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tv   PBS News Hour Weekend  PBS  January 7, 2017 5:30pm-6:01pm PST

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captioning sponsored by wnet >> sreenivasan: on this edition for january 7: a florida airport re-opens the day after a mass shooting there claimed five lives. what happens now? following u.s. intelligence assessments on russian influence on the presidential election. and in our signature segment, what's replacing obamacare? how one state offers a preview of the debate to come in washington. next, on pbs newshour weekend. >> pbs newshour weekend is made possible by: bernard and irene schwartz. judy and josh weston. the cheryl and philip milstein family. the john and helen glessner family trust-- supporting trustworthy journalism that informs and inspires.
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sue and edgar wachenheim, iii. barbara hope zuckerberg. corporate funding is provided by mutual of america-- designing customized individual and group retirement products. that's why we're your retirement company. additional support has been provided by: and by the corporation for public broadcasting, and by ontributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. from the tisch wnet studios at lincoln center in new york, hari sreenivasan. >> sreenivasan: good evening, and thank you for joining us. florida's normally bustling fort lauderdale international airport re-opened today, 16 hours after a mass shooting allegedly carried out by a 26-year-old iraq war veteran caused it to be shut down. thousands of passengers who had been stranded after flights were canceled were able to board flights again. the alleged shooter, esteban santiago, opened fire early yesterday afternoon with a semi- automatic handgun inside a terminal baggage claim area
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after retrieving the gun from his luggage. in 70 to 80 seconds, he killed five people and wounded six others before police arrested him. victims from iowa, virginia, and georgia were in town on vacation. three of the wounded were still being treated in a hospital intensive care unit today. the f.b.i. says it believes santiago flew from his home in anchorage, alaska, to florida to carry out the attack, but agents don't know why. >> we continue to pursue every >> we have not ruled out anything. we continue to look at all avenues, and all motives for this horrific attack. >> sreenivasan: santiago, who was born in new jersey and grew up in puerto rico, deployed in 2010 for one year in iraq with the puerto rican national guard. the pentagon says he was demoted and discharged from the alaska national guard last year for unsatisfactory performance. the f.b.i. has interviewed his family, who says he has a history of mental illness and was once committed to a psychiatric hospital. his brother says santiago heard
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voices and believed the c.i.a. controlled him through online messages. florida governor rick scott met with travelers at the airport today. >> when you hurt one of us, you hurt all of us. >> sreenivasan: santiago is expected to make his first court appearance on federal murder charges on monday. president-elect donald trump today formally nominated former indiana senator dan coats to be the next director of national intelligence. coats just finished his third term in the senate and previously served in the house of representatives, as ambassador to germany, and was in the army. the d.n.i. coordinates the efforts of 16 u.s. intelligence agencies, including the c.i.a., the f.b.i., the national security agency, and military intelligence operations. as for mister trump's other appointments, the u.s. senate has scheduled its first confirmation hearings for cabinet-level picks next week. but according to the office of government ethics, several picks have not submitted all the information required to check possible conflicts of interest. in a letter to senate leaders, office director walter shaub
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says he "has not received even initial draft financial disclosure reports for some of the nominees scheduled for hearings." shaub did not identify any nominees. democratic minority leader chuck schumer said today, the letter "makes crystal clear that the transition team's collusion with senate republicans to jam through these cabinet nominees before they've been thoroughly vetted is unprecedented." in response, a trump spokeswoman tells the newshour, in part, "it is disappointing that some have chosen to politicize the process in order to distract from important issues facing our country. this is a disservice to the country." one day after top u.s. intelligence officials showed him the classified evidence that russian president vladimir putin ordered a hacking campaign to influence the election in his favor, president-elect trump said russia could become an ally during his administration. in a series of tweets this morning, mr. trump said in part, "when i am president, russia will respect us far more than
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they do now, and.... both countries will, perhaps, work together to solve some of the many great and pressing problems and issues of the world!" the agencies also released a declassified version of their key findings for public consumption. for more on the intelligence report and what it means going forward, i am joined from washington by "wall street journal" reporter shane harris. shane, so what happens? now we've had the classified version in both parties' hands, so to speak, both administration, the incoming one and the existing one. what happens for congress? >> well, the most immediate next step will be that on tuesday, the senate intelligence committee is going to hold a hearing about this report that's been released publicly. and, of course, some of its members have already seen the classified version, which is about 50 pages we're told. it's a little bit longer than what the public has seen. there will be witnesses there. they'll be able to question the intelligence about the findings and go into more details about
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why they reached cheese conclusions. that will be another opportunity for this to get aired publicly and for lawmakers to ask more direct questions about these findings that the russian government interveepped in the election and tried to help donald trump get elected. >> sreenivasan: in the nonclassified version, there's no smoking gun, so to speak, but you sort of expect that because of the sources and methods on how they got the information that's in the classified report risn't is that what the intelligence agencies are telling you? >> exactly. this is not an opportunity for them to so much show their work as to show their conclusions. so i think the people who were already skeptical about these findings are probably not going to be persuaded by this particular document that was released. although, it is definitive in a lot of its judgments, it doesn't actually tell you, "we got this information from, for instance, this person in russia or this series of communications that we intercepted." that's been left out, as have a number of other pieces of the
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puzzle, if you will, that the intelligence agencies feel would be too revealing about how they collect information, and they don't want to burn those channels going forward. >> sreenivasan: you know, there's one quote that i'm looking at that says, "we did not make an assessment of the impact the russian activities had on the outcome of the 2016 election." that's from the report. and then i'm looking at president-elect trump's tweet, "intelligence stated very strongly there was absolutely no evidence that hacking affectedlet election results." i mean, can both of those exist in sort of parallel universes here? >> well, i think they do. i mean, clearly, the intelligence agencies did not try to make that assessment of whether or not this russian intervention, which they think was trying to help mr. trump get elected, whether it actually succeeded. andening his statement, he's characterizing a bit too far what the intelligence agencies actually said. now, what they did say in this report is that there is no evidence that russian hackers or
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anyone else actually manipulated vote counts or got into voting machines or equipment and literally changed the outcome that way. but this question of whether this so-called influence campaign changed the outcome of the election, they did not assess that. >> sreenivasan: that the voting machines were not hacked was something even the obama administration mentioned. the other thing is that this report seems to be a guided post for elections to come around the world. >> that's right. and the intelligence rptdz, and officials publicly have said they want to make clear this is not activity by russia they imagine will be limited to only this campaign this election. they're already seeing similar activities in england, in germany. they have seen them before in eastern europe. and they really wanted people to understand, this is now a full spectrum of operations that the russian government is using and i think now has some evidence that it can be very effective. and that the intelligence officials just don't expect that they're going to stop. this is a-- ceendave new
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reality, a new weapon, frankly, that they think that the russians are going to be using. >> sreenivasan, you know, what about the concerns that people have, listen, we aren't pointing the finger at russia, but the united states and other western countries probably have similar operations under way around the world? >> it's a very interesting question. sort of aren't we doing the same thing overseas perhaps that they're doing to us? and james clapper, the director of national intelligence, testified this week, and was sort of asked about this point. and he really drew a line by saying, look, intelligence agencies all around the world, including ours, collect informations all the time, including about their political adversarys. the diswingz he was making though what russia did was disclose this information and as some lawmakers said, weaponnize it, the diclosure, the giving of the emails to wikileaks and other groups that they feel crossed the line. >> sreenivasan: already, shane harris, from the "wall street journal," thanks so much.
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>> sreenivasan: california's state insurance commissioner says a foreign government may have been behind a hack of america's second largest health insurer. the report released yesterday did not to identify who was allegedly behind the 2014 hack of 78 million customer accounts at anthem. but the report says the cyber- security firm hired to conduct the investigation believes, with "medium confidence," a foreign government ordered the theft of social security numbers, birthdates, and employment details. anthem has agreed to 260 million dollars in security upgrades as part of a settlement with insurance regulators. meet the native american artist who created a photo series to bring greater visibility to her tribe. visit www.pbs.org/newshour. >> sreenivasan: candidate donald trump promised to repeal president obama's affordable care act, also known as obamacare, and the new republican majorities in congress share that agenda, though they haven't proposed a specific program to replace it. however, this process is already underway in kentucky, the home state of senate majority leader mitch mcconnell. the state has had one of the highest rates of obamacare
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enrollment, mainly due to its expansion of medicaid. in fact, two-thirds of americans who have obtained health insurance under obamacare were poor enough to qualify through medicaid. but two years ago, kentucky elected a republican governor who promised to roll it back. in tonight's signature segment, newshour weekend special correspondent chris bury reports how that's playing out. this report is part of the newshour's ongoing look at the 44th president's legacy, "the obama years." >> we're used to it now. >> reporter: for steve and melonie ochsner, the affordable care act has meant life-saving health care without going broke. steve, who is 60, has throat cancer. >> every day look like we seem to be getting a little bit better. >> reporter: his treatments, including chemotherapy and radiation, are covered by medicaid, the federal government health program for low income and disabled americans. the ochsners qualified after the act, known as obamacare, took
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effect. but the cancer, chemo, and radiation have taken their toll, leaving burns on steve's neck and costing him his voice. >> are they giving you a topical steroid for that? >> no, i've been using cocoa butter. >> reporter: melonie speaks for both of them. what has having this insurance meant for steve's health? >> with the medicaid, we've paid nothing. it has covered every ounce of it. so, i mean, peace of mind has just been just absolutely tremendous. >> reporter: the ochsners, who take care of their three-year- old granddaughter, now get health insurance because kentucky, like 31 other states, agreed to expand medicaid under obamacare. before qualifying for medicaid, steve relied on private insurance from the company that owned the gas station where he worked, which melonie says, paid a maximum of only $2,000 a year in benefits. >> i'm going to put a note in for the billing department. >> reporter: after steve was diagnosed with cancer in 2009,
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his treatments ran up bills of more than $100,000 before the couple qualified for medicaid in 2014. would you be deeply in debt if you didn't have this insurance? >> we are deeply in debt from not having it before, yeah, and we would be even more deeply in debt. yeah, selling this house wouldn't get us out from under it. >> reporter: under the affordable care act, kentucky, like 17 other states and washington d.c., set up its own health insurance exchange. kentucky called theirs "kynect." residents could sign up for private insurance, often with government subsidies. yet for every kentucky resident who obtained private insurance this way, another four residents obtained coverage through medicaid expansion. the expansion raised the income eligibility to 138% of the federal poverty line-- that's about $16,000 a year for an individual and $33,000 for a family of four. here in kentucky, the rollout of the affordable care act in 2013
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was considered such a success, it became a model for other states. in the first few months, more than 300,000 people qualified for medicaid coverage under the new law, and kentucky saw a dramatic decrease in the percentage of uninsured residents-- one of the biggest drops of its kind in the country. in 2013, nearly 19% of kentucky's non-elderly population had no health insurance. by 2015, the uninsured rate had fallen to less than 7%. that's better the national rate of the uninsured, which has dropped to 10.5%. former kentucky governor steve beshear, a democrat, pushed for both a state exchange and medicaid expansion under the affordable care act. >> i didn't care who passed it. i didn't care if it was a democrat or a republican, in terms of politics. i mean, it was the one opportunity that i felt like we
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had to make a big difference in kentucky in the next generation or so in our health. >> reporter: that difference is seen in a study published by the "journal of the american medical association" last october. it found kentuckians newly insured in the first two years of medicaid expansion received more primary and preventive care, made fewer emergency room visits, and reported better health. but in kentucky, like many states that usually vote republican for president, obamacare became a political punching bag. and in 2015, republican matt bevin successfully ran for governor, promising to roll back parts of the law if elected. last year, kentucky eliminated its state exchange, saying it was redundant given the federal exchange. to help control costs, governor bevin also asked the federal government for permission-- known as a waiver-- to overhaul the state's medicaid program, which now covers 1.3 million
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people, almost one in three residents. >> i want to see us to become a healthier state. i don't want us to simply to provide people with a medicaid card and feel like we've done our part. we owe people better than that. >> reporter: the governor declined our interview request, but republican state representative addia wuchner, who chairs the state committee on health and family services, supports his plan. >> the goal is to help every individual that is being served by traditional medicaid, or expanded medicaid, or moving into the exchange, to learn to utilize the tools of having insurance and coverage. >> reporter: are you saying it provides an incentive? >> so it allows them to have that skin in the game, to be consumers, but also taking that responsibility. >> reporter: under bevin's plan, medicaid would no longer be free. recipients would be charged monthly premiums up to $15 a month, or $180 a year. able-bodied recipients without dependents would be required to work or volunteer up to 20 hours
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a week or to be enrolled in school. those eligible for expanded medicaid who miss a single premium payment could lose coverage for at least six months. >> $180 a year to have this-- almost the same coverage that you and i would have. and that's a pretty good deal. so, the governor's not asking, nor are we, asking too much of them. but we're asking them to be collaborators in-- their coverage of care. >> reporter: the consequence is, you can lose your insurance if you don't meet these obligations? >> if you don't step up and be responsible. we want to-- but we're going to put all the tools in place to help citizens be responsible. just giving them health insurance, just giving-- people, often, coverage doesn't mean that they're really engaged in the care that they have. >> reporter: wuchner says kentucky needs the waiver, because the affordable care act requires states to pay a growing
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share of medicaid expansion costs: 5% this year, rising to 10% by 2020, costing the state an estimated $1.2 billion between 2017 and 2021, and making medicaid the largest piece of the state budget pie after education. >> 5% doesn't sound like a lot, but it adds up to be a lot of money. so, i think the governor's approach to look at is still wanting to assure people have care; but, actually, we have a shared responsibility in that care. >> reporter: former governor beshear sees another motive at work. >> my biggest concern is that the efforts to get a waiver are really just disguise for, "we'd like to kick as many people off this program as we can." >> reporter: the current government says that kentucky cannot afford this expansion of medicaid. >> yes. and it's simply not true. >> reporter: beshear argues that healthcare spending due to the
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medicaid expansion provides an economic boost and thousands of health care jobs for the state. >> it is sustainable and it's affordable. but, you know, when you get into ideology, which this current administration is in-- and they're not the only ones. i mean, this is rampant around the country, it's sort of, "don't let the facts get in your way." >> reporter: at the shawnee christian healthcare center in louisville, which serves one of the city's poorer neighborhoods, outreach director anne peak fears a return to the days when nearly one-in-five kentuckians were uninsured. >> we will lose hundreds of thousands of folks' coverage, people will not be able to get the preventive care that they need and people will be going back to the emergency rooms in droves. >> i've been coughing a whole whole lot. >> reporter: robin duncan now gets regular checkups at the shawnee clinic, because she is covered by medicaid. but last april, before she had
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medicaid, robin showed up at the e.r. uninsured and had to undergo gallbladder surgery. >> reporter: before you had insurance, how much did you rely on the emergency room? >> i was probably having to go there for a little while. i was probably having to go, like, two or three times, like, a month. >> reporter: for your basic health care. >> correct, yes. >> reporter: after the medicaid expansion, kentucky hospitals saved more than a billion dollars in uncompensated or charity care from 2013 to 2014, according to a state- commissioned study. kentucky's waiver, if approved by the trump administration, could provide a glimpse of what a republican replacement for obamacare might look like. brian blase, a former staffer for congressional republicans, now works as a health policy analyst. >> we have 50 states. they're often referred to as laboratories of democracy. let them figure out some of these problems, and learn from each other. >> reporter: blase favors a repeal of the medicaid expansion, and says that in states like kentucky, the
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investment has not paid off. >> right now, when states spend an extra dollar, the federal government is reimbursing the state for most of that dollar. i want to see-- a change where states get a set amount of money, with a lot more freedom with how to manage the dollars, and who to gear the program to. i think we have probably way too many people on the medicaid program, and that it's not able to serve sort of the truly needy, who need the public assistance. >> reporter: about 20 million americans have health insurance that didn't have health insurance before. isn't that a good thing? >> it's a good thing, if you don't look at what the corresponding costs are, right? you have to think, what's the value that people are getting on this health insurance? and is the value that people are getting worth the costs? >> reporter: blase cites a 2013 study from oregon that found people who got coverage through a medicaid expansion did utilize more health services, but showed no significant improvement in physical measures like high blood pressure and cholesterol levels, though diabetes
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detection and treatment went up. but jonathan weiner, a professor of public health at johns hopkins university, says there are definite health benefits to having coverage. >> for the individual, unquestionably, people with an insurance card in their pocket are healthier and over the long term have a better and longer life than someone that doesn't have an insurance card. >> reporter: one of the reasons republicans opposed this medicaid expansion: they say it's been far too expensive for the health outcomes that have been produced. >> well, health care is expensive. people in private insurance plans spend even more than is the case here. but this way they can get preventive care. they can get their diabetes treated. yes, that's more expensive-- but they will be healthier. >> say "ahhhhh". >> ahhhhh. >> reporter: steve ochsner and his wife, melonie, credit the affordable care act with helping keep steve alive during his battle with throat cancer. they're open to changes in the law, including paying a premium
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or volunteering to keep their medicaid coverage. >> reporter: you'd be okay? >> we'd be okay with it. and i know that there are a lot of people that wouldn't. but we'd be okay with it. we just would. >> reporter: because the insurance is that important. >> because the insurance is that important. it is. >> this is pbs newshour weekend, saturday. >> sreenivasan: british scientists say a 100-mile crack in antarctica will likely lead to a 2,000 square mile iceberg breaking off the continent in the coming weeks. that's larger than the state of rhode island. itn's tom clarke has more. >> reporter: it's a huge crack running through the expanse of ice on the edge of western antarctica. these images taken by nasa show how long and deep the rift on the larsen c ice shelf really is. it threatens to separate a chunk of ice the size of norfolk from the antarctic peninsula, and soon. the crack spread to here by 2010. since then, it has gradually
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crept along the ice. but in the last month, it's lengthened by more than 11 miles. just 12 miles of ice now keep it from floating away. >> so the iceberg is hanging on by a thin strip of ice. and we think that in the next few weeks, that it might well break off. >> reporter: professor david vaughn knows only too well what happens when icebergs begin to break off in the antarctic. he leads a team of scientists that have been monitoring the peninsula for nearly three decades. >> it's already floating, so it has no immediate impact on sea level rise. but, if, because the iceberg is taken away, then the glaciers that are feeding that ice shelf speed up. then that would be an extra contribution to sea level rise. >> reporter: he's seen several similar breakoffs, which have caused ice to disintegrate into the ocean, but nothing on this scale. the crack in larsen c has been present for years, and it's sudden growth is thought to be completely independent of
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climate change in the antarctic. but there is evidence that the ice sheet has been getting thinner, melting from below and above due to warmer sea and air. that could have a bearing on what happens next. some scientists predict the entire ice shelf could collapse, as others have done, slowly re- drawing the map of antarctica. >> sreenivasan: finally, thousands of supporters of president barack obama waited in a line stretching for blocks in chicago today to get free tickets to his farewell address. they braved temperatures as low as 3 degrees to see the speech in person at mccormick place convention center on tuesday night. mr. obama's address to the t1 underlinee end of his second term will continue a tradition started by george washington in cc1 test messa that's all for this edition of pbs newshour weekend. i'm hari sreenivasan. good night. captioning sponsored by wnet captioned by media access group at wgbh access.wgbh.org
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>> pbs newshour weekend is made possible by: bernard and irene schwartz. judy and josh weston. the cheryl and philip milstein family. the john and helen glessner family trust-- supporting trustworthy journalism that informs and inspires. sue and edgar wachenheim, iii. barbara hope zuckerberg. corporate funding is provided by mutual of america-- designing customized individual and group retirement products. that's why we're your retirement company. additional support has been provided by: and by the corporation for public broadcasting, and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you.
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steves: the latin quarter is the core of the left bank, as the south side of the seine river is known. this has long been the city's university district. in fact, the university of paris, a leading university in medieval europe, was founded here in the 13th century. back then, the vernacular languages, like french and german, were crude, good enough to handle your basic needs. but for higher learning, academics like this guy
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spoke and corresponded in latin. until the 1800s, from sicily to sweden, latin was the language of europe's educated elite, and parisians called this university district "the latin quarter" because that's the language they heard on the streets. today, any remnant of that latin is buried by a touristy tabbouleh of ethnic restaurants. still, it remains a great place to get a feel for the tangled city, before the narrow lanes were replaced by wide, modern boulevards in the 19th century. the scholarly and artsy people of this quarter brewed up a new rage, paris's café scene. by the time of the revolution, the city's countless cafés were the haunt of politicians and philosophers who plotted a better future as they sipped their coffee. and the café society really took off in the early 1900s as the world's literary and artistic avant-garde converged on paris. in now-famous cafés along boulevard st. germain and boulevard st. michel, free thinkers like hemingway, lenin, and jean-paul sartre enjoyed
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the creative freedom these hangouts engendered.
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narrator: "truly california" is a kqed production, presented in association with... next on "truly california"... copes: oakland has always been a great city. people say, oh, oakland, oakland. we've been here. we've been doing great things. narrator: with the growth of oakland's first friday, the splendor of the rapidly changing city was on display... dan: there was, like, a couple months where it just ramped up and became crazy. narrator: ...as were its growing pains... [ indistinct shouting ] casey: having police does make it safer, but not for everybody. narrator: next, first friday. lynette: stay in the city if you want to -- just leave all your money in oakland! [ laughter ] ♪

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