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tv   BBC World News America  PBS  December 9, 2016 3:59pm-4:29pm PST

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>> this is "bbc world news america." funding of this presentation is made possible by the freeman foundation. newman's own foundation, giving all profits from newman's own to charity and pursuing the common good. kovler foundation, pursuing solutions for america's neglected needs. and aruba tourism authority. >> planning a vacation escape that is relaxing, inviting, and exciting is a lot easier than you think. you can find it here in aruba. families, couples, and friends can all find their escape on the island with warm, sunny days, cooling trade winds, and the crystal blue caribbean sea.
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nonstop flights are available from most major airports. more information for your vacation planning is available at aruba.com. >> and now, "bbc world news america." laura: this is "bbc world news america." reporting from washington, i am laura trevelyan. more than a thousand russian athletes are linked to a state-sponsored doping scheme , says a scathing report. south korea's president is impeached following mass protests. now the country must cope with political uncertainty. and performing surgery with sound waves instead of a scalpel. we will tell you about the breakthrough procedure offering hope to many patients. laura: welcome to our viewers
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on public television in america and also around the globe. more than a thousand russian athletes across more than 30 sports took part in a state-sponsored doping program going back to 2011. that was the harsh finding of an investigation by the world's anti-doping agency. russian authorities are accused of colluding. it has raised serious questions about olympic results. in russia they are describing the report as baseless. sports editor dan roan reports. dan: we knew it was bad. today we learn how bad. he laid bare how russia cheated at sport from london in 2012 to sochi, summer and winter sports corrupted over a four-year period. this canadian law professor
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revealing the full, damning findings of the investigation into an audacious state-sponsored doping program of breathtaking proportions. >> the conspiracy was perpetrated from at least 2011 to 2015. over 1000 russian athletes competing in summer, winter, and paralympic sport can be identified as being involved in or benefiting from manipulation to conceal positive doping tests. dan: the scandal began in may with the revelations of this man, the former head of moscow's anti-doping lab turned whistleblower. in a barely believable conspiracy that went right to the top of the russian state, he helped athletes take a cocktail of performance-enhancing drugs and evade detection. working in a secret part of his lab supposedly secure bottles were tempered with an
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samples passed through holes in the wall drilled by spies. today came more details of the plot backed by a vast database of evidence. scratches on the caps of several bottles from a thin strip of metal. and further proof of tampering, instant coffee granules added to clean urine samples, salt levels described as a physiologically impossible. and 2 female ice hockey players with male dna in their samples. >> the russian olympic team corrupted the london games on an unprecedented scale. the extent of which will probably never be fully established. this corruption involved the ongoing use of prohibited substance, washout testing, and false reporting. dan: london 2012 was meant to inspire a generation. it was hailed as one of the cleanest and most successful olympics in history. the russian team came forth, and
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-- came forth in the medals table, and none of their competitors failed doping tests . now we know that performance was a sham, and the golden games were sabotaged. the international olympic committee said today the revelations were an attack on the integrity of the games and that they would retest every russian sample from london 2012. others want more. >> it is time for the ioc to act. they can take immediate steps to suspend the olympic committee from russia. they can ensure that no international events happen in russia until they are declared code compliant. dan: some critics now want russia banned from the next winter games or for them to be stripped of hosting football's next world cup. here at this ice hockey match in moscow, the mood was defiant. >> some people take banned substances legally and they are not punished. others are stripped of their medals even if what they are accused of happened a long time ago and it is never proved. it is all political.
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dan: the russian olympic committee's annual ball in moscow this week, a display of strength and pride. tonight the country risks sporting isolation like never before. laura: dan roan reporting on massive russian doping. the united nations says it has received disturbing reports that hundreds of syrian men have disappeared after crossing from rebel-held areas into government controlled western aleppo. sources have told the bbc that some have been taken in for interrogation, others forced into national service. syrian forces backed by russia have retaken large areas east of the city from rebel fighters in a recent offensive, causing thousands of civilians to flee. our chief international correspondent lyse doucet spent the last week in aleppo and send this report. weak to walk on their
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own, but war forces them to leave. they have been living in a battlefield. now at last, a chance to escape. to breathe a bit more easily. this mother says there was so much shelling, more than you could ever imagine. "we were afraid all the time. my children were terrified." a tide of people now fleeing as the syrian army and its allies make a rapid advance across the rebel-held enclave. their neighborhood has fallen. every day that goes by as the fighting intensifies, more and more people try to flee. not knowing where they will go now and how long they will have to stay. their story is the story of this war. this is the first stop for the displaced and dispossessed, an industrial zone abandoned earlier in the war. there is a relief to find safety and sustenance.
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but notice the absence of young men. today the u.n. expressed concern that rebel forces were not allowing able men of fighting age to leave. but they have another concern, too. >> we received very worrying allegations that hundreds of men have gone missing after crossing into government-controlled areas. family members say they lost contact with the men, who are all believed to be under 50 years old, after they fled opposition-controlled areas 10 days ago. lyse: this week there was a rare rescue mission, an orderly evacuation by 2 charities. 150 people -- the elderly, disabled -- were brought out of an old people's home in the ancient quarter of east aleppo, an area seized back by the government. a risky operation. many more people need to be brought out for urgent medical care. but for that, the fighting has
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to stop. >> at this time, either they are being allowed out to safer places, or that humanitarian assistance in eastern aleppo city, but we need a cease-fire. lyse: on the ground there is still no sign of that. today the u.n. general assembly added its voice to pleas to end hostilities, voices drowned out by a battle the syrian army is on the verge of winning. lyse doucet, bbc news, aleppo. laura: aleppo's suffering continues. back here in the u.s., president obama has ordered intelligence agencies to conduct a review into russian efforts to influence the 20 16th presidential election. the report is expected to be completed before he leaves next month and comes as the president-elect donald trump continues to question if hacking ever took place, and if it did, whether russia was responsible.
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jane o'brien joins me with the -- joined me a short time ago with the details. why is the president ordering this very broad review a month after the election and weeks before he leaves office? jane: he is under a lot of pressure from senior democrats who are worried that if he doesn't do this before he beats -- leaves office, it might never get done. donald trump has been very ambiguous about what he thinks is behind this. on one hand he says he does not think russia interfered with the election, and in the same breath, he says russia or china or some guy at home in a new jersey could have been behind the cyberattacks. so there is a great deal of concern that he will sweep the whole issue under the carpet unless it is done by president obama. laura: how much will you even know about the results of the review? it is highly secret. jane: that is the question. the intelligence community made an unusual statement in october saying they believe russia was
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behind the cyberattacks on the democratic national committee, and it must have been directed from a very high level in the russian government. but they have not said why they came to that conclusion. and of course, intelligence issues are by nature very sensitive and tend to be top-secret. a lot of this report could remain classified, although president obama said he wants the lessons shared with congress. laura: what impact could it have on the policy of the incoming trump administration towards russia? jane: well, that is presumably why donald trump is not that keen to have a review, because he is very fond of vladimir putin in many respects. he praised him during the campaign, he said at one point he thought he was a better leader than president obama, and he has business interests in russia. he also wants a better relationship with russia. to come in on january 20 with a review saying that russia tried to influence the election would not be a good start to the relationship.
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laura: jane o'brien, thanks for joining us. in other news from around the world, the dutch leader of the far-right freedom party, geert wilders, has been found guilty of inciting discrimination. he encouraged people at a rally in the hague to shout that fewer moroccans should be living in the netherlands. but he was cleared of inciting racial hatred. opinion polls show his party's the front runner in next year's parliamentary elections. hong kong's leader will not seek reelection when his term ends due to family reasons. he has been unpopular because of his hard-line response to the pro-democracy protests in 2014. many accuse him of putting the interests of beijing above those of hong kong citizens. the election is in march. in ghana, the west african president has conceded defeat to the opposition leader. this is the third time the opposition leader has sought the presidency.
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the announcement was also made on ghana's state television channel. analysts said it was largely a referendum on the president's handling of the economy. british police have found that nearly 100 football clubs have been infected in connection with allegations of child sexual abuse in the sport. clubs from the premier league are now under police investigation. 83 potential suspects have been identified. 250 victims so far range from seven to 20 years all. -- years old. if he thought u.s. politics was full of drama, south korea may have outperformed us. the parliament has voted to impeach president park geun-hye, who has to step aside as head of state while the court decides whether to remove her permanently from office. reporter: celebration on the streets of seoul. "park geun-hye step down" is the cry and the slogan, and it happened.
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"the bill for the impeachment of president park geun-hye has been passed," he says. the session to oust the president took a mere 30 minutes. there have been waves of protests every saturday. she is accused of colluding with a close friend who is alleged to have told countries to donate -- companies to donate millions of dollars in return for government favors. but there are wider concerns, too. >> she is somebody who came into power promising to make south korea an easier place, more comfortable place for everybody. she promised economic democratization, she promised to fight against corruption on the part of the big businesses. and she failed to deliver on all these pledges. reporter: she was born to ultra-powerful parents doomed to
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violent deaths. her father was a military strongman who seized control of the country before being assassinated. and her mother was assassinated, shot at a state ceremony by a supporter of north korea. the orphaned daughter entered politics. in a public meeting, a man stepped forward and slashed her. the defeat for president park in this chamber means she has to step aside. technically, she remains president, but in name only. her powers are taken away, while the investigation goes on. it is deeply shaming for her, and an unprecedented situation for this country. president park: this afternoon, parliament passed the presidential impeachment motion. i deeply apologize to our citizens for causing such chaos amid national security and economic concerns due to my carelessness. reporter: the country's new leader has taken over, but he doesn't have the clout of an
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elected president. and times are difficult, with a threat from north korea and the uncertainties of a new president in the united states. stephen evans, bbc news, south korea. laura: for more on president park's impeachment, i was turned earlier by the former cia deputy chief for korea who is now at the heritage foundation. how much of a challenge does south korea's crisis posed for the incoming trump administration, particularly with respect to north korea and the nuclear program? >> it is going to pose quite a challenge. while other countries are trying to establish a relationship with the trump administration, south korea's handicapped. they have not been able to do that as japanese president shinzo abe has been able to do. if a progressive candidate replaces park after the election, very likely to pursue policies that are against what the u.s. would want. laura: do you expect north korea to try to exploit this political
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vacuum in south korea and pose a test for the incoming president-elect, donald trump? >> we know from senior defectors that north korea likes to do something early in a south korean and u.s. president's term in order to "train them like a dog." it would not make sense to be provocative. they would try to reach out to a liberal president in south korea to get benefits. but then again, they did provocative actions when obama came in, which i think works against them. laura: president park was a very staunch ally of washington, whatever her flaws, and she stood up to the north koreans. how much could that change with a new government in south korea? >> very much so. the liberal or progressive parties want to work against the deployment of a missile defense system in south korea. they want to work against the sanctions the u.n. is imposing and they want to halt the improving relations between seoul and tokyo.
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and they would likely reach out unconditionally to pyongyang. laura: as a candidate, donald trump suggested that south korea should perhaps get its own nuclear weapons and pay more for its defense, but he did reach out to president park when he became president-elect. what do you think his thinking is now on south korea? >> really, we don't know, and that is causing uncertainty and concern in the capitals of our allies, not only in asia but in europe. he seemed to impose a conditionality approach on allies -- they pay 100% or we walk. since the election he has walked back from a number of his comments, but we are waiting to see clues of what his policies would be. laura: how important are they as a hedge against china? china,ot a hedge against a critical ally. it is in our interest to work with our allies and maintain peace and stability for our interests. if there is a question about u.s. resolve and commitment to defend them or south korea's
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willingness to remain a strong ally, that could lead to instability in asia. laura: thank you for joining us. you are watching "bbc world news america." still to come on tonight's program, a new type of brain surgery is producing remarkable results. we will bring you details of this pioneering technique. colombia's president has described his nobel peace prize as a gift from heaven. he gave a tremendous push towards reaching a peace deal with farc rebels. juan manuel santos has been speaking to the bbc in oslo on the eve of receiving his award. reporter: consider for me the impact of the announcement you at one of the nobel peace prize. it came three days after the reversal you suffered in the referendum. would it be fair to say that without that international accolade and the momentum it gave you, you might not have
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gotten to this point today with the new deal? president santos: it is fair to say four days after, it was a gift from heaven, and it gave me a great push. i was in the navy, and i learned to sail. when there is no wind, the ship starts to drift, and this came like a big wind that pushed local country and me and the whole -- the whole country and me and the whole process to the port of destiny, peace agreement. reporter: isn't it worrying, though, for the long-term stability of this deal, that you are telling me you probably would not have reached the destination without international support? in the end, it will therefore failed by the strength it has inside the country, and if it requires the committee of nobel to give you the prop you needed to keep the deal alive, that ultimately is quite
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worrying. antos: it s never said that without the nobel i could not have achieved the agreement. what i said is that this encouraged me and the whole of the colombian people because it was interpreted as a mandate from the international community to continue and persevere. laura: imagine surgery not using knives or scalpels but with sound waves. that is what doctors at a hospital in london have done to operate deep inside the human brain. the pioneering treatment was performed on a patient who suffers from uncontrollable trembling in his right hand. it can also be used to control tremors caused by parkinson's disease. our medical correspondent for ms. walsh -- fergus walsh was given exclusive access to the
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treatment. 15 years they got worse and worse. fergus: he is a painter and decorator, but his job has been made increasingly difficult by this, an uncontrollable tremor in his right hand. the shaking is caused by a mistiming of the electrical signals, the commands sent from the brain to the muscles in the hands. one million people in the u.k. suffer from tremors. >> the last 15 years, it gradually got worse, to the extent i can't use it. i've got to use me left hand. fergus: early morning at st. mary's hospital in london, and he is being prepared for deep brain surgery. but this razor is the only blade that will be used today. this frame will ensure his head is kept completely still during surgery. once it is placed inside this machine, the first of its kind in the u.k., which operates using sound waves.
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it works like this -- the device has more than 1000 ultrasound beams. when focused on a single point, they generate enough heat to destroy tissue. the target is a tiny point at the base of the brain, which is causing the 40 signals which triggered the tremors. >> 13 seconds, 9000 joules. fergus: this is precision medicine. the team constantly monitors m.r.i. scans and gradually increases the energy. his wife is there to reassure him. i have witnessed quite a lot of brain surgery, and it is brutal and bloody. drilling through the skull and cutting through tissue. the contrast here is astonishing. there are no scalpels. it is all done with sound waves. and the patient is awake throughout.
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and the result, remarkable. the tremors have gone. his right hand is steady. and this is a permanent fix. doctors believe ultrasound surgery could treat other conditions. >> it could help involuntary movements in parkinson's and tremors in multiple sclerosis as well as other neurological conditions emanating from the brain. fergus: so it has a big future? >> it has an enormous future. fergus: this was him before treatment, and after. it avoids the risks associated with conventional brain surgery, and recovery is immediate. you have got a big smile on your face. >> yep. it's nice, isn't it? brilliant. i pick something up with a hand and i know it is not going to spill. fergus: his treatment is part of
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an international trial. once it is completed next year, there is likely to be huge demand for this pioneering surgery. fergus walsh, bbc news. for him and millions of others there. we have stunning pictures to show you. you are looking at a feathery tail perfectly preserved in amber which was found by chinese scientists in myanmar. can you guess what it belongs to? if you said and 99 million-year-old dinosaur, you are right. this is what scientists think the creature looks like. it is about the size of a sparrow and thought to be brown on top and white underneath. this is the first discovery of dinosaur material preserved in amber and will go a long way to learn more about the development of modern feathers, not to mention shedding light on the extinct species that dominated earth 160 million years.
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those gorgeous pictures bring today's program to a close. you can find much more on the day's news on our website. to reach me and the rest of the bbc team, go to twitter. i am @lauratrevelyan. from all of us here, thanks for watching and have a great weekend. >> make sense of international news at bbc.com/news. >> funding of this presentation is made possible by the freeman foundation. newman's own foundation, giving all profits from newman's own to charity and pursuing the common good. kovler foundation, pursuing solutions for america's neglected needs. and aruba tourism authority. >> planning a vacation escape that is relaxing, inviting, and exciting is a lot easier than you think. you can find it here in aruba. families, couples, and friends can all find their escape on the
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island with warm, sunny days, cooling trade winds, and the crystal blue caribbean sea. nonstop flights are available from most major airports. more information for your vacation planning is available at aruba.com. >> "bbc world news" was presented by kcet, los angeles.
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