tv Charlie Rose PBS May 13, 2017 12:00am-1:01am PDT
>> rose: welcome to the program. we begin this evening with politics and our continuing coverage of the firing of former f.b.i. director james comey by president trump. we talk to jonathan karl, gillian tett and ed rollins. >> it's is prerogative to fire comey. could have fired him on january 20th and no one would have batted an eyelash. you can't beat him up. you say thank you for your 30 years of service. he had impeccable credentials. he had a difficult time and you may question his judgment on some of the things he did in the case but you can't batter him around. >> rose: we continue with a conversation with the c.e.o. o susan wojcicki. >> cheers people who have a global brand, a lot of times they have millions of subscribers, they're making a good living on youtube.
they are extremely well known. they are extremely famous among their demographic and users, and, so, now, we have youtube is a collection of a huge amount of video content, many professional youtubeers and, of course, tv also uses youtube as way of putting their content on it, promoting it and having it be a part of a site where there are a billion people coming every month to watch video. >> rose: we conclude with tin carr, the director of the roy peck trust, an organization that supports freelance journalists around the world. >> freelance journalists, many are threatened, they live under this kind of constant atmosphere of harassment, and some of them have to go into hiding, some of them have to escape very quickly. some of them have to go into permanent exile, and that's a figure that's increased enormously over the last few years, and it's because people don't want them to tell the stories that they're telling. >> rose: more on the president
and the firing of f.b.i director, susan wojcicki and tina carr when we continue. >> rose: funding for "charlie rose" has been provided by the following: >> and by bloomberg, a provider of multimedia news and information services worldwide. captioning sponsored by rose communications from our studios in new york city, this is charlie rose. fallout surrounding president trump's firing of f.b.i. director james comey earlier this week. trump began his morning with a series of tweets warning comey against leaking anything negative about him.
president trump said to have -- he also threatened to cancel a future white house briefing. president trump said to have broadened his search for a new f.b.i. director given controversy over comey's dismissal and said to be considering an interim director tell you his nominee is confirmed. joining me from the white house is jonathan karl of abc news, ed rollins a republicans strategist and gillian tett, editor for the financial "times" jonathan has to leave in about ten minutes so we take advantage of his time when he's here. i begin with you, ed. what do you mange of all this? you've seen presidents, worked with president reagan. >> this particular president doesn't understand the impact he has every time he tweets something. we thought he'll get better when he gets in the white house. the two failures of the white house is a lack of a communication strategy and equally the personnel is way behind. saying all that, it's his prerogative to fire james comey. could have fired comey on january 20th and no one would
have batted an eyelash. but you can't beat him up. you need to say thank you very much for your 30 years of service. he has impeccable credentials. he had a difficult time. you may question some of his judgments but you can't batter him around. you basically demoralize an agency that has been demoralized in the past. you can't make the accusations, there's no evidence he's ever leaked anything, start raising taping and what have you. people say what tapes are we talking about? those are all bad words for you and i who have been around the game. people are starting to compare it to nixonian and carter. he has an important foreign policy trip next week. he has to set this will thing down and make republicans feel confident because they have a big task in front of them. they're concerned about their own numbers. he doesn't worry about polls but they do and they're starting to worry about themselves. >> rose: jonathan, how does he do that? >> the republicans felt like they had gotten things back on track.
they passed the healthcare bill, felt the president had a foreign trip coming up. tax reform was beginning to move through. this is a massive distraction. i think ed is exactly right. the president could have fired james comey, could have done it without much trauma. it certainly was going to be a controversy and a big story no matter what, but to do it and then to have your white house senior officials from the vice president on down give an explanation for why it happened, for nearly two full days, it turned out to be completely wrong, creates, you know, great uncertainty, and i think puts that agenda very much at jeopardy. >> rose: does it worry europe? it worries europe and asia as well. i was in asia last weekend and apart from the fact the japanese are talking about the risk of north korea missile strikes and actively preparing for that, they're also eventually making very black jokes who looks crazier whether the president t
-- the president of the united states or the president of north korea in terms of unpredictable and unfathomable behavior. that's an extreme parody. this kind of reality tv presidential performance is leaving people around the world increasingly alarmed given the severity of some of the geopolitical challenges now. >> rose: why do you think he does it? >> i think he does it because it's instinct. i think he does it because he disengages the media. he wants to reach directly to voters, in much the same way kennedy used television or obama used email. >> rose: reagan used television. >> reagan used television as d he's also seeking to try and show he's actually in power, he's got the platform, he's trying to destabilize opponents as well. >> rose: ronald reagan would have said what about this? >> ronald reagan would have said thank you to comey and found an appropriate replacement and move on.
you covered ronald reagan. he never bad mouthed anybody. not his style. >> rose: anybody in the white house can say no to president trump? >> i don't think there is anybody that can do that. jared kushner is in the family, so jared kushner has an ability to be a little more direct with the president. his daughter ivanka. but it's not their style to go into the oval office and say, dad or father-in-law, you're wrong, but they do try to steer him in a certain direction. but, you know, this is a president that is completely in charge of this west wing and likes the fact that there are different factions and play them off and set them competing against one another. you know, the president gave a videotaped message today to the rnc meeting out in san diego and he said -- he predicted they could pick up many seats in the mid-term elections because things were going so well. i mean, it's hard to find any republicans that think that
that's the case, but, charlie, can you imagine what the white house looks like if the republicans lose significant seats even lose control of the house of representatives, what this white house looks like? >> first of all, that conversation is going on. members are concerned. we have a 20-plus seat margin, and most to have the seats are -- and most of the seats are safe, but they're very concerned. he doesn't care about his poll numbers which are bad but they're dragging down republicans everywhere. the quinnipiac poll has republicans losing badly to democrats and creates chaos when there are two tough unpopular issues to move forward, the healthcare and tax bill. so my sense is he should be building support for his fellow members and i think to a certain extent they're shaking their heads saying is this ship going to get straight and move forward? they want him to do well but there's real panic.
>> rose: i want to make sure no one at this table is saying this is the beginning of the end, but thowdz this president change his behavior if he's 70 years old and been acting this way out of government all his life? >> well, he's also somebody who has accomplished -- he's very successful. he became president of the united states. he's not going to change his behavior. the question is whether or not it can be channeled. i think this trip, he heads out on friday, this is an extended foreign trip about ten days. he's got not just a visit to saudi arabia that we talked about. he's going to israel. he's going to the vatican. he's got a n.a.t.o. meeting in brussels. he's got a g-7 meeting in sicily. this is president trump on the world stage. he actually performs quite well on the world stage. going back to the campaign, one of the highlights for trump during the general election campaign is when he made that
secret trip to mexico and people looked at him and said, wow, donald trump actually can be presidential. so that's a chance for him to change the dynamic, but this is also something that is set up to dramatically distract from that trip. i mean, this was an unnecessary distraction. >> rose: what do they expect from rod rosenstein? >> rod rosenstein came close to resigning. they denied he threatened to resign because he didn't come in and actually say, look, straighten this up or i'm going to resign, but i know from people who spoke directly to the deputy attorney general, that he was on the verge of resigning because the comey firing was being blamed on him, was being pinned on him. he never actually recommended that comey be fired. he did that three-page memo. it brought indictment of comey's behavior as f.b.i. director, his handling of the clinton email case, but he never said to fire
him. so i think that what they -- first and foremost what they expect and hope from him is he doesn't quit. i think that that's why you saw the president so dramatically and actually quite honestly change the story and tell truth which is what he had already decided to fire comey and he simply wanted some additional reasons to be put forward for why it should be done. >> rose: does anybody not in the f.b.i. know what they have and where that investigation is and why the f.b.i. director was asking for more money and more personnel to pursue the investigation and why someone else there called it a significant -- a significant investigation? >> well, the person who said it was a significant investigation is now the acting f.b.i. director mccabe, and he also said -- and this is important, charlie, because the story was out there the front pages of the "new york times" and "the washington post -- that comey in
his final days asked for more resources and more money. mccabe told the committee yesterday that was not true, that the f.b.i. did not actually ask for additional resources, but he did say it's a significant investigation, a highly important investigation, but it's also not the only one. i thought it was significant, right after we heard about the comey firing, we see the senate intelligence committee issue to -- issue subpoenas to michael flynn to have him turn over documents related to their russia investigation. so i think there are multiple investigations that, if anything, may be stepped up as a result of the comey firing, not stopped. >> rose: jonathan, thank you for joining us. i know you have other duties there at the white house. but thank you so much for being here. >> thank you, charlie. >> rose: back to your opinion. is it possible that this president can achieve what he hopes in terms of saudi arabia and putting together a grand alliance between the saudis and
other arab states who are all a sunni persuasion and get them to rally against iran and in hopes that in combination with israel they can come out with some kind of palestinian-israeli deal? >> well, if you want to be optimistic after this last week, there are really two reasons why you can be optimistic. firstly that trump has shown himself willing to talk very tough and then make a big strategic retreat. we've seen that with china in relation to trade. there is some hope that maybe in relation to russia and the middle east and syria there could be some grand bargaining in the offering. the second reason there is hope to be optimistic is because around president trump you have a number of people who are widely respected on the international stage. you have general mattis, mcmaster and rex tillerson as well. so that's the optimistic scenario that actually something good will come out of this completely chaotic week.
the more pessimistic reading is he has seen his standing on the world stage significantly diminished by what's happened and it's worth noting that if you look at the european vetting -- betting markets, they have been putting the chance for trump impeachment or removal significantly rising this week, 50%, 60%, much higher than any of the other u.s. markets are looking at, and that kind of perception or psychology fits into the international stage and look at trump. somebody think he may not be a lame duck quite soon. >> rose: do you think that can happen with republicans in both houses? >> no, i don't. i worry about the mid-term elections >> rose: could change that. could change that. we don't have enough republicans. we have a majority in both houses, don't have enough in the senate. if two or three go south on us we lose momentum. 20 is not a giant number in the house of representatives. obama had way more in times of big legislation and we have tough stuff ahead.
we've got them all worried about we have to have them all not worried about getting rereflected and have to believe in him. there were times he was showing great strength and got hiring numbers on his leadership that got somewhat diminished about this. and the danger is who cares about rosie o'donnell? he's back tweeting on her. he can't let anything go. he doesn't act presidential and he needs to act presidential. when he goes on this world stage which is a big, big test, which is a first measurement. reagan stumbled in the first economic summit, came back roaring in the second, this is a .ders and say can this guy dok is he going to be okay with the significant leaders in the world. i hope he can but he can't if he gets distracted. >> rose: why do you think he can do it? >> he's a performer. he has a confidence factor.
i've seen him head to head with world leaders. he doesn't flinch. the strongest team he has around him is the foreign policy team. even though tillerson isn't experienced at state, he's experienced at world affairs. mathis is first rate. his treasury team is best. he has his best opportunity if he sits and takes the counsel. >> the team is well respected and comand respect on the world stage and that's important now. but you can't lose out on the fact you're seeing a potentially distracted at best present and -- at best president and at worst a damaged president dealing with foreign policy issues which are fantastically serious. north korea is a significant threat right now. you have the middle east in chaos. you have the syrian problem, you know, running on and on and on, europe increasingly worrying about refugees and the russian problem. it's worth pointing out the f.b.i. aren't the only group looking into russia. you have the european intelligence groups as well.
you have a lot of threat, a lot of juggling. one thing that worries me is the president doesn't seem to be good at multi-tasking. he's a one-track, one issue a day kind of president and the question about whether he can multi-task on this width of agenda will be very important going forward. >> rose: go ahead. equally as important, he's been around a long time, i was there in watergate, the press have been waiting a long time to find another pulitzer prize and another issue, and he's dumped all over the the press from the beginning. my sense is a very serious journalist will go out and make a days against him for all these -- make a case against him for all these things. if i were him, and i'm not advising him, i would say let it run its course. don't let the senate or house create a special prosecutor. let it run its course and talk about other things. i care about the next month he has to perform at a level to
which he gets his own side to pass significant legislation which is not easy or at least get on the track to pass legislation, because if he doesn't get a tax bill or a healthcare bill, the rest is irrelevant. >> rose: thank you ed rollins, jonathan karl and gillian tett. stay with us. >> rose: susan wojcicki with here, c.e.o. of youtube. google-owned video platform has more tan a billion users in 88 countries. history with google dates back to 1998 when she became employee 16. she made pivotal contributions to the company especially advertising. fast company magazine called her a consummate google insider, observing not many people and very few women are chosen to be a part of larry page's inner circle. pleased to have her here for the first time. welcome. >> thank you. >> rose: you smowived here earlier, so i take the blame or bestow it on you.
>> thank you so much for having me. >> rose: when they moved to alphabet, they thought a youtube might have lifted itself from under the google umbrella. >> i think the idea was it was to be able to give a scalable platform. google and alphabet expanded into many areas, fiber, medical, cars. youtube you would think might become an independent company because of our brand. we have over a billion users, the reach that we have. but, yeah, youtube is a really integral part of google and our mission about enabling everyone to have a voice and to be able to have a large collection of video is really somewhere to google, and we're integrated in so many different ways so, at the end, we decided it made sense to keep youtube as part of google. >> rose: it was acquired in
2006, around about there? >> yes. >> rose: when did you realize that, boy, this could be big? or did you know that when you bought it and that's the reason google bought it? >> yeah, well, you know, i think early on we realized it could be really big. and that was because -- you know, there were few insights. so the first big insight was that people all over the world wanted to upload video and have that be shared. so when we first started, you know, we just had a basic link and we said upload video. incredibly, people did. we didn't tell them we were going to do the video but people all over the world uploaded video. that was the first insight. wow, people want the share their video with the world. but then the second insight which was even more surprising is that other people wanted to watch regular people video like themselves. so i remember we had our first hit, and our first hit was really these two students in
their dorm room singing to the backstreet boys, and they were so funny. they were so creative about it. the numbers that we had were just -- we just thought this is a hit, people want to watch all kinds of content. >> rose: you have said youtube has grown up. what did you mean? >> well, youtube started out really with people just uploading -- >> rose: cats and more people. cats and interesting things they saw along the way. what happened is people started to realize, wow, i'm getting a lot of users and viewers. then a number of people became youtubeers. they became professional youtube creators, and they realized i can make a living by uploading and creating videos. and i really think about those as the next generation media companies. these are people who they have a global brand. a lot of times they have millions of subscribers.
they're making a good living on youtube. they're extremely well known. they're extremely famous among their demographic and users, and, so, now, we have youtube is a collection of a huge amount of video content, many professional youtubeers and, of course, tv also uses youtube as a way of putting their content on it and promoting it and having it be a part of a site where there are a billion people coming every month to watch video. >> rose: i didn't say this but google was born in your garage. >> yes, it was. >> rose: two guys from stanford showed up and said we would like to rent your garage. >> yes, they did. yes, i was looking for someone to help pay the mortgage. >> rose: yes. and they were looking for a place to rent. it turned out to be a pretty good match. so they started -- they moved in. actually, i was just looking for
them to cover the mortgage at the time. it wasn't like i was looking for a hot startup or a new search engine or anything. >> rose: or to change your career. >> no, i was happy where it was. i was looking for them just to pay the rent. they successfully paid the rent and in the meantime, i learned a lot about google and i realized, wow, they're really on to something and i decided to join. >> rose: everybody asked you this and i ask it or people all the time, what's the next big thing? what's the new frontier? is it virtual reality, machine learning, is it artificial intelligence or all of those or something else? >> i think those are all big questions and certainly all of them you mentioned whether v.r. or a.i. which is artificial intelligence and machine learning, i mean, i think all of them can play a really big part in our future. i think if we were to look today and say what is playing a big role in our lives today, we see
machine learning being really powerful. machine learning is a way for us. so we have, you know, 400 hours uploaded to youtube every minute. we need to match that to the billion users that we have coming to our site. so how do we do that? we need to learn, we need to have systems that figure out what are the best recommendations, how do we figure out what you're interested in. >> rose: do the machines figure it out? >> we'll teach the machines something. we'll give them an initial set of information for them to be able to learn something and from there they can figure it out and make recommendations because otherwise it's not scalable for us to be able to recommend all these videos to you or the next person over here and to have that be the right set for them. so machine learning, i'll say now, has been incredibly powerful for us. >> rose: someone said the other day this is the thing people in silicon valley talk
about most these days is machine learning. >> we're using it today. it's useful and powerful today. i think v.r. is an example of a technology we think can be really powerful in the future but i won't say -- you know, i still say it's very early for v.r. so how can you have an experience a video where you're watching and you're fully immersive in that video experience? that's a new art, a new experience, but it's hard to do. there's a platform, there's content. how do you figure out how to build content for the platform when there is not that many platforms out there yet. so, you know, we've actually tried to make this really accessible. we came up with something called cardboard, which is this -- made out of cardboard, and it's a way of taking your phone and putting it into the cardboard and being able to have a v.r. experience. so we've focused on making this
a low-cost, easy experience for people all over to be able to experience that. >> rose: how is this world of how we distribute video and the world how its received changing? >> yeah, so i think -- so youtube for sure has changed the way that we receive and interact with video, and i see across the board that we're undergoing a significant change in how we receive and how we interact with video. so i'll say there are many factors, and i'll start with one of them, which is users expecting the content to be on demand and the content to be searchable, right. so the ability for you to be able to find any content you want at the moment you want it. one of the things it's enabled that we didn't have in the past which is important is education. if you want to know how to do a specific math problem, fix
something in your house, do a magic trick, you can look it up today on youtube and learn it. so the opportunities for learning are immense on youtube, and it's just amazing when i go around the world the people who tell me all the different things they learn on youtube so that's very significant. i think another important area is the concept of what we call community, the fact that no longer is video a one-way broadcast. it's now a two-way conversation. so if you are a creator, you can post a video and your fans can leave you comments, for example, and you as a creator can go back and comment on the comments, you can have a heart, and you can participate in that conversation. so we're doing even more to be able to enable the fans and the creators to be able to communicate more together. and they say things like what should my next video be about? what are you excited about? and it's the conversation between the fans and the creators that actually drive the creation of the media.
>> rose: i will occasionally use it this way, you know, so and so is coming in, what should we ask or be curious about? and the capacity to have that many people producing for you is wonderful. >> yeah. and, so, that's why it really has moved to being a conversation and for it being a community, and we see amazing groups coming together and building those communities around specific video on youtube. it's also global, okay. so what we see is we see creators. they could originate from one country but they will have a global audience, and that community is becoming global. >> rose: what's going to be obsolete because of all the things we have talked about so far? >> i think what i would say is that, if you look at some of the traditional media, it's not necessarily going away, it's evolving and might be adapting to the new medium, and that's where i think we see tv or
traditional media, for example, you know, putting some of their content on an online platform or developing their own online app or way of communicating with their customers so it can move over and start to have some of the benefits of the communication. so i think the content, over time, will evolve and move to the platforms that are more dynamic, that are searchable, that are on demand, that work on your mobile phone and that enable conversation, and so some of the older platforms that are maybe not as -- that don't have those features i think, over time, you will just see less usage of that. >> rose: other than human resources, like you, what's the most valuable asset that youtube has? >> mmm... i would say -- i mean, certainly the library of content that we have. >> rose: and the number of users. >> and the number of users.
it's an ecosystem. the ecosystem that we have between our creators, our users and our advertisers is incredibly -- is incredibly compelling, and it's not just one part of it. you need all three parts of it for it to work. you need to have the advertisers that are funding the creators, the creators can create more content and from there you have more content from the users. >> rose: define a youtube star. >> somebody who creates youtube videos and has a large number of followers. either their videos have a large number of views or they have a large number of subscribers. 10 million subscribers, that would be a very successful youtube star. if you talk to teens today, there was a study where teens were pulled, who are the big celebrities, eight out of ten were youtubeers in 2010 when they did the study.
in 201 2015, when they did the study. >> rose: and the question? who were the top celebrities among teens. >> rose: eight of the ten are youtubeers. >> eight of the ten are creators on youtube. and, so, these are real stars. so we looked at this and said, these are real stars, how can we help these youtubeers take it to the next level? and, so, we have been creating original programmatic. we have been focused mostly with our youtube team, youtube creators, and working with some traditional talent, for example the -- and doing a new medium. so if they traditionally do blogging or a movie with us, a series, other youtube stars, traditional media, and, so, we have created over 30 original content pieces so far, and that's part of our subscription service, and we are seeing that, you know, we're seeing some really good traction. >> rose: you know what happens to me is that people go and for 25 years we've sat and talked to a remarkable range of people.
so youtube people will aggregate their favorite things, so they will do all the comedians, and i'm not sure whether this is legal, but they will put it on youtube and i'm sure we could stop it if we wanted to. but it's amazing how creative they are in terms of taking stuff and telling stories. >> well, i think one of the things that i have found really impressive with youtube is just the human creativity. the fact that there are so many creative people in the world, and that there are so many stories to tell. and i find something -- there is something really human about youtube that you can go on to youtube, you can see people who are like yourself. on youtube, there's a lot of discussion about topics that isn't happening as much on traditional media, and we talk
about authenticity, the people that people are representing themselves as they truly are, they're being as honest as possible with their audience and that's really compelling. the creativity and the authenticity we see on the platform. >> rose: back to netflix and amazon and you mentioned what you're doing, can you see that developing to a much more sophisticated level to youtube so all your users can watch much longer material? like an hour and a half of a film or a documentary? >> so we have lots of the documentaries today on youtube, so people may upload them as part of our service. it's free to our users, but it's monetized with that. so we have many, many different content creators who -- anyone who wants reach, who want to have the billion people that we have on youtube, they want to be able to have the opportunity
to offer it to them, and they want to have as much reach as possible, they'll post it on youtube. so youtube is popular with short form content and successful there. but also we have longer form content and movies -- >> rose: what's the potension of that in your judgment? >> i think there is potential. i think platforms don't get divided in terms of just a short form or a long form platform. i think when people come to youtube, they want to watch video and they want to sit down and they're open to seeing whatever we recommend for them or whatever they search for, and to see that. and, you know, they'll have longer user sessions where they will watch their number of individual yes, sir and long -- will watch their number of videos and long-form videos, oo.
>> rose: over the last four or five years, you know a lot about advertising, is the greatest discovery that advertising was perfectly prepared to support mobile users? i'm the time and especially for facebook, i remember a time they were worried to death, you know, will advertising dollars flow to mobile devices. >> yeah. >> rose: and they clearly did. yeah, they clearly have. >> rose: as you are here to testify as well as facebook. >> yes, yes. well, mobile -- you know, i think like any new medium, it takes time to transition, and at google, we worked really hard. we realized mobile was coming. we worked to bring the formats, to add formats over to mobile. but mobile is, like, has a lot of -- first of all, it's an amazing device for watching videos, for doing really anything that you're doing like shopping, directions, and, so, it's -- from a mobile perspective, you can say ads are relevant and useful for users. so both on google's core
properties like search and youtube, we have been able to make that transition to mobile. >> rose: how long is the normal visiting time for someone who's coming to youtube? is it two minutes or -- >> no, they're longer sessions. and, so, you know, it might depend on the device that they're in and the country that they're in, but we could easily see someone coming to youtube for an hour. >> rose: really? yeah. >> rose: can you pick out what's going to go viral? if you do, i assume you have magical powers, but, you know, can you instantly see something and say that's going to go viral? >> we can't, but our machines might be able to see it and can recommend it to more people. we'll see based on the user patterns, here's something that looks like it's doing well. we've created a trending tab and we take the videos we see are on the rise and growing really quickly and put them in a trending tab specifically for users who are really interested.
what are the new trends and the new videos that are breaking and becoming really viral and interesting for people to see. >> rose: what's the biggest challenge for you? >> oh, you know, i think the challenge for a tech is always just a change in the industry. the industry is constantly changing. and, you know, making sure that you're seeing ahead and being able to in some ways as technology leaders we need to see in the future, we need to invest ahead of time in technologies that we believe in. you know, so v.r., would be an example, we need to be able to invest in that. we need to continue -- we're investing a lot in markets across the world, emerging markets. we talk about the next billion. we have a billion users on youtube but how do we get the next billion? we're excited about that, and the way to do it is reaching into markets -- >> rose: opening up to countries who don't have much
usage. >> or we think there could be more usage. we have a lot of usage in india but there are a billion people in india, how do you get them all? in order to do that, we have know we need to offer a different service. the data costs are expensive, the phones and networks are different, so we have been thinking a lot about the next billion users and how do we make our products available to them. so on some level like, you know, the challenges, we're doing so many things. we're a big platform, we have advertisers, creators, users, we operate in all countries of the world, we're doing a push in emerging markets. >> rose: no one has been a stronger proponent and more active in the issues of gender discrimination in silicon valley than you. >> mm-hmm. >> rose: tell me how it's changing. >> well, i think it's a reall importance issue to address.
maybe i can spend one minute saying why and then how i hope it changes. i see that the change that we're going through right now from a digital perspective is similar to a change that we went through with the printing press. suddenly, there's an incredibly new set of information that was just unavailable beforehand to users, and it's information that's just used in a massively new and different way. i am concerned the number of women who are getting degrees in computer science is only 20%, and if you look across the companies, there may be 30% or like a third -- >> rose: and why is that? that's a good question. i think there is a misunderstanding among young women and girls about what computer science really, is and i think they may see it as a more geeky, less attractive field for them to go into when, in truth, it's incredibly
exciting, it's fast moving, it's social, it's creative, and if you think about this, this is one of the major forces we have now that's changing all the parts of our world, not just technology. technology is changing so many parts of our world. so we need to have more women there. it would be like having a printing press and saying only 20% of women can read and write. if you had that, if only 20% of women could write, what would be all the great literature that you're missing? it would be a lot that you're missing. that's a challenge when you look at it from a societal standpoint, so it's important to encourage women to be a big part of this change. >> rose: is silicon valley waking up to this reality? >> there are issues that has caused discussion on this in silicon valley. while people have always known the diversity numbers are not as strong as we would like them to be, i think there has been increased aware fess on how we can do more to support women in the tech field.
>> rose: and avoid discrimination. >> and avoid some of the issues we've had. i think it's really important. i put out a piece in "vanity fair." i recommended that -- i recommended three things. first, i think it needs to come from the top. i think it needs to be the leader of the company, the tech company that said we want the make this a diverse environment, we're excited to make it a diverse environment, we're going to work on it as a management team. then you need to be able to give the teams the right resources, right, to be able to go out and execute on that, but you also need to enable the currently diverse teams you have to be able to be successful because the worst thing is, oh, well, we have some diversity but they're not happy. how can you make sure you understand what their issues are, how can you help them to be successful and don't ask the one woman in the group to say, oh, we want you to organize all the women's events. that's not fair to her. and then lastly, i think everyone, you know, can be a mentor and an advocate in some way, and i have been really
fortunate that i've had amazing mentors at google that have -- i know that behind the scenes have helped me in a number of ways and i know that when i've needed help, when i, you know, was concerned about something or i needed someone to guide me or, you know, get me invited somewhere, i know they reached out for me, and i have them to thank. i always tell women, your mentors or advocates can be men. they actually have to be men because the leaders in silicon valley are mostly men. >> rose: yeah. so they need to reach out and they need to find the next generation and support and grow them. >> rose: at apple, they have a meeting every monday morning of every week, and they allowed me to come in and see the beginning once, which tim directs and all the key people there, i forgot how many are there. i've heard there is a similar meeting larry page conducts at google friday. true? >> we have a meeting on friday that is -- well, it used to be
on fridays. >> rose: when is it now? it's on thursdays. >> rose: ah. it was called t.g.i.f. buttates company meeting. it's an opportunity for anyone to ask -- well, it's to go over key updates of things that happened and different teams to present but also an opportunity for anyone in the company to ask a question. so, yes, we have that as a tradition. i do something similar at youtube. i actually do my entries because -- i actually do mine on fridays. and i think it's really powerful, i'll say both at youtube and google, when i go and see these different teams present, sometimes you see an update on an existing product and say that's cool, but sometimes you say this is the future. i'm seeing it for the first time and the world is changing. >> rose: give me an example. i'll go back in history and give an example.
the first time i saw maps and the idea that you could actually have an image of every single place in the world, and it was stunning. you know, in today's world, kids don't know what the paper maps are, of course not, because they all have the digital maps. so the first time you see that, you know, that's breathtaking. so we have google home. the first time you see it on stage, it's wow this is almost like the star trek computer. you can ask it a question and it can give you an answer to anything. you can ask it to play music and it can give you the weather, the sports scores, your calendar. it's amazing. then you just think, wow, like, this is just the beginning. you know, what's it going to look like in five or ten years, or even next year, it will be a lot better than it currently is.
but, you know, these are all really exciting moments when you see those events and you start thinking, like, oh, you know, today, we got one and it's cool and they'll get cheaper and cheaper and maybe you can have one in every room and maybe you can have these very smart but amazing speakers and people, like, little -- you know, little google home devices that can help you. >> rose: everybody from ech or alexei or what google or apple has. >> right. but that's an example, right? an example -- >> rose: of an idea. -- of an idea that you know is going to change. you know, right now there aren't that many of those devices out there in the world, there are just not, but it's going to come. and that's one of the things i really enjoyed and learned in technology is you have to think about the future and you have to believe in the future. so, you know, when people come
to you and they say what sound like crazy ideas, you know, it's, like, the very first one, we're going to build a search engine and provide information to everybody and be, like, okay, there are two of you and you're renting my house, good luck, you know, right? but then they actually do, or they say, um, oh, you know, we're going to take a picture and have a map of everything in the world, or they say, oh, we're going to have balloons and they're going to fly in the sky and provide all that, wi-fi and all that. at first you're not sure what to think, but i've learned in technology you have to believe in that future and be very forward thinking. so you think about the home devices like what can that device do? how can it h help you and make you smarter? how can it help you at that moment? how can it play amazing experiences in the home. >> rose: and i close with this, in a sense of our success as a nation, has in part been beyond our values and our constitution and the foundation of this country, has been our
lead in technology. you know, and one of the questions you have to ask yourself, how do we maintain that lead? >> i definitely agree that our lead has come. i think technology has been a big factor in that, and that in order to maintain that, you know, there are many things that we need to do. so, a, one i think the we could do as a nation is add more computer science training in our schools. so we all take biology, we all take chemistry but we're not going to be doctors necessarily or chemists or pharmacists, but if you think about this next generation, how can they be most prepared? if they're not afraid of technology, if they can embrace technology and learn it, and you don't need to learn everything. you just need to learn enough that you are willing to learn more. i wish so much we would offer to be able to -- we would be able to offer computer sciences in all the schools. i think that would help the imbalances with gender and minorities.
as a nation to think about the next generation growing up with strong computer science skills, that would be incredibly pwerful. you know, i'm very optimistic about the future. i'm optimistic about all the opportunities that it's going to provide, all the ways that, you know, we as humans will be smarter and better because of technology that will enable us to do our jobs better to make better decisions, to enrich our lives in a number of ways. >> rose: thank you for coming. i'm excited. thank you for having me so much. >> rose: back in a moment. stay with us. >> rose: tina carr is here, director of the rory peck trust, an organization that supports and protects freelance journalists around the world. founded in 1985, operates in six countries today. -- the trust operates in over 60 countries today. i am pleased of tina carr at
this table for the first time. welcome. >> thank you. >> rose: tell me more about the rory peck trust. >> we're actually very small and work globally to help freelancers because freelancers have always been a part of the news community, very vulnerable, as i'm sure you know. they're having an incredibly tough time right now. the whole climate is changing. the reason that i feel that we're probably more relevant than we've ever been with our work is freelancers are a huge part of independent journalism. the whole journalism landscaped changed. we're noticing a massive change in the amount of people coming to us for the kind of help we give. >> rose: and why is that? for all sorts of reasons. first of all, there are many more freelance journalists than there used to be. and there are many more freelance journalists because news organizations are using them more, because freelance journalists all around the world who have been perhaps working as citizen journalists are really wanting to tell the story of what's going on in their
countries, they're professionalizing, they're becoming journalists, they're becoming freelance journalists. so there many, many more. the whole community is growing. there is a greater demand from the news organizations for them, and they are really covering every area. they're covering online, they're covering filming, they're covering writing, photojournalism, everything. >> rose: i'm told that more and more freelancers are being hired after brexit and the rise of populism around the world. >> oh, well, yeah. i think -- i don't know if there's more being hired. it was already starting. i have to say freelancers are being hired more over the last four or five years. >> rose: because of war and not so much because of economic decisions of countries but war and peace? >> it's because of war, because
news organizations don't always and can't always send their staff into certain areas and certain country and rely a lot on local freelancers, that means not people going in from other countries and flying in and out but people actually living and working in the countries they're working on. >> rose: what do you provide them? >> with absolutely direct, practical help. >> rose: like? we give them financial help. it might be they've had an injury and need help paying for the medical costs. they might have been injured in conflict and an accident. might be they have to go into hiding. this happens to a huge amount of people we help. >> rose: go into hiding because. >> they're telling the truth about something and somebody doesn't want them to tell the truth. so freelance journalists, many are threatened, they live under this constant atmosphere of harassment, some have to go into hiding, some have to escape quickly. some have to go into permanent exile and that's a figure increased enormously over the last few years and because people don't want them to tell the stories that they're
telling. >> rose: now, how many people are doing what you do, what your trust does? >> we're probably the smallest. but there's organizations, many wonderful organizations that support journalists. we're the only organization that was founded specifically to be dedicated to freelance journalists and we remain the only organization in the whole world that just looks after freelance journalists. >> rose: james foley was a freelance journalist. >> yes. yes, he was. yeah. >> rose: just for the benefit of the viewers, brutally, you know -- >> yes. >> rose: -- killed by i.s.i.s. go ahead. >> well, that's really when everything began to change. although we'd been working with and talking about freelancers since 1995, in 2014, foley, th then sotloff and ken, the
world got to know there was freelance journalists and they were vulnerable and people were going to step in and help them and their families. it made a massive difference. we had known james and helped him when he had a particular need financially. we had given him money to help him. we have also been closely in touch with the family of austin tice who as you know five years ago was taken in syria and remains missing until this day. that's a terrible thing that he should be still missing after five years. so -- >> rose: did james foley contact you or. >> james and a friend wanted to do a particular thing and didn't have the money and we helped them. they actually wanted to help a freelance colleague of theirs and we gave them money to help them do that. >> rose: often in my experience with freelance journalists, they're people who simply want to cover the story,
that's what drives them, and covering it without fear. certainly not without fear. they all have fear, but covering it with the deep understanding of the risks they're taking. >> i think that's true. i think freelancers are responsible, they are always at the center of wherever it's at, that whirlpool, that's where the freelancers will be and go. and they are brave, and mostly not risk-takers. mostly really professional about what they're doing. >> rose: they want to report and live. >> they want to report and live. rory peck himself says you go into war, the first thing you want to do is get out as quick as possible and tell the story. >> rose: how many freelancers do you support? >> we help over 150 a year with grants, assistance grants. we don't give big sums of money. we give small sums of money. which do something for them.
>> rose: thank you. pleasure to have you here. >> thank you. >> rose: thank you for joining us. see you next time. for more about this program and earlier episodes, visit us online at pbs.org and charlierose.com. captioning sponsored by rose communications captioned by media access group at wgbh access.wgbh.org >> rose: funding for "charlie
hello and welcome to kqed "newsroom." i'm thuy vu. the top law enforcement officer in contra costa county tells us why he's against legislation to make california a sanctuary state. plus the golden state warriors pursuing another championship. and we'll hear from iranian-american comedian maz jobrani about fighting prejudice with punch lines. first, on tuesday, president trump fired fbi director james comey. comey was leading the investigation into possible collusion between donald trump aides and russian officials. kevin mccarthy responded swiftly to the news. on wedneswe