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tv   PBS News Hour  PBS  September 13, 2016 6:00pm-7:01pm PDT

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captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc >> woodruff: good evening, i'm judy woodruff. >> ifill: and i'm gwen ifill. >> woodruff: on the "newshour" tonight, america's financial boost: u.s. incomes rise for the first time in almost a decade as poverty rates drop. >> ifill: also ahead this tuesday... >> what sets hillary apart is that through it all, she just keeps on going.on >> ifill: president obama campaigns for a recoveringlry cd trump faces new questions over his foundation. >> woodruff: then, a farm in italy run by migrants that'sit missing a key ingredient: the migrants.mi malcolm brabant reports on wherw public money for the refugee crisis is going. >> ifill: and, we continue our "rethinking college" series with a spotlight on latino men and why so many are missing from higher education's classrooms.
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>> there's this sense ofns machismo in the mexicanxi cultural, and machismo is the belief that you need to be a ma being a man is providing for your family. >> ifill: all that and more on tonight's pbs newshour. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: >> lincoln financial-- committed to helping you take charge of your financial futuren
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>> and with the ongoing support of these institutions: >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you.td thank you. >> ifill: hillary clinton is still on the sick list tonight, but she's gotten a political shot in the arm. it came today from the man she once battled for the presidencyt and now hopes to succeed in the white house.an he's the biggest surrogate an ailing hillary clinton could have called on, at a moment the candidate most needed it. >> obama! obama! >> ifill: in philadelphia todaya president obama offered a rousing defense of his former secretary of state. >> she's been accused of everything you can imagine. and has been subjected to more
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scrutiny, and what i believe is more unfair criticism, than anybody out here. we take for granted, sometimes, what is steady and true. and hillary clinton's steady. and she is true. >> ifill: clinton remained sidelined with pneumonia today. but she called in to cnn last night, to discuss her collapse on sunday, and the delay in publicly acknowledging her illness. d >> why not just say on friday as you said apparently to senator schumer on sunday, you know, isc have pneumonia, folks, i'm going to power through it? why keep it a secret? >> well, i just didn't think it was going to be that big a deal. >> ifill: republican donald trump was on the road today, stopping in iowa, ready, he said, with a plan to ease the financial burden of child care.a >> we have to start taking care of each other, which we're not doing.ve
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tonight i'm going ot roll out aa plan to help our mothers and our families get affordable, quality childcare for their children. >> ifill: trump's allies stuck to a different topic: condemning clinton for putting half of his supporters into what she called a "basket of deplorables."sh donald trump jr. posted a photou showing an overflowing trump rally, with the line, "looks like we are going to need a bigger basket." but trump and running mate mikee pence faced new pressure for refusing to say former ku klux klan leader david duke is, to use clinton's critique, deplorable. pence huddled with house republicans at the u.s. capitol today. >> trump and i have denounced david duke repeatedly. we have said we do not want his support, do not want support of people who think like him. the simple fact is i'm not in the name-calling business.
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i'm not going to validate language that clinton used toto describe american people.le >> ifill: a campaign official says trump will visit flint, michigan tomorrow. he's said he would have prevented the city's water crisis, if he'd been president.v clinton is unlikely to return to the campaign trail before friday, as she recovers at home in new york. we'll be back later in the program with a look at questions about donald trump's foundation and his charitable giving. >> woodruff: in the day's other news, the cease-fire in syria appears to be holding for the most part, despite reports of scattered violations. in the ravaged city of aleppo, streets and skies were quiet, and some people ventured out. the u.n. special envoy for syria confirmed the change, from geneva. >> sources on the ground, which do matter, including inside aleppo city, said the situation has dramatically improved withsi
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no air strikes. comparing, the bottom line, to previous days, there is no doubt significant drop in violence. >> woodruff: two groups of aid trucks were able to cross today into syria from turkey. but it's unclear when they'll be allowed into aleppo. >> ifill: meanwhile, rebels in eastern ukraine announced a unilateral cease-fire. they're backed by russia, andey it's the first time they've taken that step. it came as ukraine's president petro poroshenko said parliament will vote soon on granting autonomy to eastern provinces. the fighting there has killed more than 9,500 people since 2014. >> woodruff: former israeli president and prime minister shimon peres suffered a stroke today, and was hospitalized outside tel aviv. the hospital director said the 93-year-old suffered extensive bleeding in the brain, and is now sedated and breathing on a respirator. peres has held nearly every top
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office in israel, serving in 12 separate cabinets. he won the nobel peace prize in 1994 for negotiating interim94 peace accords with the palestinians. >> ifill: the philippines' new leader sent more mixed signals today about his country's alliance with the united states. president rodrigo duterte called yesterday for american military advisors to leave the southern philippines. but today, he said there would be no change in ties, while also rejecting joint patrols with the u.s. in the south china sea. >> we will not join any expedition or patrolling the seas. i will not allow it because i do not want my country to be involved in a hostile act. >> ifill: that appeared to
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contradict an agreement for patrols with u.s. forces reached last april.n >> woodruff: back in thisk country, the governing body for college sports has put new pressure on north carolina. last night, the n.c.a.a. said it's pulling all championship events out of the state. it cited a state law barring special protections for transgender people and others. a a spokesman for the governor called the decision "so absurd, it's almost comical." >> ifill: easy come, easy go on wall street today. yesterday's gains mostly evaporated after oil prices slumped, and took the rest of the market down. the dow jones industrial average lost 258 points to close ats 18,066. the nasdaq fell 56 points, and the s&p 500 gave up 32. >> woodruff: still to come on the newshour, why many people aren't feeling the benefits of rising incomes. questions arise around donald trump's charity. an italian farm claims to employ migrants, but something's missing.in and much more.
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>> ifill: this campaign hasis often focused on the question of economic growth, jobs and wages, particularly for the middle class. well today, there was some good news on that front, as well as for lower-income households. lisa desjardins looks at those latest numbers, and why so many americans say they don't square with their own experiences. >> reporter: it is a triple-hit of good economic news: newt census data shows that last year, median income rose 5.2%.e the number of americans living in poverty shrank by 3.5 million people, and the percentage of uninsured americans dropped. president obama, campaigning for hillary clinton in pennsylvaniag crowed. >> it's important to understand this is a big deal: more americans are working, more have health insurance, incomes are
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rising, poverty has fallen.ri >> reporter: but behind each of these numbers, there is more going on. let's start with paychecks. that increase is historic. the largest percentage jump in at least five decades, and median incomes rose for every age group. now, plenty of folks may say wait a second, it definitely doesn't feel like i got a big pay raise. and they have a point. median income in america started plummeting in 2008. then, as we learned today, median income rose last year, by $2,800 dollars. the problem?le that is still below what americans were making in 2007. this economic angst is a driving force on the campaign trail. >> inequality is too high, wages are too low, it is still too hard for too many to get ahead. >> but what has happened is, we have people in the audience, in 18 years, they're making lesski money now than they made 18
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years ago, in real wages, 18.ar and in many cases they're'r working two and three jobs. >> reporter: the two candidates have spent less time focused one another number out today: the poverty rate. it fell, from over 10% to about 9%, the biggest drop since at least the 1960s. even so, 43 million americans remain in poverty, andma disproportionately those americans are blacks, hispanics and children of all races. now to the third figure out today: health insurance. obamacare is clearly covering more people. four million more americans were covered last year and more than 90% of documented americans were insured. but obamacare raises other concerns. a lot of people, 29 million, still have no insurance.il for those who are on obamacare exchanges, premiums, out-of- pocket costs are rising. and their choices are shrinking: forecasts estimate that in a
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third of all counties, the exchange will offer just afe single insurer to chose from. so, for americans, a day of historic bright news, but after climbing out of a long recession and while grappling with still unsolved issues like income inequality, they may not feel the sunshine yet. for the pbs newshour, i'm lisa desjardins. y >> woodruff: recently, hillary clinton has come under fire foru allegedly giving special access to clinton foundation donors when she served as secretary ofo state.e. but now donald trump is catching heat for how his foundation has functioned. im joined by david fahrenthold of the "washington post" who has spent the past few months " digging into the republican nominee's history of charitable donations and his lack of personal contributions to thee' trump foundation. dave fahrenthold, thank you for talking with us. tell us first a little bit about the foundation.ah how is it set up?
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how is it different from other foundations? >> it's quite a small foundation. trump started it in 1987. in contrast to other people that have as much money as trump has, it doesn't have much money at all. the most money it ever has was $3.3 million in 1989. the most it has now is $1 million total. there's in paid staff. the p board is just four trump, donald, donald, jr., and ivan camp they work with no pay for half an hour a week. the most unusual thing is not that it's small but whose money is in it. donald trump hasn't put anyy money in his own foundation until 2008. donald trump gives other people's money away 20 people under the impression they'rey' getting donald trump's money. >> woodruff: when you sayyo other people have put money in, who are we talking about? a >> a lot don't want to talk. the biggest donation is from vince and linda mcmahon, the wwe moguls. in 2009, the mcmahon's gave a
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total of $5 million.. that was not trump's payment for wrestlemania, they got paid separately, but at the same time they made this donation. another big donor is richard e bert-a high-end ticket broker. every year he gives $450,000 to $600,000 always in odd amounts. he also didn't want to talk about this. another is nbc universal, which televised the celebrityce apprentice. trump used his foundation money to give what he said weree personal gifts out of his own pocket on the show. nbc gave him a $500,000 gift, which served to cover the cost of those personal donations. >> woodruff: what about what the foundation has given money to? is there a pattern, a mission, a particular cause donald trumpic has been interested in?d >> that's interesting, as well. a lot of times you see rich people started their own private foundations, an abiding cause. they give to their alma mater,
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cancer research, something likei that. with trump there is no such abiding cause. the money is giving out in relatively small amount, between $5,000 and $50,000 to a smattering of groups. often he's buying a table at a gala. the biggest correlation you finl is with trump's own personal and business interests. he lives in impeach -- palm beach part of the year and he runs a club in palm beach that depends on being rented out by charities who can pay as much as $275,000 a night.,0 so he gives to those charities that do business with him. and this enables him to give to those groups without using his own money. >> woodruff: you also wrote, dave fahrenthold, that the trump foundation gave money in one instance, actually in several instance, to political causes or political candidates. >> well, there's one face in particular. so giving to a political group is against the law. if you're a anyone profit, you can't give money to a politicalo group. in 2013, they did that. they gave to this group called
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and justice for all, a political campaign committee helping florida attorney general pamey bondi, who at the time happenedp to be considering, her officefi was considering, whether to pursue an investigation againsts trump university. after the money came, in they decided not to pursue that investigation. trump paid that money out ofat e trump foundation, which isio against the law, and this year, after we pointed it out, he paid a penalty tax to the i.r.s. of $2,500, which is 10% of the donation. >> woodruff: so they're not under any legal cloud at this point? >> well, what's interesting is there is another side to that gift, which is not only did the trump foundation make that prohibited political gift, butic they also sent files to the i.r.s. which contained an error that served to cover up the illegal gift that they made. they said that error was inadvertent, but it was a great continues dense the same year they made a $25,000 gift this group they shouldn't have, theyh told the i.r.s. they gave $25,000 to another group, whichi would have been legal if they had sent them any money. that's something the i.r.s.om could investigate. we don't know if it is. >> woodruff: we have to point
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out that the trump campaign, mr. trump himself, says he's given away millions of dollars over the years. what do we know about that in any form? >> you're right. hess said over the years he's h given the proceeds to a varietye of things, books, tv shows, too charity. it adds up to millions. he said he gives millions. over the last few months i've looked for evidence that those gifts exists. i'm in the trying the find all of them. but i'm trying to find some evidence they're out there. so far i've called 326 charities, these are charities closest trump, he's spoken positively of these, gone to their galas. i've called 326 looking looking for personal gifts from trump out of his pocket.mp between 2008 and this may, i fouled one out of his own pocket in 2009 for less than $10,000. >> woodruff: when you ask the campaign, what do they say? when you've asked them for evidence of the giving? >> they've been very slippery.
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they t last couple they said trump gives tens of millions away, but that answer includes gifts from the foundation, gifts of free rounds of golf from his golf club to local charities and even implies it might include just the salaries he gives to his workers, he's helping people by paying them to go work for them some they haven't broken down how much trump gives out of his pocket, and they seem to be determined not to do that. >> woodruff: i know you will continue to be reporting onbe this. dave fahrenthold of theh "washington post," thanks very much. >> ifill: stay with us, coming up on the newshour: the sugar industry's influence over its link to heart disease. rethinking college to includecl more latino men. and acclaimed author ann patchett's foray into something closer to home.
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but first, the european union has set aside nearly $630 million for italy to cope with the thousands of migrants coming across the mediterranean from africa. with so much public money available, opportunities to profit from the migrant crisis are substantial, as, it appears, is the potential for fraud.. in june, special correspondent malcolm brabant reported on thec italian mafia's use of refugee reception centers in sicily to cheat the state out of more than four billion dollars. the e.u. is now working with the italians to try to end that. as part of that effort, on the italian island of sardinia, authorities are now checking into a scheme in which unused and neglected land was supposedly given to migrant african farmers so they could become self sufficient. from platamona in northern sardinia, malcolm brabant and producer alessandra maggiorani a report. >> reporter: it's just before sunrise, it's the start of theis
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working week and we're heading out the land where these 50 or so african farmers are supposed to be working. this is the time of the day when most farmers in the mediterranean start working: it's cooler, they can get more done before the heat of the day really kicks in. k we've been told these farmers work from monday to thursday, so let's go and see if they're, there. in the late summer heat, crops need attention. but dawn came and went in platamona with no sign ofn activity. right, well, it's just after 8:00, we've been waiting here for more than an hour and it's clear that nobody is going toit turn up. we're going to go for breakfast because i have a feeling it's going to be a long day.s and then we're going to come back afterwards and see if they are here. t and if they're not, we're going to try and find them and seeot what's going on. we came back nearly two hours later. nothing. at this small vineyard next to the african workers, cooperative supposed location, we found a policeman and his father who did
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not wish to be identified. >> ( translated ): i live in porto torres and i go to sassarn for work, so i would have seen the migrants. and the old chapth you see down here is my father. and if he had something he would have been alarmed and would have asked me what's going happening? >> ( translated ): i would have noticed them. there's no cultivation going on there and no livestock.no >> reporter: at another vineyarr opposite the farm, we talked to an agricultural worker who'd a known the owner's family for decades. here, people are wary. he did not wish to talk on camera, but insisted that thereu had been no sign of any migrants working. when we started researching thin story, it was being portrayed by the man organizing this cooperative as being a very positive story. that the african farmers who'd come from war-torn areas wanted to be able to support themselves and didn't want to be reliant oh the state. then we got here, and he stopped taking our calls. and it all got a little bit. strange.st we were constantly probing for more information. my colleague, alessandra
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maggiorani, an experienced freelance journalist and native italian speaker who has worked with the newshour on manyo occasions. >> i've just spoken with the president of the farmer's association of this region. and he was explaining the people involved in this project have asked them to transfer their know-how, their knowledge, anddg expertise in agriculture. >> reporter: this connection potentially added more credibility to the project. once we started asking questions. though, the union quickly distanced itself. stand up outside farmers union. we're outside the offices of the local farmers' union and the organization has made it clear that they don't want to give us an on-camera interview. but we've spoken to a senior official who says they wereey approached about this project; they liked it initially, they liked that the food produced by the africans was supposed to be given to children at local schools or sold at local markets. they wanted to investigate itey further but they weren't given any documentation so they did not become officially involved. we tried to find out more aboutd
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the project and its partners, landowner luca pintus, and a leading member of sardinia's immigrant community, cheikh diankha, who's from senegal and the head of several organizations involving integration. diankha's company, janas international, runs a reception, center for migrants.s. and he based himself in one with a colorful history. >> the reception center is actually on the premises of the" kiss-kiss" a former disco which had a very bad reputation; it was closed down for prostitution and more than 10 people weren arrested. >> reporter: as our phone calls went unanswered we paid a visit to cheikh diankha at the former kiss kiss disco. >> i've been trying to get in touch with you, i called youuc many times, and you/re not taking my calls. >> ah ok. is it alessandra? >> yes, alessandra. >> why? >> reporter: i don't understand. i just do not understand what's going on here.
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>> you have to ask permission before filming. f >> reporter: but we have come all this way to do a story about farming and we don't seebo anything going on? >> i didn't vanish i sent you the number of luca pintus. o >> pintus never replies on that number. i don't think the number is active. >> reporter: we then tracked down land owner luca pintus at his mother's cafe in the mainhi square of sassari a town in northern sardinia. pintus tried to assure us that the project was above board. he promised to show us all the s relevant documentation as well as the farmers at work.as this street in sassari yielded more questions. we were invited to a smart address to meet luca pintus, along with a talented migrant clothes designer, as well as another director of diankha's company, and to see paperwork related to the farm project.an but the only one to turn up was
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diankha's colleague, giovanni rossi, who said he was angu accountant. >> ( translated ): you need to know that you can only film in italy is allowed when you are authorized. so please lower your camera and wait in a decent way.or >> reporter: rossi wanted us to look at their fashion work. we wanted to talk on the record about the farm.ei >> ( translated ): i believe you are smart so you can listen to what i have to say. >> let's sit down and ask him questions. >> let's sit down >> ( translated ): no, a written interview. no, no. go out please. >> reporter: briefly, i was invited back into the room. where are all the farmers? we are trying to find the paper trail for this project. we've come to this office on th outskirts of the town of sassari where they often deal in e.u. projects and funding. but they say they have no record at all of this particular
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project, although they do say there are other organizations which have money available. back at the former kiss kiss disco, a question for cheikh diankha so i'm asking you. is this a scam? >> ( translated ): the cooperative isn't standing yet. so how can we have got some y money? we haven't taken nor received money from anyone.ny this has to be clear. don't go to the bbc and tell them that we get e.u. money. we don't even know what the e.u. is.u. we don't have any business with them. we have business with the farmers union in sardinia. and we have yet to receive a single euro. the money for the petrol to go there comes form our pockets. is it clear? we haven't taken money from the italians or the e.u. and m everyone should hear me on this. >> reporter: after our meeting with rossi, we came across luca pintus in sassari's main square.
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>> ( translated ): i have found the journalists in the square. if you want, i'll put her on. so you can make an arrangement. >> reporter: i just want to ask a simple question.anur'l when was the last time your land had farmers on it?io >> ( translated ): this morning they are picking.): they have to make a present of it to the elderly.ng >> ( translated ): do you mean in platamona? >> on the field in platamona, i reckon, 15 days ago. i'm not sure.lad >> ( translated ): on the basis of these projects, there is 32 euros per migrant? >> ( translated ): yes, the reception centers do. but i have nothing to do with the reception centers.ed >> reporter: pintus was clarifying that 32 euros a day per migrant was not a subsidy for the farming project but a standard fee paid by the state t to diankha's company and otherhe reception centers. it's supposed to cover food and clothing for the 100 or so migrants at the former kiss kiss disco. that's potential income of $3,600 a day. >> no filming, no filming! >> reporter: or 1,3 million dollars a year. according to luca pintus, cheikh
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diankha and his colleague giovanni rossi plan to open a new refugee center. >> ( translated ): understand, i am the director. you mustn't film, you mustn't film. you mustn't film. put this in your head. >> reporter: okay, we're leaving.n >> sorry. why are you so incorrect? >> i'm saying he's finding>> excuses not to do the interview. >> reporter: so these farmers, do they exist? do the farmers exist? >> reporter: luca pintus insisted he wanted to fighted racism and help newcomers integrate in sardinia.ni migrants find it hard to leave the island because most are barred from ferries to the mainland. while migrants are a money making opportunity for some, many sardinians are weary of those selling cheap goods on the beaches or begging. b but people hawking wares in supermarket car parks have little alternative because a career in local agriculturelo doesn't appear to be a realistic option.
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for the pbs newshour, i'm malcolm brabant in sardinia. >> woodruff: online, malcolm offers the backstory of his peculiar reporting odyssey.pe that's on our website, pbs.org/newshour. >> ifill: now, how the sugar industry paid experts to downplay health risks. researchers have discovered documents showing the industry tried to influence scientific studies back in the 1960s. early studies had found a link between sugar and fat, and heart disease, but it has now emerged that the sugar industry paid two harvard professors to point the finger elsewhere.us at the time, it was not routine to disclose such conflicts. marion nestle wrote an editorial about the latest research in r jama, the journal of the american medical association. she's an author and professor of nutrition, food studies, andnd public health at new york university.
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welcome, marion nestle. let's start with a few definitions. what was the "sugar research foundation"? >> well, this is a trade association for the growers of sugarcane and sugarbeets. it's new called "the sugar association." so it's a trade group. its job is to promote the sale of sugar and to lobby to make sure that nobody does anything regulatory to reduce the consumption of sugar. it's a trade group. >> ifill: so when all the years when we were being told that fat and cholesterol werero the prime culprits in obesity and heart disease, it turns out that sugar also played a big role. >> well, it did. if you look at the epidemiology at the time, it was clear that both sugar and fat were risk factors for coronary artery disease, but these investigators
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at harvard that were paid by the sugar research foundation kind of cherry picked the data and minimized the problems with sugar and maximized the problems with saturated fat, and that was exactly what the sugar association wanted them to do as the documents show. >> ifill: so the goal was to sway public opinion many much the same way that the tobacco industry did? >> it's part of the play book of the tobacco industry. the number-one playbook rule is the first thing you do is you attack the science, you cast doubt on the science. the book and the movie explainla all that. and the sugar association was doing exactly that. it was trying to get researchers to produce research that would minimize a role for sugar and shift the blame elsewhere, and they were very frank about what they wanted and the investigators agreed that that was what they were going to do,
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pretty shocking. >> ifill: if shea could shop for experts for something like this, to find someone at harvard who could tell them what they needed in order to preserve the industry, how do we know that hasn't happened or maybe it has happened in other nutritionio areas. >> well, it has happened, andan "the new york times" last year had a big investigative report about coca-cola's funding of the global energy balance network in which they had e-mails that showed that there were very close associations between the researchers who were doing some of this work and executives at coca-cola. but it's very hard to get documentary evidence of this. but i do want to say one thing about it. it's not a simple matter of buying investigators. these harvard investigators, at least one of them, was really pretty well-known for his work linking fat to heart disease, so
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he probably believed that that was what it was, didn't think that sugar was really as important, and believed that. so it wasn't as simple as the sugar research foundation just saying, this is what we want and we're going the pay for it. >> ifill: when you say it's int the as simple, i'm going to ask you a question: what is a smoking gun? is it sugar?? is it fat? >> oh, i think it's both. because both of them are nutrients, and we don't eat nutrients, most people don't eao sugar on its own, and nobody's saturated fat on its own. we eat foods that contain sugars and saturated fats. it's much more complicated, studies of individual nutrients, but that's really what everybody ought to be looking at. and dietary guidelines tell you, reduce consumption with foods containing a lot of added sugars, and don't eat so much meat, which is a major source of saturated fat. so i say it's both, and you have
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to always take the number of calories into consideration when you're talking about these things. >> ifill: how sceptical could consumers be about these reports, which every year seem to tell them to worry about a different thing? >> well, i think they should be very skeptical. the first line of defense is always to say, does this research contradict what iic thought i knew? if it does, you want to be a little sceptical about it and wait for some more studies to come out. science is cumulative, nutritioi science is extremely difficult to do because people are terrible experimental animals and diets are so complicated. there are lots of different ways to put together healthy diets. and you know that diets thatt have a lot of vegetables thatat balance calories and don't have a lot of junk food are really good for health. we know that. >> ifill: marion nestle, professor of nutrition, foodn
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studies and public health at new york university. thank you very much. >> my pleasure. >> woodruff: now to the second installment of our weeklong series on ideas to transform higher education for students and provide new opportunities. tonight, hari sreenivasan reports why some latino males are being urged to turn down a job today in favor of four years of college tomorrow. the series is called "rethinking college," and part of our weekly education coverage, "making the grade."e, >> can i have the mentors on the right and the mentees on the left? c >> sreenivasan: graduate student juan lopez wants to bring too college campuses what he sees as largely missing: latino males. >> they're not seen as people who will succeed. especially minority males.
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>> sreenivasan: so on this day, lopez and undergraduates from the university of texas at austin are mentoring high school freshman boys as part of an initiative called project males. >> undergraduates mentoring high school students, graduate students mentoring undergraduate students.s, >> sreenivasan: in this exercise, college and highll school students move together over shared experiences. >> i want to help my family out financially after high school. >> sreenivasan: one common concern emerges for both mentors and mentees. >> they're expected to be the wage earner in the family. >> sreenivasan: emmet camposan directs project male's school mentoring programs.an >> expectations that they get from their family, from their peers, is that their goal is to get a job, and to earn an income, and so those factors are pulling them away from actually going to college. >> sreenivasan: pablo hall is a high school sophomore and the oldest boy in his family. >> i want to make money after high school so that when my mom
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gets older i can put her in a house, like my brothers, keep them good. c i just want to help my family after high school. >> sreenivasan: even when students get to college, financial obligations can continue to haunt them. >> when i was doing the two jobs it was really hard because everyone was excelling on tests and their homeworks and theirei projects and i was starting to fall behind. >> sreenivasan: antonio salmero is a senior at u.t. austin. >> i felt really discouraged tot even be in college, but the reason why is, someone's got to pay bills, help out at home. some of these kids in some of my classes they haven't even worked a day in their life, that's stressful and discouraging. >> our parents are accustomed to the traditions of mexico, of latin america salvador, and over there you got to work-- what puts food on the table is work. and it's this kind of mental
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setback that is instilled in our latino males. makes them have to choose between an education and a job. >> what it feels like growing up, there was always this cultural belief that a man's worth is defined by his work. there's this sense of machismo in the mexican cultue, and machismo is the belief that you need to be a man being a man is providing for your family. being a man is going to work, doing labor. mis >> sreenivasan: in the u.s., one in four children are latino.g ch economists project that within four years, two-thirds of all, jobs will require post-secondary education and training beyondir high school. victor saenz, associate professor at the university of texas, austin, founded the project males initiative. >> the demographic reality of this country, and the future population projections suggestsg that you know, the current 55 million hispanics in this country is poised to double in the next forty, fifty years, so i think our economic prosperity is absolutely linked toer educational outcomes for latino males.li >> sreenivasan: while hispanics
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are the largest and fastest growing minority in the country, they have lowest educationalca attainment of any group. the high school graduation rate for latinos is 71%, but only 15% of latinos hold bachelor's degrees. and despite significant increases in college enrollment among hispanics, a troubling trend has emerged: latino men lag far behind women. >> the men of color conversation nationally has really taken root, and has gained great momentum, but i think we've got project males is rooted in this larger social justice agenda. >> sreenivasan: project males explores the reasons why so mans latino boys stop short of four year degrees.ma >> we see that latino males are overrepresented in special education, over represented in the school discipline pipeline, and by the time they get to high school and college, their numbers have dwindled to the point where there's not enougher of them to really look at student populations.on >> sreenivasan: austin high school principal ty davidson says mentors are especially
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important for first generation students considering college. >> there's someone there that looks like you, may have the same experiences as you, about anxiety over financial aid. the anxiety of maybe moving away from home and saying it's going to be okay, we're going to do it together.om >> sreenivasan: project males s mentors spend a lot of time talking to young men about the economic realities of being an unskilled worker.ou >> we show them the data, we show them the statistics, information, we provide them with information about degrees and how they translate into incomes, into salaries. >> sreenivasan: at gus garcia middle school, mentors talk dollars and cents. tn,ntre >> do any of you know how much the minimum wage is right now? >> 12 an hour? 15 an hour? 10 an hour? >> so minimum wage full time a year is $14,000, does that sounr like a lot of money? >> no, $14,000 is barely enough to buy a car. >> you think you could live off of that?ou >> no! >> we talk about, you know, have
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you thought of what that car's going to cost, have you thought about what that house is going to cost?g c >> there are times when i felt i want to drop out of school. >> sreenivasan: pablo hall, who was thinking of dropping out ofo high school as a freshman, says project males has made a difference.as >> the mentors, they're good, like when i need help, i bring in the work, they help me with it. w they help with life things. you can tell the mentors what's going on. >> sreenivasan: at the same time, antonio salmero says anntoring high school studentsyo helped him when he thought of leaving college. >> i mean i see myself pushing this idea of self- responsibility, of self-, reliance, and determination into myself, much like i want to mako them realize that as well. >> sreenivasan: the programas hopes some of its graduate students will return to college campus as professors, a career also largely underrepresented ba latino men. i'm hari sreenivasan for the pbs newshour.
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>> ifill: next, an award-winning novelist and bookseller draws on her own life story for her latest tale.oo jeffrey brown takes the newshour bookshelf to nashville to meetur writer ann patchett. >> brown: at the east nashvillet farmers market recently, you could listen to music, down a cool drink, pick up some vegetables, and why not?-- grab yourself a new book to read. >> this is where the people are. you can get a squash and a book, a tomato and a book. it's great., b tt >> brown: you could also meet a famous local writer-- annoc patchett: novelist, essayist and, since 2011, co-owner of, nashville's parnassus books andw its traveling bookmobile.rn >> we got a little bit of everything. lots of kids books, lots of kids. kids love the bus. kids cannot get enough of the bus, so the books that are down
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low, those are really important. >> brown: you don't even need, like, kids toys or anything to attract them, huh? >> no, no, no bait. books are the bait. that's our message. >> brown: the 52 year old bookseller is herself a best- y seller. her novels include the 2001 "bel canto," about an opera singer taken hostage in a terror attack in an unnamed latin american country, and 2011's "state of wonder", centered onen pharmaceutical drug research in the amazon. now she's done something closer to home, writing a novel about a family much like the one she grew up in. two families, in fact, blended together after a chance encounter leads to infidelity and divorce. in her new novel "commonwealth,r we follow four adults and six children through 50 years of ups and downs.w we spoke in her nashville home, not too far from where she grew up. >> this is a story that's very close to home. this is a story that very close to my life and my family and--
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>> brown: tel me, how is it, in what ways is it close? >> i was one of two girls and my mother left my father and married someone who had two boys and two girls. and they moved to the other side of the country. >> brown: so, this blended family, geographically spread out.d >> exactly. and i really talked to everyonee in my family while i was working on this book. "is this okay with you? how do"i you feel about this?" when i finished, i gave everybody a copy of the i manuscript.th we talked about it. >> brown: really?t >> yeah. >> brown: because you were b nervous about how they would take it? >> because i love and respect them. and it's their life too. t and i've always been so careful to not write this story. i've always written 'bel canto' instead. so when i wanted to write about someone ripped out of one family and put into another family, i put them in peru.
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but i just said to everybody, at this point, i was probably 49 when i started the book. and i said, "i want to have access to my life. which also means having accessal to your life. and are you okay with this?" >> brown: so this was a completely different writing experience for you. >> totally, totally. this is the book that i should have written when i was 25 instead of 52.s ifceot >> brown: one of the themes, obviously, is chance, right?, is how one thing leads to just everything. >> i don't believe in fate, as in, as a catholic, i think, sort of pre-destination. but i certainly believe in chance. and i do think-- don't you ever think that? t like, if i had turned right this morning stead of left, maybe everything would have been different? >> brown: i think we all do. >> yeah, you know, you miss the train, but then you meet the person. and i think that that's what the book is about. >> brown: but as a novelist,
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that gave you a way into, seeas what happens? did you know where it was ending up or did you start all thisar chance happening and see where it might lead? >> no. i always know where it's ending up. >> brown: you do? >> that's the way i work. i get it all plotted in my mind and then i write it down. yeah, i mean, sometimes things change a little bit. but i always say it's like taking a trip. i know where i'm going and if i don't know where i'm going i don't tend to get anywhere. >> brown: another theme in this book is time, the passage of time.th >> this book starts out with si> kids and they're not great kids. they've had a lot of upheaval in their life.y' they're irritating. but then you see them in their 20s, their 30s, their 40s, their 50s and they grow on you. they grow into themselves. they become the people they're meant to be. and i liked the idea of having enough time to really see that. >> brown: they're also children who we see, who are kind of left on their own. emotionally, they're just kind of left on their own.
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>> and i've had a lot of people say, 'oh, these are terrible parents.''v and i'm like, they're not terrible parents. it was the '60s. it was the '70s, i mean, my parents--pa, ts >> brown: go play outside, right?e, >> yeah, exactly. i actually think that's really important for creativity. i think, if you want to grow ak, novelist, for that person to have a lot of boring time tryiny to entertain themselves is very important. >> brown: her partnership in parnassus books came after patchett saw nashville losingft the last of its independent l bookstores and decided she had no choice but to enter the retail business. >> i had no idea. i really thought that i was going a good deed. i thought it was like, 'the symphony is going under. i must save the symphony.' that kind of thing.hoil>> i but i actually love this store. i love telling people what to read. it's my favorite thing in the world, to buy books and force books on people. t take bad books away from people. give them better books. >> brown: you opened this around the time when the whole
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narrative of bookstores was, they're going away. so what's the story now? >> independent bookstores are on the rise across the country. we're getting -- >> brown: the ones who've survived.e es >> the ones who've survived but, actually, a lot of new ones have started since we opened this store.s but the other thing is, this is my hometown., i knew nashville. and they loved the bookstore that they lost. and nashville supports everything local. they would always rather buy their coffee at fido than at starbucks. and so, this was a city that was going to support and independent bookstore. and it has.heoroud w >> brown: and why do you think that bookstores are coming back across the country? h >> because you can't spend your whole life in front of a screen. and you can't take your family to anthropologie after dinner. you need someplace to go and hang out.ut everybody can come here.
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you can come here if you'reme lonely and you want to talk to other people who loves books. and you can come here if you're overwhelmed and want to be silent and sit down in a chair and read a book.d you can bring your kid here for story time. you can come here to listen to your favorite author. i mean, it's a community center. you can come here, spend time h here, not buy a book here. this is a beautiful place. or you can come here and buy a book here. that's good, too. we love that!ou >> brown: ann patchett's latest novel, "commonwealth" is now on sale at her bookstore, and, we hope, perhaps, one near you. from nashville, i'm jeffrey brown for the pbs newshour., >> woodruff: finally, to our newshour shares, something that, caught our eye that might be of interest to you, too. arizona photographer mike
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olbinski is a storm chaser whose time-lapse videos have been used in commercials, documentaries and even feature films. >> my name is mike olbinski and i am a professional storm chaser and wedding photographer based out of phoenix arizona.zo it's kind of kind of a crazy profession and i got into it mainly because i loved the weather ever since i was a kid. it wasn't until, you know, early 30s that i started seeing photos of lightning and i just started getting interested in it. my time lapses are still frames. so my camera is taking a picture every second, every two seconds, every three seconds, whatever i'm out there trying to do and those get put together in aos video. and it kind of kind of goes back to the old days of animation when people used to drawed cartoons on a piece of paper on like a hundred pages and then flip through it to get this motion happening.dr i kind of have two chase season in a way. i chase out on the plains in the spring and then i live in phoenix so i chase the monsoon
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all summer. and obviously it's kind of easier here and this is where ih started cause all i have to do is drive 40 miles to shoot this dust storm instead of driving 16 hours to oklahoma to shoot a storm that might not happen i think the dust storms are something that are kind ofe unique to us. other people get them every now and then but we get them all the time. g. the lightning out here is the best, better than most places, just because our storms are what they call high based where the bottom of the storms are reallyy up high so you see a lot more of the lightning hitting the ground, out on the plains, these storms just take on otherworldly appearances because they are rotating as they go upwards and a lot of times that rotation turns the storm into looking like a flying saucer or the mothership as everybody likes to say. i've seen some pretty amazing storms over the course of the last seven or eight years. the first one was the big duston storm that hit phoenix on july 5, 2011.n i've lived here my whole life and i've seen dust storms allst
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the time but i've never seen one like this it just looked like the end world. a couple years later in 2013, we were in texas and we werean shooting this storm in front of a corn field that had been chopped down and then the sunth was setting so the whole sky was orange and this supercell was spinning and sucking all this dirt off the ground. i just love this like solitude of being out there, being in nature, seeing these amazing storms, and trying to get the best footage and photos that i possibly can. >> ifill: a dust storm, amazing. >> woodruff: i've never seen anything like it. >> ifill: i wouldn't want to: be behind the camera. >> ifill: tonight, pbs launchess a new political series that looks a close look at the t candidates who didn't make it th the presidency. "the contenders, 16 for '16" airs tuesdays for the next eight weeks on pbs. tonight's episode, "the straight talkers," features senator john mccain's run in 2000 againstson george w. bush, and shirley chisholm, who in 1972 was thegh first woman, and the first 1 african american, to seek the democratic nomination.
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>> 4,000 blacks, some radical, some conservative, metd in garyr indiana for the first national black political convention. >> a conference was called in gary to discuss black political power. passage of the '65 voting rights act enabled a lot of african-americans to believe that they could play a greater role in national politics. as an organized black force. when this conference takes place, mrs. chisholm decides not to go. >> listen, when you have enough political courage to do what shirley chisholm has done, which i never had this much of it, i'm not prepared to give advice as to what she should have done. >> when chisholm chose not to go because, one, she had already announced that she was going to run for president, and she didn't feel like catching flack,
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and she didn't want to be there when there was a vote of non-support for her. >> i went to the gary, indiana, black political convention, and we tried to get an endorsement from the black political convention delegate and couldn'n even get it there. the guys had it so sewed up. >> they could not stand the faca that a black woman kind of leap-frogged over them and made the decision for herself to run. for many they thought a black man should do this first. >> she sees black men as awful extremely hostile to her candidacy. the bigger part of the joke isn't that she's an african american running, but she's a girl running. we're not going to have some girl president, some black girl president. >> ifill: "the contenders" premieres tonight on most pbs stations. >> woodruff: and, as part of pbs's spotlight education week, "frontline" takes a critical look at the for-profit college industry.
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"a subprime education" investigates allegations of fraud and predatory recruitment practices. that's also tonight on most pbs stations. >> ifill: and that's the newshour for tonight. on wednesday, the first of a two part series on forced marriage. tomorrow we look at the issue as it relates to american women in the u.s.mo i'm gwen ifill. >> woodruff: and i'm judy woodruff. join us online, and again here tomorrow evening.f: for all of us at the pbs newshour, thank you and good night.ow >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: >> lincoln financial-- committed to helping you take charge of your financial futuref >> the ford foundation. working with visionaries on the frontlines of social change worldwide.hewo
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>> carnegie corporation of new york. supporting innovations in education, democratic engagement, and the advancement of international peace and security. at carnegie.org.con,d er >> and with the ongoing support of these institutionsns and individuals. >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you.prleico captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc , captioned by media access group at wgbh access.wgbh.orgpt
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♪ this is "nightly business with tyler mathisen and stocks sell off. equities suffered a sharp and steep fall as oil prices dropped and uncertainty surrounding interest rates rose. making changes. wells fargo drops the sales goals that led to the fraudulent opening of millions of accou can bad behavior be stopped? and in focus. why a unit of warren buffett's berkshire hathaway is being accused of running a reverse ponzi scheme. tonight on "nightly business f 13th. good evening, everyone. i'm sue herrera. tyler mathisen is on assignment tonight. but we will hear from him in just a few moments. bewe begin tonight with the market's big slide. stocks tumbled hard,

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