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tv   PBS News Hour Weekend  PBS  November 18, 2017 5:30pm-6:01pm PST

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captioning sponsored by wnet >> sreenivasan: on this edition for saturday, november 18: more than 200 nations minus the united states agree to move forward on a blueprint to slow climate change; and in our signature segment, the flu shot-- why doctors think you should get it and the research under way to find a universal vaccine. >> we have no past experience with that virus so virtually no one has any protection. >> sreenivasan: next on pbs newshour weekend. >> pbs newshour weekend is made possible by: bernard and irene schwartz. the cheryl and philip milstein family. sue and edgar wachenheim, iii. dr. p. roy vagelos and diana t. vagelos. the j.b.p. foundation.
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the anderson family fund. rosalind p. walter, in memory of abby m. o'neill. barbara hope zuckerberg. corporate funding is provided by mutual of america-- designing customized individual and group retirement products. that's why we're your retirement company. additional support has been provided by: and by the corporation for public broadcasting, and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. from the tisch wnet studios at lincoln center in new york, hari sreenivasan. >> sreenivasan: good evening, and thank you for joining us. with the united states on the sidelines, climate negotiators from almost 200 countries have hammered out a blueprint for future commitments to slow the effects of climate change. the two-week conference in bonn, germany, ended today. the goal was to come up with a technical rule book which puts the words of the landmark 2015 paris climate accord into action.
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presiding over the conference was the prime minister of one pacific island nation particularly threatened by sea level rise, fiji. >> we have done the job we were given to do, which was to advance the implementation guideline of the paris agreement. >> sreenivasan: the rule book sets out how every nation should measure and verify whether or not they achieved reductions in burning fossil fuels, and the resulting emissions that contribute to global warming. following president trump's decision in june, the united states is alone in the world in rejecting the voluntary pact. president trump wants more time to consider rules on elephant hunting. there has been a conditional moratorium against importing ivory tusks from african elephants. thursday, the u.s. fish and wildlife service lifted that ban. environmental and animal rights groups criticized that decision. then, late last night, the president tweeted that he wanted more time to review all the conservation facts. african elephants have been listed as threatened under the u.s. endangered species act since 1978, and their population has dropped 20% in the past ten years.
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due to poaching for their ivory. a specially-equipped nasa aircraft has joined the search for an argentine submarine that's been missing for four days. the diesel submarine "san juan" is carrying a crew of 44. the argentine navy has had no visual, radio or radar contact since it was located 270 miles off the country's southern atlantic coast on wednesday. the u.s., britain and chile have offered to help in the search. embattled lebanese prime minister saad al-hariri surfaced in paris today and said he plans to return to lebanon next week. hariri met today with french president emmanuel macron and later told reporters he would clarify his position about his resignation when he gets back to beirut in time for lebanon's independence day. two weeks ago, hariri shocked the middle east by announcing his departure during a trip to saudi arabia. as lebanon's former colonial ruler, france has been trying to mediate the ensuing crisis of stability. the palestinian authority vowed today to cut all communications
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with the trump administration if the u.s. moves ahead with a plan to close a palestinian diplomatic mission in washington. the palestinian foreign minister says their leadership will not accept any "extortion" by the u.s. to enter viable peace talks with israel in the next 90 days. the potential mission closure follows a state department finding that the palestinian authority breached u.s. law by pursuing charges against israel in the international criminal court. the allegations stem from israeli settlements in occupied territory claimed by palestinians. the presidential adviser tasked with reviving peace talks between the israelis and palestinians, trump son-in-law jared kushner, is disputing claims that he's failed to turn over documents on russian election meddling. the bipartisan senate judiciary committee leaders say kushner has not provided an e-mail he received from mr. trump's son, donald, jr. the email is said to be about the son's contacts with wikileaks about their release of russian-hacked emails belonging
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to the hillary clinton campaign. kushner's lawyer claims that no documents are missing. >> sreenivasan: in florida's largest city, jacksonville, police issue more than 400 tickets a year for jaywalking, and it turns out they are disproportionately issued to blacks, primarily in the city's lowest income neighborhoods. this information comes to us from a joint investigation by propublica and the "florida times union," and one of its authors, propublica's topher sanders, joins me now in the studio. so, how did you investigate this? >> first, it started out with the courage of of a young man named davonta shipman, who pulled out his cell phone and recorded an encounter with an officer giving a ticket for a pedestrian stock. and the intensity of the encounter devonta felt he had to protect himself. he records this, he uploads this
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and it starts to go environmental. and one of my friends and colleagues at the "florida times union" jumped on it and wrote a story. i saw the story, called him up, and said i think there is more to this. and that's how the investigation started. >> sreenivasan: when you looked back back-- you looblgd at all the ticket they say issued over a certain period of time. >> that's right. >> sreenivasan: what kind of patterns emerged? ey issued, 55% of them in thats county went to blacks, black people, and black folks only make 30% of that county. >> sreenivasan: so the sheriff's department is going to say, "listen, these relate 're just ticketing those people." that's going to be one of their lines of defense, right? >> it is. when we looked at the census data-- they said it was about safety, keeping people alive. we are one of the cities in the country that has a pedestrian fatality issue. and we want to do our part. >> sreenivasan: that's an admiral goal. >> we looked at the death data, and looked at who was dying and
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where they were dying and compared it to where they were giving tickets. there was a small slice of the community that had one of the highest death rates, but when we looked at the tickets over a five-year period, they gave nine tickets in that census track. >> sreenivasan: you're saying in the areas that had the worst pedestrian fatalities or accidents, that's not where the tickets were being given? >> that's not where the largest distribution of tickets went. the largest distribution of tickets went to the black community. >> sreenivasan: talk about why we're even having this conversation. what are the ripple effects if you can't afford to or don't pay the jaywalking ticket. >> the jaywalking ticket is $62. the poorest zip codes that we looked at were six times more likely to receive a ticket in those communities than anywhere else. if you get one of those tickets and neglect to pay it or don't think it's a big deal and don't go to court, it can lead to your
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license being suspended. you can get points on your license, if you have a commercial driver's license, it can impact that. and once your driver's license is suspended and you do have access to a car you drive and you don't know your driver's license is suspended, you can get stopped and then ticketed or arrested for misdemeanor driving without-- driving without a license. >> sreenivasan: what about the sidewalk infrastructure in this town or at least in these areas? are they maintained? do they exist? >> so leaders in jacksonville have recognized that this is a problem, and they sought out some help, so they hired a consultant to come in and do a year's worth of study on the city. the consultant realized, one, the infrastructure is not great; and, two, they need to prioritize infrastructure over enforcement. so his conclusion was no amount of enforcement or education is going to improve the situation. you have to deal with engineering first. >> sreenivasan: so the
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recommendations were to engineer this better, not just to ticket people. >> correct. >> sreenivasan: all right, topher sanders of propublica, thank you.much for coming in. >> sreenivasan: australia's flu season is coming to a close, but this year was particularly bad, with two-and-half times as many cases as last year. that matters because australia is a predictor of how our flu season might go. the consensus among u.s. medical providers is that you should get an annual flu shot. however, fewer than half of american adults do. in tonight's signature segment, newshour weekend's megan thompson reports on the dangers of the flu and the quest to produce a universal vaccine. >> reporter: shannon zwanziger was a healthy 17-year-old high school senior growing up in the southern minnesota town of owatonna. >> beautiful eyes. >> reporter: her parents, gwen and terry, say she loved
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skateboarding and playing video games. she wanted to become an artist one day. >> she was young. oh, what, just ninth grade when she did that. >> reporter: one day three years ago, shannon came home from school complaining she felt sick. >> she says, "i just feel horrible. i got a sore throat." >> reporter: after four days, terry took her to the emergency room. the doctor said shannon had influenza, or the flu. >> and he said, "you just have to ride it out, you know. go home." >> let it run its course. >> yeah, "let it run its course." that's what he told me. >> we were sitting in the emergency room down there waiting to be seen. her mom called. so, i told her i got to, you know, took a picture of her and said, "i'm taking care of her." that's the last one we have. >> reporter: back home, a day- and-a-half later, gwen was with shannon when she lost consciousness. >> i knocked on the wall and yelled for terry to wake up.
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and then, i laid her down on the floor right here, and terry came down and called 911. >> reporter: paramedics flew shannon to the mayo clinic in rochester, about 40 miles away. but it was too late. the flu had destroyed her organs. >> we had every reason to believe that she was going to come back to us. >> yeah, uh-huh. >> i mean, i had never heard that the flu would kill somebody like her. >> reporter: shannon was one of 148 children in the u.s. killed that season by the flu. the number of children who die ranges widely from 37 in 2011 to a high of 288 during the swine flu outbreak in 2009. the flu and complications from it kill another 12,000 to 56,000 americans every year, mostly those 65 and older. and between nine and 60 million americans get the flu every year, costing $10 billion in doctor visits, hospitalizations
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and medication. the centers for disease control and prevention recommends that everyone older than six months get the annual flu shot. shannon zwanziger chose not to 2014, but the vaccine was only 19% effective that year, so it might not have mattered anyway. and that's the big problem with flu vaccines, says doctor anthony fauci, head of the infectious disease division of the national institutes of health. >> this right here is the influenza virus. >> reporter: the challenge is there are many strains of the virus and they mutate often. >> every year, you have to reevaluate whether the vaccine that you made for the prior year is actually now matched to the virus that you predict will be circulating in the coming year. that's totally unique. you don't have to worry about that with polio or with mumps or with measles or anything like that. >> reporter: every spring, the c.d.c. and the world health organization look at the flu strains circulating in the
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southern hemisphere to predict which strains might hit the north the next winter. the most common process of manufacturing vaccines, growing them in eggs, has been used for decades and takes about six months. >> that's a long time. and that's one of the reasons why it's crying out for us to do something a little bit different. because once you start it, you hit the gong and you say, "go, we're going to start making a vaccine," it's very difficult to stop in midstream and say, "oops, i think we got it wrong." >> reporter: because the many strains can change so quickly, the flu vaccine is only around 20%-60% effective. this compared to the once-a- lifetime polio vaccine, which is 90%-100% effective, or the measles vaccine which is 93%-97% effective. that's why dozens of teams at the n.i.h. in maryland, across the country and around the world are trying to develop a so- called "universal" flu vaccine, one that would protect against many strains and could last a
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decade or more. microbiologist peter palese is leading the research at mount sinai's icahn school of medicine in new york. >> many vaccines are long- lasting, such as measles, mumps, rubella. they're given once, and then they're... we are protected for life. and we hope that we have something similar now for influenza viruses. >> reporter: as palese explains, the outside of the flu virus is covered in proteins that look kind of like a lollipop. the top is called the head, and the bottom the stalk. the head is the part of the virus that the body's immune system tries to fight off and builds an immune response to. it's also the part that changes constantly. >> the problem is that, two years later from today, when i get infected again, the virus has changed so that my immune response is not effective anymore. >> reporter: palese has figured out a way to make a virus with a head that the human immune system just ignores, so instead it fights off the stalk, the part that doesn't change much.
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>> so, we want to redirect the immune system to make a protective immune response against the portions of the virus and the areas of the virus which are not changing. >> reporter: palese's vaccine is now in the first phase of testing in humans, supported by funding from the gates foundation and the pharmaceutical company glaxosmithkline, one of the main producers of the annual vaccine. anthony fauci's research team at the national institutes of health has two vaccines, one already in human trials, while a team at oxford university in england is testing another. the hope is someone will get there within the decade. >> when people ask me, and i get asked this all the time, "what keeps you up at night regarding an infectious disease outbreak?," clearly very high up there in that short list is another pandemic influenza. >> reporter: that also worries michael osterholm, an epidemiologist and head of the center for infectious disease research and policy at the
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university of minnesota. >> seasonal flu is the one we deal with all the time, but pandemics is a flu that frankly is the one that scares the hell out of us. >> reporter: a pandemic flu is a strain that usually jumps from an animal-- often a pig or a bird-- to a human, a new strain for which humans have no prior immunity. osterholm says the risk of a pandemic may be increasing, because meat consumption is growing worldwide and more people are in contact with poultry and pigs. >> when pandemic flu hits, it's one where everyone is vulnerable. everyone's susceptible. >> reporter: the worst flu pandemic, in 1918, killed an estimated 50 million people worldwide. compared to other diseases, the flu is easily transmitted by just a cough or sneeze. osterholm warns when-- not if-- a flu pandemic hits again, th they might be infected, spread
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very quickly. >> reporter: osterholm is optimistic about a universal flu vaccine, but he estimates the u.s. government is spending only around $35 million a year to find one, compared to around a billion dollars finding a vaccine for h.i.v., which causes aids. >> i wouldn't cut that. but it shows the world's lack of understanding of just how critical this flu issue is. >> reporter: osterholm also says completing the trials and getting the vaccine to market will cost about $1 billion, and he's skeptical the pharmaceutical companies will take the financial risk. >> when we look at the vaccine area, this is not an area of high profits. the industry has no appetite for that right now unless there's assurances of support throughout the process and that there's a market at the end of it. there is no market at the end of the rainbow, so why even try to climb on the rainbow to begin with? >> reporter: a handful of major pharmaceutical companies are supporting universal flu vaccine research now, including glaxosmithkline, the third- largest flu shot maker. so is janssen, a division of johnson & johnson.
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dozens of biotech firms are exploring universal vaccines, too. anthony fauci believes if the government can help identify a promising vaccine, a pharmaceutical company will take it on. but he admits the government is not funding universal flu vaccine research at the levels it funds research on other diseases. there's a big disparity there. >> right. >> reporter: how do we address that? >> well, it is always much more difficult to get funding for something that has not yet happened even though you know sooner or later it will happen. it's a challenge and it's frustrating. particularly if you know deep down that... that we're probably making a mistake by not addressing something. >> reporter: so, we're making a mistake right now, you're saying? >> well, i think that we're not appreciating the opportunity to make a vaccine that could save a lot of money and prevent a lot of sickness and death. >> reporter: fauci says he is developing a new strategic plan for the universal flu vaccine that will launch next year. and he vowed to devote more n.i.h. dollars to the cause.
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>> this clearly is something whose time has come. and we've got to really push the envelope on that. and that's what we're going to do. >> reporter: and that's welcome news to gwen and terry zwanziger. today, gwen calls herself a" disease warrior," talking and writing about her daughter shannon's death to increase awareness about the flu. she and terry remind everyone they know to wash their hands, cover their coughs and get the annual vaccine. >> we can't help them make a vaccine, but we can help make people aware. >> everything was fine. and then, four days later, we lost a daughter. >> just your average person doing your average day. and then, you die. >> over flu, yeah. >> sreenivasan: families that lost children to the flu are working to educate others about the virus. read more at >> sreenivasan: in the united states, two out of three alleged sexual assaults are not even reported to police. that's according to the rape, abuse and incest national network, using numbers from
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justice department surveys. and a new poll by n.p.r. highlights why sexual assaults on native american reservations in the u.s. may be underreported. 36% of native americans living in majority-native areas say they avoid calling the police because of a fear of discrimination. 50% say they or a family member feel they've been treated unfairly by the courts. wyoming public radio reporter melodie edwards joins me by skype from laramie, wyoming, to discuss this. what's underlying this hesitation to come forward with a crime? >> well, there is a long history of mistrust between native american tribes and the federal government. and so, it has moved up into modern times where it's unclear who is handling a case, whether it's tribal police or whether it is the f.b.i. and that there's just a lot of people falling through the
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cracks there. >> sreenivasan: in the case of certain tribes do, they lack the jurisdiction to be able to actually prosecute a felony or a serious crime? does that automatically fall to a federal authority? >> the tribes that i know best are the two tribes that live on the wind river reservation in wyoming, and they're working on some solutions to try and figure this out. but right now, what the situation is, is that if they have a felony like a sexual assault, then they-- that case must go to the f.b.i. and oftentimes, those cases are dropped. 67% of sexual assault cases on reservations do end up being declined by prosecutors. so then those crimes might be able to go on to tribal courts, but tribal courts can't try felonies. and so, in the case of a story that i covered, the-- that
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perpetrator well then only be able to be sentenced with a misdemeanor of under a year. >> sreenivasan: wow, that's shocking that you'd do something like that and just get a misdemeanor. we're having this national conversation about sexual assault and abuse. you know it's the #metoo. when you go out to places on rural wyoming or on to a reservation, does any of this filter out there? >> no, there's really not yet. i'm hoping that that will eventually happen. but even just in rural wyoming, it's hard to get the word out and to create that sense of safety for people to feel like they can come forward, that there's going to be the numbers of women to come forward together, that feeling of unity among-- of victims that they can feel like they can step forward and voice their-- you know, their stories. >> sreenivasan: all right, melodie edwards of wyoming public radio joining us via skype from laramie today, thanks so much. >> thank you, so much.
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>> this is pbs newshour weekend, saturday. >> sreenivasan: in the southern african nation of zimbabwe, military commanders are planning to meet for talks tomorrow with 93-year-old president robert mugabe, who's been under house arrest by the military for four days. mugabe has been in power since 1980, and today thousands of people took to the streets of zimbabwe's capital of harare to show support for his ouster. martin geissler from independent television news reports. >> reporter: this lunchtime harare is witnessing scenes unthinkable until the past few days. tens of thousands gathering in open defiance against a president who has brought 37 years of misery to their country. they cheered soldiers rolling in on tanks. this, we keep hearing, is not a coup, but it is the army who are forcing change.
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a spirit of celebration swept zimbabwe this morning. in the second city, biloao, protestors gathered in the center. "he must go" was the mantra. black, white, young, old, all marching together, as the authorities, who would normally crush any protest, looked on. this demonstration was practically spontaneous. it was organized in just a few hours on social media, yet thousands have turned out. ... for 37 years of frustration. >> we don't want to fight with anybody. we just simply want a better future for our kids. >> reporter: you think this is it? >> it is. the day has finally come. >> reporter: mugabe has not gone yet, of course, and these people don't know what's coming next, but that can wait. today, there's a sense of celebration. martin geissler, itb news.
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>> sreenivasan: finally tonight, malcolm young, a rhythm guitarist who cofound the industrialian hard rock group ac/dc died today after suffering from dementia. he was 64. and when the movie "star wars: the last jed i" comes out it will include prince harry. tomorrow online and on the broadcast, we return to bosnia just ahead of the verdict in a major war crimes trial for the ethnic cleansing there in the 1990s. that's all for this edition of pbs newshour weekend. i'm hari sreenivasan. good night. captioning sponsored by wnet captioned by media access group at wgbh >> pbs newshour weekend is made possible by:
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bernard and irene schwartz. the cheryl and philip milstein family. dr. p. roy vagelos and diana t. vagelos. the j.p.b. foundation. sue and edgar wachenheim, iii. the anderson family fund. rosalind p. walter, in memory of abby m. o'neill. barbara hope zuckerberg. corporate funding is provided by mutual of america-- designing customized individual and group retirement products. that's why we're your retirement company. additional support has been provided by: and by the corporation for public broadcasting, and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you.
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announcer: explore new w worlds and new ideas through programs like this, made available for everyone through contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. announcer: next, my music in color. ladies and gentlemen, davy jones! [applause] ♪ oh, i could hide 'neath the wings ♪ ♪ of the bluebird as she sings ♪ the six-o'clock alarm would never ring ♪ ♪ but it rings, and i rise ♪ wipe the sleep out of my eyes ♪ ♪ the shaving razor's cold


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