un has gone mad. >> ( translated ): north korea's nuclear test, which is already only seen as a challenge to thee international community. and we and the internationalnt community have reached the limit of our patience. i think the mental condition of kim jong un, who won't listen to the international community and neighboring countries to stay in power, is out of control. >> reporter: china-- north korea's closest ally-- warned
against further provocations. >> ( translated ): any unilateral action that is in the interest of its own will not yield anything, it could onlyyi intensify the situation and complicate the issue. >> reporter: and president obama, who returned from asia early today, said in a statement the u.s. will never accept north korea as a nuclear state. but top republicans aimed their criticism at the white house.he a statement from house speaker paul ryan dismissed the president's initiatives, saying: y today's test marks the latest setback in a campaign to contain north korea's nuclear ambitions, going back decades, and three u.s. presidents. north korea did agree to halt its nuclear weapons program back in 1994. but the years since then have seen an endless cycle of on-off negotiations, threats, sanctions and ever more advanced tests by the north. a state department spokeswoman was asked what happens next: >> we won't stop our effortswo working with our international
partners to increase pressure oa this very opaque regime in reaction to provocative acts like this. >> reporter: in new york, the united nations security council met yet again-- in emergency session-- to condemn the north, and weigh its options. but china-- which has veto power on the council-- stopped short of saying it would back new t sanctions. that prompted secretary defense ash carter to say beijing has an "important responsibility" and r needs to do more. for the pbs newshour, i'm margaret warner. >> woodruff: for more and to explore the world's options, we turn to: gary samore. he served on the national security staff during the first term of the obama administration as the coordinator for arms t control and weapons of mass destruction.io he's now at harvard university's kennedy school of government. and greg thielmann was the director of the strategic, proliferation and military affairs office at the state department from 2000-2002.
he's now on the board of directors of the arms control association, a pro-arms-control advocacy group. and we welcome both of you to the program. greg thielmann, to you first, we just heard this described as the north's most powerful nuclearr test yet. how significant was it? >> well, it's the latest piecee of bad news in terms of north korea's continuing evolution of nuclear and missile programs. it's the most powerful nuclear test yet, the second this year, and it represents an acceleration of north korea's movement in a very bad direction. >> woodruff: so what does this say about their nuclear capability, where they can reach, how much destruction they can wreak? >> it's very hard to answer that question precisely because we really don't know how advanced the north koreans are in being
able to miniaturize their nuclear devices so they fit on top of a ballistic missile. so there's a lot of guesswork involved. but i think it's fair to sayy that, at this point, the north koreans may have the about the put a nuclearko warhead on a medium-ranged ballistic missilem and that missile could hit japan, it could hit south korea, and they are probably that far, according to what we t hear from south korea and u.s. intelligence sources.ll >> woodruff: gary samore, what are the north koreans trying to say with this test, do you believe? >> well, of course, the specific timing was to celebrate the t 68th anniversary of the foundation of north korea, but i think, more broadly, i think kim jong un is determined to demonstrate that he is not going to be cowed or deterred by u.n. security council injunctions and
the threat of sanctions which are demanding he halt testing and eventually give up his nuclear weapons program. so i believe thecl north koreans are trying to make it clear to the security council and the big powers, especially china and the u.s., that they are determined to retain and expand their nuclear weapons capability.nu >> woodruff: greg thielmann, does this represent a failure of american policy toward the world and north korea? >> i think it represents a failure toward the objective almost all countries in the world agree to which is not to expand the number of countries that possess nuclear attack capability. >> woodruff: so -- but what's been wrong about that policy ifc has it been too tough? has it been too weak?e how do you size it up? >> well, of course, u.s. nuclear nonproliferation policy scoredor some impressive successes, and i think the iran nuclear agreement of last year is a good example
of that. in the case of north korea, it's one of the most difficult of all challenges we have, and there is certainly reason to criticize the north koreans for being bad negotiating partners, and they have not been willing to carry out some of the obligations to which they've agreed. but there are also problems on the other side of the table. one of the problems we have now is there is no table. we are not talking to the north koreans. >> there are no negotiations going. let me turn to gary samore. how do you see this question of flat-out this means what's been going on until now has failed? >> yes, i think that's right.h i mean, going back to president reagan, when we first suspected that north korea was pursuing a nuclear weapons program,a the united states has tried many different ways to slow down or prevent north korea from acquiring nuclear weapons, including nuclear diplomacy.
we've had three agreements,, threats of preemptive war, economic sanctions. we've tried many different methods and they've all failed. as greg said, it's an indication of how difficult the problem is. you have a country that feels it has an existential need to have nuclear weapons in order to survive, and u.s. options,p whether they're diplomatic, coercive, military, are very limited. so the question will be whetherw or not this test of north korea's continuing defiance will create opportunities, in particular for the u.s. and china, to work together, and that will be seene in the u.n., whether or not the chinese are prepared to support additional sanctions measures.on >> woodruff: well, let me asket you about that because, up until now, the u.s., as we know, has said there are pre-con visions. north korea has to meet certain conditions before the u.s. will sit down at the table and talk. should that policy go away?
should there now be talks without pre-conditions? >> well, just to be clear, the u.s. is prepared to meet with the north koreans, with north korean diplomats without any conditions.nd the question is whether the conditions for nuclear negotiations, for a forming negotiation. and for me, a minimum condition has to be an agreement that the purpose of nuclear negotiations is to achieve eventual disarmament. nobody expects that to happen ip the near term, but in some kind of sequence, series of steps. secondly, while the talks are going on, north korean refrain r from nuclear and long-range missile testing. so me, that's a reasonable minimal requirement, and i thini you can get the chinese and other major powers involved in the talks to agree to that. now, the obama administrationdm has been asking for more.mo they have been asking for restraints on north korean
fissile material destruction as a condition for starting negotiations. i think that hasn't worked andan we have to look at trying to come to an agreement with china on conditions that are more realistic. >> woodruff: greg thielmann,gr how do you see that? what do you think needs to happeno now? >> i mostly agree with what gary said that i think we could make a mistake in even trying to get north korea to go back to its previous commitment to a denuclearized korean peninsula. i think right now that's putting the bar too high. we need to negotiate with the north koreans, and even if the objective -- the only objective we can agree to is a freeze on north korean nuclear and ballistic missile testing, ic think that, too, would have value. that doesn't mean we have to abandon our objective to ultimately get rid of all nuclear weapons in the korean peninsula, but to require the north koreans, before entering negotiation, to accept that as the ultimate objective of the negotiations i think is askingsk
too much. >> woodruff: so you're sayingng tell the north koreans what? we will sit down with you -- what? >> we will sit down andd negotiate the terms of a freeze on nuclear and ballistic missile testing, and we will make very clear that our objective is to ultimately get rid of all nuclear weapons in the korean peninsula, as the north koreans previously agreed to. >> woodruff: gary samore, does that sound like the right path? >> right now the north koreans are not prepared to talk about nuclear disarmament, nor are they prepare to accept any restriction on their testing activity, and unless you establish, it seems to me, a basic premise for the talks, or for the negotiations, then you're not going to get anywhee if you don't at least with have an agreement on what it's all about. >> woodruff: it's a moment when a lot of questions are l being asked, and we know it's certainly what north korea has done has certainly gained everyone's attention. gary samore, we thank you.ou greg thielmann, we thank you. t >> thank you.
>> woodruff: now we return to >> woodruff: now to ouro continuing coverage of the upcoming 15th anniversary of the september 11th attacks. we begin with a look at theth country where the attacks were planned: afghanistan. the u.s. and nato deposed thede taliban government in the fall of 2001, but 15 years later american troops continue toco fight and die there, while trying to help the afghans stand up an army to take on a resurgent taliban.en from kabul, special correspondent jennifer glasse reports. >> reporter: at the regional corps battle school in laghman province in eastern afghanistan, these afghan soldiers-- many with years of battlefieldtl experience-- have been learning leadership skills from coalition forces.
it's an afghan-run school with u.s. soldiers and nato troops serving as advisors. part of the lesson plan: u.s.- style military organization.yl after completing seven weeks of training these men become non- commissioned officers, a rank that had been exclusive to theat united states military. adam weiner is an advisor. >> we have a strong leadership in the officer and n.c.o. side and we see the benefits that that has for our army. and so we've tried to instill that into their training as well to empower their non-er commissioned officers to take a bigger role leading soldiers alongside their officer counterparts in their units. >> reporter: some of these afghan soldiers fought alongside u.s. forces in eastern afghanistan. with only a few american speciaa forces still in the country, afghans must rely on u.s. airpower when things get tough. >> ( translated ): when the air support comes, every soldier, every fighter, has better morale.
they are refreshed and fight with new energy against theew enemy. also in some districts there are high mountains and we can not go there. so we need the airplanes to target the enemy. >> reporter: but after 15 years of u.s. and coalition efforts on the ground, and least $65 billion, afghan security forces are still a development project. the task of building a militaryi here didn't start until 2009, with a commitment from president obama to do the hard work needem to help afghanistan stand on its own, and reducing the need for u.s. troops. general john nicholson is the commander of u.s. and nato forces in afghanistan. he's served here before, but now commands an international forcea far smaller than years past. >> we're trying to build an airplane while in flight. okay, so they're fighting a war while we're trying to build an army, this is very hard. and when you look at the histories of any of our western coalition force members, who are here.
they've had a similar long journey to build thehe professional armies that we have today. and so this is primarily the challenge. casualties, the need to develop leaders, the need to develop systems where none previously existed. so it does take time. >> reporter: sergeant first class philip nixon is serving a second tour here. in 2010 he was fighting in southern afghanistan, now he's the platoon leader of the guardian angels, a mix of u.s. and nato troops charged with protection of the military advisors and their bases across the country. destroying the enemy is not hisn >> compared to when i was here in afghanistan six years ago, they afghan army, the a.n.a, they've come a long way. they are-- the facilities areey much better, their soldiers seem to be doing a lot. i think what we're able to do here with the train, advise, and assist mission has improved drastically from the last time i was here. >> reporter: a lot has changed
in six years. the u.s. policy in afghanistan remains focused on counterterrorism, but now they're relying on the afghans to execute most of that mission. american troops on this base are part of the main mission of u.s. forces here in afghanistan, to train, advise and assist afghan security forces. there's an afghan base just next door and there are bases like this all over afghanistan. like shoraback in helmand province southern afghanistan,n where afghan trainers and u.s. advisors are putting the afghan 215 corps through their paces. american and british forces left helmand in 2014. after the taliban made considerable gains in the absence of coalition forces,s, hundreds of u.s. troops have returned. now with new leaders in the afghan corps, the coalition is teaching them new tactics to fight a resurgent taliban. within the past year, the taliban briefly captured kunduzn city in the north this summer, besieged lashkar gah in the south and this week threatenedat tirin kot in central
afghanistan. >> when you look at the population and district control the afghans control about 68% percent of the population and about 62% of the districts.62 the taliban control about 10% of the population and 10% of the districts. 25% of the country is contested. it's in play. >> reporter: and the fight isn't just on the battlefields, the taliban strikes wherever it canr just behind me is the ministry of defense, just a few minutes ago there were twoe explosions, the police and security forces you can see out in full force. they're moving the people back.e this is a very busy market area and this is one of the busiest parts of the day as businesses let out, as offices let out, so the streets were very, very full. the police say some suspiciouse men went over there, so they're moving everybody as far back asy they can. this is the kind of security problem that afghans face on a daily basis. this taliban attack in kabul was particularly brutal and deadly.b first a remote controlled bomb went off. then as help arrived for the
wounded, a suicide bomber dressed in an afghan army uniform detonated himself in the crowd of helpers. at least 35 people were killed, including an army general andne three senior police officers. more than 90 were wounded. the taliban aren't the only threat in afghanistan. >> of the 60 designated terrorist organizations that the u.s. has identified, ten of them reside in this region.si so our presence here enables us to keep pressure on those organizations and prevent another 9/11. >> reporter: both al qaeda and the islamic state are in afghanistan. the u.s. commander got expanded authorities this year to fight both isis and the taliban directly. so again, u.s. forces aree fighting here, supported by american planes. but the afghans remain on thee front line. they have a new air force, but it will take years before its at full strength and capacity, and afghan ground forces continue to take punishing casualties.
last year more than 5,500 died and 14,000 were wounded. casualties this year are up an estimated 20%. the price of defending a country they got back from the talibanom 15 years ago. for the pbs newshour, i'm jennifer glasse in kabul. >> woodruff: stay with us. coming up on the newshour: 15 what 9/11 memorials mean to victims' families in their own words. but first, the analysis of shields and brooks. that's syndicated columnist marn shields and "new york times" columnist david brooks. welcome to you both. it's good to see you again. let's talk about the presidential campaign. david, we saw the two candidates together at the same place this week but not at the same time at this televised forum that nbc
sponsored. what did you make of their performance and what they had to say? >> i thought they both lost, i thought america lost, humanity lost, a little piece of my soul died. >> woodruff: that bad... they both did poorly. i thought she was evasive and cross and looked like she was imperious and angry to be challenged. she had plenty of information but not a lot of relatability and not a lot of humanity and not a lot of vision for foreign policy. he, if anything, was a little worse. he is as he has want to do said about six ridiculous things.ng the admiration for putin is a wrong standing, but to me the thing that really made me think was his claim that in rierk we should have left a core of people to take the oil. now, that is, first of all impractical, but it's also moral idiocy. maybe you're selfish and think, oh, i have oil and guns, i should taken it. t but if you go through any realm of education, which is what we
try to do with people, you learn that's imperialism, plunder,is it's morally wrong and ruinsi your credibility. the idea a big country is going to go send troops into some country to they can their resources and the rest of the world will trust us is a ridiculous notion. so he says things that are plainly ridiculous. but so that's why i'm so depressed. > >> woodruff: so, mark, humanity lost as a result of this encounter this week? >> judy, i it was -- i think david's point about the oil is well taken, valid and true. that is not the united states.st that is pillaging. that is the worst form of imperialism that he's describing. it would mean leaving thousandsa of americans there to protect the oil drilling. i mean, it's indefensible on a
logistical, moral and political grounds. you've moderated debates. i've never moderate a debate for good reason. but wednesday night, partially unflattering press to matt lauer's performance, raiseded stakes to moderators and has put on notice all of them that they are not entitled in 2016 to sit there while somebody makes a statement that is factually untrue and can be proven false, as mr. trump did when he, in fact, said that he had always opposed the united states war in iraq. and i just think thatteth tougho to be a moderator. but the question of integrityt and greats doubt about him is part of the job description.cr
>> woodruff: how do you see the question about the role of moderator. >> i didn't think matt lauer did terribly. when one candidate does badly, they tend to blame the moderator. as for the role in moderator, ir would say in moderation. if he corrects a fact or two, that's fine.th an argument between the moderator and the candidate is not what we want. in terms of cognitive science, the idea that when you correct a fact you erase the fact from people's memories is the reverse of the truth.ru when you correct a fact, you further lodge the fact into people's minds and they remember the error. we've had all the fact checking services and we have not entered a more factual era of american politics, we have entered a less factual era. it doesn't work. d >> woodruff: is this about the fact that hillary clinton didn't do as well as her supporters wanted her to do?
>> no. i mean, i think there areth people, obviously, who criticize matt lauer on that basis, and i'm not trying to pile on matt lauer, but i think the difference, judy, between a debate and what we saw wednesday night is that a debate, as you know and our viewers know, is a simultaneous occurrence, whenre the two are there at the same time and they can respond in realtime to each other. and i think that, you know, we get 90 million people at a presidential debate, there is no question that, in 1980, ronald reagan had been portrayed as a war monger, somebody whowh couldn't do anything off a script, and the one debate with president jimmy carter, he stood toe-to-toe and reassured peoplea he was not bound and determined to start world war three on the spot and could make a coherent statement. so, i mean, there is a lot more to a debate than there was on wednesday night, and, in 2004, i think it's pretty obvious that
john kerry won the three debates on debating terms, but, in the final analysis, george bush was reelected because voters chose e like over i.q. that's what one gets a sense of the personality, the character, how they treat each other and the moderator. so i think they upped the audience for the next debate.de >> woodruff: what about inut this race the polls are tightened? what do you tribute that to? >> i don't know.. after the stock market drops 300 points, the analysis invents a story, oh, there was a correction. in the polls, we invent a story to go back for it. and they have tightened from maybe a 7-point clinton lead to a 2 or 3-point clinton lead. so they have tightened. i have not seen donald trump rur a better campaign or hillary clinton run a worse campaign. as one travels around the country, one is constantly barraged with the upsettedness.
people are dispirited. you settle toward parody because they're dispirtd about everybodr and that would be any only theory but i have not noticed one candidate or another radically altering theirlt performance to explain the fall or rise. trump's numbers are pretty flat. the variation tends to be in the clinton numbers. >> mark, do you have anyo explanation for what's going ono >> i do, i have an explanation because i think that's part of our responsibility, to come up with explanations, whether valiw or not.or (laughter) no, judy, i think americans don't like powerful figures who punch down -- that is, who pick on someone less powerful and less able to speak for themselves than they are, and i think donald trump was guilty of that on a sustained basis after the convention, the time of the democratic convention, on his abuse of a federal judge whose parents had emigrated from mexico, and in particular his
picking on and really abusing mr. and mrs. khan, the gold star parents. he hasn't done that recently and that reaches the bar of presidential end behavior. but the problem isal this ia a changed election.ge americans don't like the way washington operates. they don't like washington.n they don't like the way things are going.in they like the president but they do not like washington, d.c., and hillary clinton has becomeec the status quo. by a two-to-one margin, voters believe that donald trump would change business as usual in washington, but by almost as large a margin they believe hillary clinton would b be bettr in a crisis and less of a decisive margin she cares about people like them. l so you have a changed election where he is represents change that is really threatening to people, and i think that's the election. but there's noat question that e has not come across as -- she
started opening up this week to the press, but if you think about personal hillary clinton,u you have to go back to the primary day ino signature when she showed such vulnerability, appealing vulnerability, whenli she reached out to the girl being bullied during the iowa caucuses this year. t other than that, she's been a private issues and position paper, and i don't think that'st going to be enough. >> woodruff: just quickly, character issues, questions, david, back and forth between the two candidates on an hour by hour basis. yesterday "the washington post" editorialized it's time for the press to lay off hillary clinton's e-mails. what about that, a. and quickly, b, the story this week about donald trump'su foundation giving money to the florida attorney general that was looking whether to investigate trump university.at how do we assess this. >> for him, there is a virtue of
shamelessness and he was controlled b by influence. so he gets less of a wrap than clinton who denies she's in the game and she clearly is. i think the e-mails are baked ia the cake. it would be interesting if they would talk about what the next president will have to do. healthcare reform will have to be done. it would be interesting if one said the obamacare has to be fixed and here's how to do that and they emphasized that. that would go over big because people are dispirited about the contentless post policy tone that marked the campaign. >> woodruff: the candidatesd have been giving a speech here and there about policy and putting papers out, i know secretary clinton has. >> secretary clinton has, judy. i think mr. trump's are in the works and we can look for them
before halloween. david put his finger on it whenh donald trump is shameless about it. he was asked why he contributed to both democrats and reps, he said when i want something, i get it, and when i call them, they kiss my as. not found in bartletts under most presidents' famous quotations, and i think that belies a cynicism and probablybl comports with the cynicism that voters feel right now. they don't believe washington,gt and he's not being punished for it or paying a penalty for it.it you know, i think that remains a problem. whoever wins, you've got to give a sense of what two things you're going to do specifically to make things better, and i don't think even the partisans of both candidates could say right now what two specific things their president would do in his or her first 90 days. >> woodruff: inda the last 45
seconds, david, passing this week of someone who was an icon and conservative movement phyllis schalfly, she left an important mark.a >> she was in an era where theth human rights issued dominated and she started to exemplify that and created a new right that fueled the republican party. i happen to think she passes at a time when those cultural wars, sexual revolution issues are fading from the scene and the coming generation has basically settled them and not necessarily in her way. >> woodruff: mark? phyllis was that and she was more. she almost became a political kingmaker. i mean, her endorsement, her support was sought eagerly and coveted by the leading republican presidential candidates, and she had an
enormous influence. >> woodruff: mark shields, s thank you very much.y david brooks.vi have a great weekend, both of you. >> woodruff: now we return to the months-long stand-off over the building of a controversial pipeline in north dakota. it's intended to carry oil from the state's bakken region, across south dakota and iowa to an existing pipeline in illinois, which is on hold after conflicting government rulings. lisa desjardin has the story. >> reporter: the protests began: in april when members of the standing rock sioux tribe complained that a spill from the pipeline would contaminate the missouri river and lakes near their lands. the sioux also have said construction would harm sacred tribal grounds. in recent weeks, they have been joined by other native american tribes and environmental groups. the company and some local officials have said it willoc
create jobs and boost energy production in the u.s. our william brangham is reporting near the standing rock reservation. i spoke to him a short time ago and asked him what the immediate reaction was like today. >> brangham: yes, this has been a day nobody here reallyll wanted to see happen. i don't know if you can see behind me, but this is the camp, the main area people have been gathering for weeks, and this is the worst possible news, initially. interestingly, the word is slowly starting to trickle out.. in fact, many people i talked to this afternoon, i was the one telling them the news about the hearing because the cell phone service here is really bad so people are not getting the news as quickly as some of us are. but the general sense was that people were really disappointed. there's been a sense of resignation. many feared this would be the judge's ruling, they felt the corps would be allowed to do this and the energy company would be allowed to put the pipeline in. when the news came that the justice department was thinkingw
of stepping in and putting a stop to this gave people a certain level of hope.p the people i talked to said they think this will be an ongoing, protracted battle. >> reporter: what is the tribe's complain? >> brangham: the standing argument is the construction of this pipeline is going to destroy a lot of very, very v important cultural sites to them. -- burial grounds, historic meeting places for their people. number two, that the pipeline, though it is not going through tribal lands, it is a short distance away, the pipeline will go underneath the river and many are concerned if a pipeline carrying hundreds of thousands of gallons of oil goes under the river, there could be a rupture and spill oil into their primary source of drinking water. that's a main source of concern, that the construction of the pipeline will destroy lands important to them and the
potential for contamination is enormous. >> this would be ata very significant pipeline carrying half of current oil production, how is the company responding? >> the company says they followed the rules, filled outle the permits, got the permissions, did the propersi surveys and they have broken no laws whatsoever. that's not been the allegation.a the train's main concern is with the army corps ofi engineers who granted one of the main permits for the pipeline to go in. the corps says they did all the properer consultations. the company says they this is important for the airy, there will be jobs and construction of the pipeline, jobs in maintaining the pipeline andne they say we still live in an oil-based society and if oily needs to get from the bachen oil fields to the market, this pipeline is the delivery for that. >> explain what happens now in
the protests.th >> with regards to the courts, who knows how that's going to play out. the justice department may step in forcefully on.y this we'll have to wait and seee as far as what happens on the t ground, we've heard from some people who've said, regardless of what happens with the courts, with the rulings, with the army corps, there is a certain group of people that argue they will do everything they can to not let the pipeline going forward. we've heard people talking about the possibility of physically putting themselves in the way of the construction equipment, inon the way of the workers' camps and how widespread that sentiment is, i don't know. i we'll see in the next days and weeks if the construction really does take off, whether or notot those actions come through. but there is a minority of people here at least that will do everything they possibly can to stop this from going forward. >> william brangham speaking to us from north dakota. thank you and we'll look forward to your reports in the coming days.
>> woodruff: and finally, someuf thoughts as we approach, on sunday, the 15th anniversary of the 9/11 attacks. there are national memorials at three sites. in new york city, the world trade center memorial attracts millions of visitors. two reflecting pools inscribed with the names of the nearly 3,000 people who died in all of the attacks-- sit in the footprint of the original twin t towers. there's also a museum and a park. the pentagon memorial is off the beaten path, located directly behind the building. it has small benches poised above lighted pools, to remember the 184 people who died at the pentagon, and on american airlines flight 77 that crashed into it. in shanksville, pennsylvania,
the memorial is in a remote field, set upon the crash site of flight 93. we have a collection now of voices, including family members, visitors and writers who share their thoughts on the meaning of these memorials. >> i think it's a memory we'll carry with us all our lives. i know my parents' generation, they thought of pearl harbor,ha that was a signal moment for them. for my generation, it was this tragic event that happened here on 9/11. >> from the devastation to how it looks right now, it's a meditation for me, and i'm just in my space of gratitude that i'm here. >> the most powerful thing of all about the site is the void, the sense that there were these
incredibly tall, strong buildings stood is just emptiness now.w. but there are also the names.am the names are a remembrance. they are a sign that those people who are gone will be remembered permanently. and then there iser water, which is a sign of renewal and nature. the sound of the water fall drowning out the sounds of the city is also very, very important because it helps take you into another place when you're there. >> i'm so proud of the city for not, you know, putting something new, like, right in this spot. i understand that the fact that there needed to be another building. i understand lifer goes on. but i am just so proud this memorial is not only here but it's this big. >> in new york, the memorial ata ground zero had a particular challenge of allowed that entire 16 acres to have been a
memorial. while it might seem, on the surface, to be a way to honor the dead even more by giving them and their memory all 16 acres, it actually would have been a terrible mistake because it would have carved a huge holo in the heart of america's largest city, and restoring the life of the city was an important part of the mission. >> i view the memorial as a place that family members can come whenever they need to reflect or gain some hope or some renewal, they can come anytime. >> my name is jim laychek. i'm president of the pentagon memorial fund and i lost my brother david here on 9/11. i think of my brother david a lot, so i don't have to be somewhere to think of him. a song will come on, my kids or his kids will do something that reminds me of him, and i'll have a memory of growing up, but i
think this is more for those who lost friends here and really need it when they need it. >> last year we went to new yore and saw the 911 memorial for the first time, so we felt we needed to come here and almost complete the journey to see exactly what happened here. >> the challenge to make in some ways because it included both people at the pentagon including military personnel and including civilians on the plane who died. so they looked for a way to memorialize both groups of people. >> i'm actually sitting on my brother dave's bench, and the significance of it for me is they found the 1961 age line, the year dave was born, and youu come up to the bench and read, you will see the pentagon in the background which signifies thati he was working in the pentagon. >> the plane that went down at shanksville had passengerons itn who actually resisted. they chose to act. they fought back.gh they breeched the cockpit and fought for control of that flight and, in doing, so they
saved countless other lives and perhaps saved the capitol building. >> it was one of theap very powerful moments of 9/11, because it was perhaps the onlyt moment in that day in which the terrorists weren't writing the narrative, and, so, the passengers on that plane behaved heroically. and much to the credit of the design of shanksville, it's noto a bomb bassic memorial, it's not about exaggerating theex importance of the heroism as important as it is, it's really about the loss of the people and truly a sense of healing, more than most memorials, because it's in a rural landscape. >> this is where my brother is.s this is where i choose to remember his last moments in this world and talk to him, tell him, you know, how proud, you know, that he's missed and that he's loved. >> what's happened, i think, is the natural progression as the event proceeds farther intoto history, there is a tendency to
divide those people personally connected with the events from the rest of us who remember them increasingly as historical events. you see people wandering througi who are looking at it as an object, an historical mar -- marker, and you see people who engage, to touch, feel, sit, contemplate. >> there will be more people who were not around on 9/11 who did not experience it, who will come there to plern about it, and we hope to feel some emotion that is not connected to their own memories but to what this place brings to them, what it confers, what it inspires inside them. it speaks us to who weren't there then and who transcend time. >> woodruff: one postscript to all of this: an american flagla that was part of an iconic photo taken on september 11th, 2001--1 and then went missing for years-
- is being returned. three new york firefightersw grabbed the flag from a nearby yacht in lower manhattan after the attacks. the picture of them raising it at ground zero was seen around the world. for reasons that are still unclear, it disappeared from the site in days. it has been found in everett, washington. a man who said he was a retiredh marine turned it over to a local fire station after saying it was given to him as a gift. many questions remain, but forensic scientists say that they have confirmed it is indeed the missing flag. online, we continue our remembrance of the attacks. one woman whose high school is just blocks from ground zero explains how she is teaching a new generation of students about the attacks. and a quick news update before we go tonight. u.s. secretary of state john kerry, and his russian counterpart sergey lavrov, announced a ceasefire to halt
the violence in syria, after multiple failed attempts tots reach a similar deal. the new plan is scheduled to go into effect on monday, and it aims to reduce the bloodsheded after more than five years of war. and republican vice presidential nominee and indiana governor mike pence released ten years of tax returns. they show he earned an adjusted income of $113,000 last year, and paid an effective tax rate of 12.4%. his running mate donald trump has not released his own returns, so far. gwen ifill is preparing for special edition of "washington week," which airs later this evening. gwen? >> ifill: hi, judy. after a week of debate aboutf national security and potential commanders in chief, we're here in colorado springs, the home of five-- count them, five-- military installations, to see how the voters are taking it. on air, and online, tonight on "washington week: colorado edition."
see you monday, judy. >> woodruff: and we'll be watching, see you then. on pbs newshour saturday: ourou look back at 9/11 15 years later continues with a report on how the five men accused of plannine the attacks remain at the u.s. military prison in guantanamo bay, cuba and still have notan been brought to justice. and we'll be back, right here, on monday, where we kick off a week long special series, "rethinking college."ll that's the newshour for tonight. i'm judy woodruff. have a great weekend. a thank you and good night. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by:ne lincoln financial is committed to helping you take charge of h your future. ♪ >> supporting social
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