tv PBS News Hour PBS July 9, 2019 6:00pm-7:01pm PDT
captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc i' woodruff: good evening. judy woodruff. on the newshour tonight: out of the shadows. how charges against fund manager jeffrey epstein shine light on the scope of sex traffiing of underage girls. then, judging healthcare. the affordable care act is back in the courts, sting up afi legat that could decide the fate of obamacare.ne plus, the cash crop. f kick off our series on the booming business ocreational marijuana, as state after state votes to legalize it. >> states are realizing the sky isn't falling. the doomsday predictions of opponents are not really coming true. >> woodruff: all that and more, on tonight's pbs newshour.
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of these institutions: >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcaing. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. >> woouff: labor secretary alex acosta is facing new demands touit tonight, over a plea deal with financier jeffrey epstein in 2008. acosta was then a federal prosecutor in south fl epstein was accused of molesting teenage girls. the deal kept him out of federal prison. but now, federal prosecutors in new york have filed new charges. today, in the u.s. senate, minority leader chuck schumer joined other top democrats condemning acosta. >> i am calling on secretary acosta to resign. it is now impossible for anyone to have confidence in secretary acosta's ability to lead the department of labor.s if he refu resign,
president trump should fire him. >> woodruff: acosta called epstein's alleged crim "horrific," and said he welcomes the new charges. president trump, in a meeting with the emir of qatar, promised to review the plea deal, as he fended acosta, whom he appointed to his cabinet. >> he's been a great, really great secretary ofabor. the rest of it, we'll have to look at. we'll have to look at it very carefully. but you're talking about a long time ago, and again, it was a decision made, i think, not by him, but by a lot of people.ng so we're go look at it very carefully. >> woodruff: also today, justice department officials said attorney general william barr will stay out of reviewing the 2008 plea agreement. his former law fm represented epstein during that period. we will discuss all of this after the news summary.
a federal judge in new york said the move was quote patently deficient under urt rules. the administration wants a new legal team to find a way to add a citizenship question to the census. meanwhile a a federal appeals court ruled today that president trump may not ban crits from his twitter account. a three-judge panel agreed with a lower court that found the president violated the first amendment ghts of those he ocked. the justice department said that it is ploring where to go from here. billionaire hedge fund manager tom steyer has announced he is running for the democratic presidential nominatior all. passed on the race back in january, and instead, pushed to impeach president tr today, he said he wants to end "the hostile corporate takeover of our democracy." steyer joins some two dozen democratic candidates. two-time presidential candidate ross perot died today at his home in dallas. he had leukemia.
the texas billionaire perot is best remembered for his third- party run in 1992, when he won 19% of the popular vote. ross perot was 89 years old. we will look back at his life, later in the proam. in hong kong, chief executive carrie lam declared toy that an extradition bill is dead, after weeks of mass protests. but she again stopped short of withdrawing the bill, which could send criminal suspects to communist-controlled mainland china, to face trials. hong kong's pro-democracy activists rejected the statement, and insisted the bill be formally withdrawn. >> she only said that the bill." is "de we cannot find the word "dead" in any of the laws in hong kongr ny of the legal proceedings in a legislative council. so how can a government tell us that we should preserve our rule
oeof law, when she herself not use the rule of law? >> woodruff: opponents of the extrition bill warn that beijing would use it to crack down on dissent.g warrctions in afghanistan have ended a peace conference with calls for zero casualties. the afghan government, the taliban and others met f two days in qatar. they focused on a road map for ace, but made no mention of a cease-fire. meanwhile, a taliban car bomb on sunday killed 14 people, and an afghan government air strike toy killed seven. president trump has fired off new broadsides at the british ambassador to washington, kim darroch, for criticizing mr. trump and his adnistration. in a tweet today, the president called the ambsador "wacky" and said he is "a very stupid guy." in london, foreign secretary jeremy hunt said u.s.-britis ties remain strong, but he stood by the ambassador.
>> so, i think it's very important that our ambassadors and high commissioners around the worl they are able to express those frank views, because we have one of the best diplomatic networks in the world. >> woodruff: a spokesman says british prime minister theresa may telephoned the ambassador to offer her support. in virginia, the state legislature abruptly ended a special session today with no action on a raft of gun-control measures. democratic governor ralph nortm called the session aft a may 31 shooting attack that killed a dozen people in virginia beach. but, majority republicans put off any action until after the state's november elections. california lawmakers have overwhelmingly passed w rules to govern when police fire their weapons. they allow deadly force onlyf there is an immediate threat of death or serioce injury to of or bystanders. supporters touted the rules as so of the nation's toughes nearly two dozen governors are
joining lifornia's fight against easing fuel efficiency standards. the governors,ostly democrats, signed a pledge today. the trump administration wan to roll back obama-era rules, and to end california's authority to set its own standards. a federal court in washington has blocked the department of health and human services from making drug companies show prices in their tv ads. the mandate was to take effect toda in a bid to bring about lower prices. the court said congress never anted the power to enforce such a rule. wall street had a lackluster trading day. the dow jones industrial average lost 22 points to close at 26,783. ree nasdaq rose 43 points, and the s&p 500 added and, volkswagen is ending production of the iconic beetle this week. the idea for the caras born in 1938 in nazi germany, and years later, beetles became an emblem
of the 1960s counter-culture in the united states. the last beetle will roll off a production line in mexico tomorrow.om still toon the newshour: how charges against jeffrey epstein shines light on x trafficking of underage girls. the healthcare of millions hangs in the balance, as obamacare heads back to the courts after a series of earthquakes lees california reeling, a look at the bione that may still be coming. and, much more. >> woodruff: we return now to the epstein case, which has brought renewed attention to sex trafficking in the u.s. lisa desjardins explores the scope of the problem. >> desjardins: thanks, judy. sex kiaff is a crime that happens across the country, in cases that don't alwayreceive this much attention from the media.
here to explain this troubling criminal underground is yasmin vafa. she's executive director of rights4girls, a human rights group dedicated to ending violence against young women and girls. thank you for joining us. let's start first of all with this epstein case. his lawyers are saying their client believed s ese gire over 18 years old and this was not child trafcking because in their words there was no coercion or violence. o ask you. you're also an attorney. legally what is child trafficking. >>wo under the federal la, there is no need to show force, fraud or coercion when it comes to the issue of minors. under the federal law, anyone who recruits patronizes, solicits a minor under the age ct 18 for the purposes of a commercial sex an be found guilty of trafficking. a commercial sex act is actually really broadly defined under the federal law. it encompasses any se at that's exchanged for anything of value. so under thfacts of this case as alleged, it could absolutely
constitute a federal anti-trafficking case. >> i think i want to get to something deeper that might be going on here with this idea of what israfficking or who are the victims. in this case we saw a man whos his frieven joked about that he liked young girls. i'm wonding how much of this is in plain site sight child trafficking or an innocence or shrugging a probli. >> the ue thing about this case is the sheer amount of attention it's getting but not unique in the dynamics that are alleged. we know that men who are powerful, who have an enoroumous of privilege exploit the vulnerabilities of young women and girl ever day here and throughout the country. what's interesting about this case is that it's getting an unbelievable amount ofte ion, but from our work on e ground, there ar individuals much like jeffrey epstein who are extraordinary
wealthy and powerful businessmen. of them are actually white men who use that power and privilege ploit vulnerable young women and girls. one of the things about thisat case is thhere seems to have been a pattern of targeting incredibly marginalized young women, girls who are run awa girls who experienced unstable homes. maybe even girls from the foster care system and that was consistent with what we see in the young women we work with here locally. >> i think people sometimes image sex trafficking happening other places to other germs, not girls that they know. how are these girls being lured in these cases especially so edults can we aware of th risks. >> one of the important things to recognize, in the united states the vast majority of sx trafficking cases actually involve american citizens. from the federal data we knowrd upof 80% of all confirmed sex trafficking cases involve u.s. citizens an up to 40% of those cases involve the sale of so it's an incredibly important
american problem and one that's happening in communities all throughout the country. i think that one of the things that we're hoping comes to light and that people are able to connect the dots between the epstein case and child sex trafficking all across this nation is that it's often verywe ul men with means taking advantage of the vulnerabilities of some of our most marginalized young women and girls. often times kids who experience extreme childhood sexual abuse,o kids who arethe child welfare system, run aways and homeless youth and exploiting there vulnerabilities. it's attack particular that exploiters use because they know thesthare the kidat no one really cares b they know these are the kids that most often fall through the cracks and even if they do come forward, they are the kids who are leaste likely to be believed. >> part of the problem is of course all this is in the shadses and there vulnerable kids who no one else is looking for them. what do we know abt how prevalent this is in america
today? what do you know from your experience? >> what's difficult about this issue and quantifying it is that it is largely hidden. some of the challenre the fact that it is mischaracterized, often times a adult prostitution, often times law enforcement and otr first responders don't actually correctly identify this as chile trafficking. so we don't have exact numbers about the issue but i can tell you locally here in d.c. with our partners on the grund that serve traffic youth on a day-to-day basis, we're seeing about five to eight unique referrals per week of children. >> those are individuals per week. >> individualsyes. and between the ages of anywhere from ten years old to 17, 18 years old. in d.c. one of the providers called courtney's house actually has three 11 year olds theey serving currently. it's incredibly pervasive and the sheer amount of violence and degradation that these young children experience is unbelievable.
>> thankou for talking about this very important topic. the executive director of rights4girls, that's rights, number 4 girls, yasmin vafa. >> thank you for having me. >> woodruff: the affordable care act-- often referred to as obamacare-- has faced a series of threats to its existence er since it became law nearly a decade ago. the latest challenge: a lawsuit filed by republican governors and attorneys general, and backed by president trump. the law was the subject of a crucial court heing today. john yang is here to fill us ina >> yang: judhree-judge panel of a federal appeals court in new orleans hofrd 90 minutes ral arguments today in this case, with enormous stakes for millions of americans. >> yang: congress set the stage for this challenge in the tax bill that president trump signed
to law in 2017. the measure eliminated the penalty on americans who failed to maintain health insurance. the republican governors and attorneys general argue that since the supreme court upheld the health care law as a valid exercise of congress's taxing authority, taking the tax away makes all of the law unconstitutional. late last year, a federal distct judge in texas agreed at first, the trump administration said some of the law should remain. but in march, the justic department reversed course. since the administration is not defending the law, democratic attorneys general and members of th house are leading the appeal. since its passage, the healthcare law has ingrained itself deeply into the u.s. health care system. more than 20 million more americans are now coved by its provisions. it has hundreds of other provisions that have directly and indirectly changed healthcare, including protections for people with
pre-existing medical conditions, and allowing children to be hecovered by their parentsth plans up to age 26. the suit could send the matter back to the supreme court for the third time, in the middle of the 2020 campaign. today, senator patty murray of washington state signaled that democrats would make it an issue. >> people are watching this very o osely. they are not goingrget who stood up to defend their healthcare, and who ought a partisan lawsuit to throw it out the window. >> yang: down, senate majority leader mitch mcconnell said lawmakers would t quickly to preserve one of its most popular provisions.or >> the int thing for the public to know is, nobody in the senate is not in favor ofxi covering preing conditions. and, if that were under any these scenarios to go away, we would act quickly n a bipartisan basis to restore it. >> yang: the judges gave no
indication of when they would rule in the case. sam baker, the health care editor at axios, was in the courtroom this afternoon and joins us now. sam, you also cover the supreme court. you're used to hearine arguments, like today. i want to play a little bit of that. the issue of whether the entire bill falls, the entire law fals because one provision falls is something called servability. and judge kirk englehart who is nominated by pesident trump pressed the democratic lawyer on hcongressional intent on point. let's take a listen. >> couldn't convgress hae said, oh by the way, we think all of these provisions are such excellent ideas and helpful to the public that if any of them goy the wayside well then we would want all of these, the remainder to continue to apply. >> buret the s court had said that congress is silent on this point is juset that, sile and doesn't create a presumption against sevability. t.am, help us understand tha
what do you make of that he can change? >> it really gets right to the core of what's going on here. so these arguments day sort of almost assumed that the individual mandate is probably now unconstitutional. the court hasn't actually itcided that ans decision wouldn't be final, but you knowh big question that they sort of have to debate is all rig say if the individual mandate goes away, how much else goes away. >> sorry, go ahead. >> there was a time when the trump administration was saytag well juse out the mandate and then also protections for people with preexisting conditions. now they change that and say you have to vick down the whole law and that's as you said raising all these questions about other largely unrelated provisions. >> the individual mandate if it goes away they re's rea enforcement mechanism now that that penalty's been taken awa so would there be much of an
effect if only the individual mandate falls? no, there wouldn't. and i i think if that's what happens, democrats will probably breathe a sigh of relief and call that a win and live to fight another day. >> talk abouiothe queng from the judges about the other provisions of the law, about the other parts and whether they would fall away as well. yeah. this really, you know, we're all sort of used to when the affordable care act was first hessed and when it went to supreme court the first time we heard so much about how the upividual mandate is wrapp with the protections for people with preexisting conditionsnd it's all sort of intertwined and you can't kick one le out from under the stool, it didn't turn out in practice to be quite as potent as people thought it would be. congress hasone ahead and repealed one part of that but there's a thinking sort of alng the liances look you told us this one thing couldn't go away
if we're going to strike that down other seems like we have to vick down at least some more here. the first things to go would probably be thbiggest and mostr. popu that's protections for preexisting conditions. there were a lot of questions today about menu labeling. that's part of the affreordable ct that maybe people don't know about that's why fast food restaurants have to have calorie labels on their men ibecause a obamacare. pull are saying to we have to stloa that away becauset individual mandate. maybe yes maybe no but those are kind of questions they have to swer or figure out a new process to get an answer to. >> it really does point out how pervasive or how the affordable care act has affected dir and indirectly so much of the althcare system. >> yeah, that's exactly right. i mean, here you'd be getting rid of the private insurance coverage that the lot enables
people to buy. the medicaid expansion. the changes we're all used to because they cover tens of millions ofe pople. the affordable care act also created a pathway for the fda to start approving a new class of drugs and they've been using it becausthere are drugs on the market that were approved that way. if that approval pathway goes away, you know, drug companies are already start of starting use it and to create that class of drugs, they have to stop. menu labeling is one thing. there are a lot of changes the law made to medicare, new authorities they gave to any administration on medicare. but even the trump administration is making you know, pretty substantial use, trying t make that program more efficient. and it changed some criminal atutes in terms of medicare fraud. there were questions tyoday abot ca still prosecute people for medicare fraud because that was technically this or that stathe was ended by affordable care act.
it's really, especially after l this time as y said it sort of seeped in everywhere. >> we'll have to wait to see what the decision will be later this year, perhaps later this sam baker the healthcare editor of axios. thank you very much. >> my pleasure. >> woodruff: stay with us. coming up on the newshour: "t green rush." new series on the flourishing business of legal marijuana. jim lehrer, on the life and legacy of ross perot. plus, a view of the past. how greeces grappling with building around prized ancient sites. after two serious earthquakes rocked southern california,ti qus are raised anew about the extent to which residents and governments are prepared for an even bigger quake. seismologists and publicof cials have warned repeatedly
for years about "the big one"-- shorthand for a major earthquake along a different crack in the earth: the san andreas fault. scientists say last week's quakes, and the aftershocks since, don't make ruptures along the san andreas any more or less likely.bu this is a good time to revisit the larger concerns and what people need to know. jacob margolis has laid this out extensively in a podcast called "the big one: your survival rtide." he is a science re with kpcc, southern california public radio. jacob margolis, thank you very much for being with us. so when we talk th the big one, am i right that we're not talking about if, we're heg talkout when. >> yeah, it is when. a 7.8 magnitude eathquake on the southern san andreas is one of the scenarios we could have in southern california. if that hits, it's going to be absolutely devastatin some of those buildings in the background you see there could
potentiay be at risk of collapse. there's risk that fires will break out throughout all the hills, that we'll have close to 2000 fatalities and that of course is just a scenario. they are jut estimates. possibilities of what could happen. but it's not going took good would have would hav.>> woodrufs bigger than people fear. >> i don't think people understand how bad it could possibly be and how bad the many different scenari i feel that way because even though i grew up in s angeles, my wife grew up in los angeles and we both lived through the 1994 earthquake, even we weren't ready before i did the podcast. i think that's te case for a lot of caloifornians and suthern californians, they just don't have supplies, they don't haveen any conti plans. if say they are separated from their families across the city how do they get back together. i don't think a lot of people know. >> woodruff: we hear you saying that. what are the kinds of things
people should be doing if they're paying atteion to all this. >> yes. the basics are one gallon of water per person per day you should have extra food. you need to make are sure you have extra medicine if iteeds to be refrigerated. you should have all your documents printed out that pre you own your home or you rent your place. you should have any sort of surance documents and then kind of cascading down from there it's always good to have your will ready. it's really dark but it's true. you should have contingey plan with family, friends, neighbors, anybody that lives nearby, in case no one hears from you or in case you can't stay in your place you could go elsewhere. in addition to that, you should travel away from your locationd if you ne though staying in place is preferred. it's always good to have sme sort of kit for the car as well which is something i have becauspoobviously we and we head out into the field and we need to live out of our cars for a few days possibly. >> woodruff: for example what does one need in a you are kar. >> i ha extra water, jacket, i
have a safety vest, all sorts of little knickn many acks and the extra water and food. iton't be plush but it will work. >> woodruff: is this kind of information jacob mars is it ease yes available to people. >> the government has actually done a pretty good job, fema has done a pretty good job. cal os. there's something happening all the time but people aren'tve always recepo it and people shut off when presented with these very scary issues. i think there's thiird place of where you have to convince people this is going to happen,p they need to e but he they also need to then, it's not as simple as scaring them. you need them to really digest that information. what we saw after thinks major earthquakes in reg crest a lot of people reaching out saying
i'm going to listen to your mud cast i'm going to put togeer an earthquake kit i'm going to get ready. >>oodruff: how about advice. we're he talking to people in californians, residents but people who have family thre, people who travel in and out of california all the time. simple advice what to do when an earthquake comes. >> ye. don't run into a doorway. get der a desk, duck cover a hold on. i stayed in my bed when the earthquake hit. my kid was crying in the other room and he was in his crib and i knew his bedroom was set up in a way i knew he was going to be okay. really make sure you can hunker eren in place no matter you are. if you're out and around it's difficult buif you find a park stnch to duck under, you ju want to stop anything from falling down on you. >> jacob matholis one moring
that government could be doing, all of us in the media should be doing s try to get third out. >> so what the government as well as news agencies and anyone else that wants to convey this informion needs to do, one we need to be very careful with our facts because obviously there's a lot of sinformation out there. and two, i think that we need tw show people can't just tell people this is going to happen. in our podcast we really dive through all the little individual things that are going to happen. say you're out on the street and you're injured, a fire truck's probably not going to stop fo you. why? we go into that. we expling likes that, should you stay or shoulyou go. it puts people in a situation in their minds where they can imagine themselves there and they then want to make sure, hopefully they want to make sure ey won't be in that situation and they'll be okay in the end of itll. >> woodruff: jacob margolis, you've done a lot of reporting on this and it's all valuable especially right now when people are thinking about it. the podcast is called the big
one yousurvival guide jacob margaret list with kpcc in southern california. thank you. >> thank you. >> woodruff: there has been a big shift in the attitudes toward marijuana use in many places around the country increasingly, new state laws are following voter attitudes. we are still in the latest wave of legalization of cannabis-- one that's not finhed yet. and, we are going to spend some time this week looking at the many different ways it is affecting individual communities, businesses and ate governments. our series is called "the green rush," and william brangham begins wh this broader look. ( cheers and applause ) >> brangham: illinois is now le 11th state, along with washington, d.c., alize recreational marijuana in the u.s. with overwheing and bipartisan support, the state legislature
passed a bill that allows for a regulated, recreational market starting next year. illinois is just the latest state to join the legalization wave that's been sweeping across the country. colorado and washington were first, back in 2012. now, nearly 30% of the country live in states where recreational pot is legal. perhaps it's not a coincidence that public support for legalization h soared to record levels. a 2018 gallup poll found 66% of americans support it. that's up more than 20% from a decade ago, and more than 50% since 1969. >> there's really two dominant forces affecting public opinion onaround cannabis legaliza >> brangham: john hudak is a senior fellow at the brookings stitution, and author of" marijuana: a short history." states and realizing the skyll isn't g. the doomsday predictions of opponents are not really coming true.
the other force is generatiol replacemen the people who oppose cannabis reform are the oldest people in our society and, omecourse, over they're dying out. they're leaving the electorate. >> brangham: at the same time, the nancial windfalls have been significant. legal marijuana sales in 2018 are estimated between $8 and $10 billion, nationally. analystsredict that could reach $30 billion in five yearso that's generatr $1 billion in tax revenue last year, though in places like california, revenuesell well short of expectations. and by and large, the new money makes up only a fraction of states' general funds. but the retail market is booming: in colorado, there are more than 1,000 medical and recreational stores. that's more than mcdonalds and starbucks combined. buying pot in these places is irly straightforward. you have to be 21 years and older. visitors/customers must show i.d., sign in, and are recorded by cameras.er custare served by licensed staff who help them make choicef among the manyrent types
of smokable marijuana. or, if they prefer, there's a dizzying array of t.h.c.-infused chocolates, candies, sodas, even creams to soothe aching muscles. in the end, it's not that erent from buying a bott of wine at your local liquor store. yet, amid this boom, there aresi still gnificant questions. marijuana laws and regulations vary state by state. because marijuana is sti illegal at the federal level, many problems remain. national banks, for instance, e wary of handling this business, so many pot business still operate as cash-only. the marijuana grown and sold today is far more potent-- and now, far more available-- than it used to be. and at's raised some public health concerns. researchers warn of a rise in what's called "marijuana use disorder," where chronic use of the drug often negatively impacts a user's life. some states have also seen an increase in cases of driving under the influence of marijuana. marijuana-related hospital
visits are also up, though most cases involve someone smoking or eating too much, which resolves pretty quickly. in some states that legalized, the number of underage users went up, but in others, it didn't. >> what we know is that the legalization of cannabis canve hese public health and public safety impacts, but it n do-- it is not clear that cannabis does cause these effects. and so the best bet that states have is to recognizethese effects are possible, and to tr to combat themvance before they become a reality. >> brangham: legalization was sold, in part, as a way to put i dethe drug trade, but in many states, the police say thet black maor marijuana has increased since legalization. another selling pot of legalization was, let's stop locking so many young peatle up for wh usually a minor, non-violent crime. between 2001 and 2010, before
the legalization tide began, roughly 8.2 million marijuana arrests were made, nearly 90% of them for simple possession. in states that havlegalized, arrests have gone down dramatically, but racial disparities do remn. marijuana legalization is a complicated social and politic experiment the country is running, and it's all happening very quickly. riwe're kicking off a new next week called "the green rush." we'll explore issues including weed's increased potency and potential effects on the brain, racial equity in the industry and in policing, and the pressures from big business and regulation. for the pbs newshour, i'm william brangham. ia woodruff: now, the legacy of two-time presidecandidate ross perot, who passed away of leukemia today at his home in
dallas. we begin with a look back at thi anti-estment, self-made texas billionaire. >> we wanto close on our theme song. let's hit it, ed. ♪ we're crazy... >> woodruff: an early disrupter, ross perot was a tech entrepreneur turned self-me billionaire turned the most successful third-party candidate in modern american political history. born inta poor family in depression-era texas, perot went on to serve in the navy before gething a job as a salesman ibm. the scrappy businessman eventually sold his first company, electronic data systems, to general motors for $2.5 billion. >> woodruff: but perot is best known for his insurgen third-
party candidacy in the 1992 presidential election against president george h.w. bush and democratic challengerll linton. >> i was not put on the ballot by either of the two parties. this i from the people.came >> woodruff: mixing brashness with charm, the political outsider pitched himses a fighter for everyday americans. >> the party is over. it's time for the clean-up crew. >> woodruff: and, he lambasted lawmakers in washington as out, of touramount being president bush. >> i'd say it's experience at this level. >> you're right. i don't have a experience in knning up a $4 trillion debt. >> woodruff: pert up his attacks, nearly squarely on mr. bush, in the '92 presidential debates, moderated in y the newshour's jim lehrer. >> free and fair tradee answer, not protection. >> woodruff: while president bush pushed free trade deals like nafta, perot pushed back.e >>ve got to stop sending
jobs overseas. there will be a giant sucking sound going south. so, if the people send me to washington, the first thing i'll do is study that 2,000-page agreement and make s's a two-way street. >> since we're dealing with voodoo economics, a great young lady from louisiana sent in this great voodoo stick. >> woodruff: perot's non-traditional campaign included 30-minute tv infomercials on issues like the national deficit, complete with memade charts. the programs drew 16.5 million viewers. just this year, we ran up $341 billion in new debt. as we discussed the other night, that's our legislators and ourpr ident trying to buy our vote this year with what used to be our money. we're not that dumb. >> woodruff: in the end, 19.7 million americans voted for perot in the 1992 election. republicans forever blamed him
for clinton's win, saying he siphoned votes from bush. perot went on to run in the 1996 presidential election, before dropping out. a philanthropist in his later years, perot is survived by his wife, margot, five children, and 16 grandchildren. ross perot was the best- performing third-party presidential candidate since teddy roosevelt in 1912. some persptive now on his life and legacy, from a man who knew perot for decades, moderated two bates, andsidential is a very familiar face to our viewers. i am pleased to welcome back newshour co-founder, jim lehrer. welcome back to this program. >> thank you judy, thank you. >> woodruff: joe ei knw ross perot after he became famous. he was running for president, successful businessmayou knew him long before that. how did you get to know him. >> i met him in dallas. he was a computer guy whao d
had an idea about the way to computerize federal medical systems and he created this incredible dmpany. he millions and millions of eollars. because he had a naval officer and i had been a marine officer at the same time, tre were an overlap. most of the people who went to work for him were former marinea anvy officers. i met him that way. and somebody said you ought to get to know ross perot, you'rin to hear about him a lot in the future. r made an appointment, went ove to see him and him and i hit it off. there was already a bond theatr, ilitary thing that is always there. but at any rate, i stayed with him until i left to come to he had already shown when he had millions and millions of dollars, he want to use it to help other people.l he hadready shown that he was a guy who was not taken withe himself, he is taken with his ideas but he was not the standard kind of show boat texas
minute air kind of guy, he was a guy who had millions of dollars d wanted to use it for good things. >> what was he like as a person. >> he was funny, he was straight, he was authentic. he ross perot that you sit around a table anlk to, was the same guy who was in a debate stage many years later as a candidate for president of thete united s he always, always felt, he always seemed to feel comfortable with himself. he was not an ideal log. he didn't wake upg. say i'm a conservative or liberal, no. he woke up every day and said rm ross perot and heis what i believe. it was a foundation andor motivationverything he did in public life, politics and everythi >> woodruff: were you surprised when he said he was going to run for president, weha an idea to get the government spending down, tackle the deficit. >> i thought abat today
and that very request, because i remember -- that very question, because i remember now and i hope i'm not basing on this what i hope were my feelings were then, but i thought that makes sense fothis guy. in other words my feelings about him were all positive. we were frien, not personal friends, professional friends and i thought i admired h because i like what he had done, he supported the military du the evaluate non-war. he wasn't in favor of the war necessarily, he didn't have a political position on it t he supported the people who fought in the war and he took care of pow families and that sort of stuff. en he announce are for president, yes, yes, yes, ross perot rurenning for sident. of course we did a lot of interviews with him on the wshour and i saw hum a lot during all that -- i saw him a loduring all that stuff and confirmed, made me a little bit proud to have known him. hey, yeah, yeah, i kept teling people, pay attention to this
guy he's not just going to com and go. >> woodruff: he did better as an independent candidate, d everybody knows how h run for president as an independent, he ended up getting 19 some million votes for president. but jim, you did moderate those two debates in 1992 with him, with then president george h.ws. nd bill clinton. tell us some memories of that. >> well the biggest memory was, the major debate i did was at michigan state university and it was a 90 minute debate, but the debate commission had negotiated with the candidates that the first 45 minutes, the first time to be a single moderator and it would be wide open in terms of rules and all that. it was such a big deal. so once the debate started, and then in the second 45, they wan to bring in the three panelists, wa do it the old fashion the way these debates used to be. but anyway things started and it
wasn't me, i asked the questions but george h.w. busbih andll clinton got into it on bill's record in arkansas they wen back and fourth and perot over here on the right didn't get to say anything. he kept looking at me an iew he was going to say something. this whole debate could right up into smoke. at any rate hei fnally said is the time ruled here tonight. >> yes. i or do you keep lunging in at will. thought we were going to have equal time. maybe i need to interrupt the is that the way this works. >> mr. perot, that's fine. whatever you want to say, just say it. >> i looked at him and he heard me and he hushed. he was terrific at the debate. if he had played games in that debate, it would have hurt him. from my point of view and i was looking at it from m nt of view but from the viewer's point of view it could have been an
disaster but it wasn't becauseoo he underwhat he needed to do. >> woodruff: you've told us hi much about his life. what do you thin legacy is? i mean we've talked about he's the mosl t successdependent candidate since teddy roosevelt. >> the reason he was successful is he has two things going for him that sound familiar in the current situation but they are not quite that familiar. he had ideas that were not driven by ideology. for instance, he was pr choice. he was for gun control as al, most military, real military people are who know about g but at the same time, he was very conservative about the military, about budgets and all at, welfare and all of that. so as i say, he made his own thing. but what he, and he was able to explain what he believed, and why he believed it. but he had that additional thing ws he he had resources.
he he made 68 mlion of his own money. there were no small donors, there were no donors, just ross perot and he spent huge amount of money for these things he did, these 30 minute infomercials he did. you could have all the ross perot positives but whout the resources it's not going to work. that's the legacy, the twoha thingshe had going for him and anybody wants to write the lessons for the futur that's it. >> woodruff: scrappy. that's the word i can think of. jim lehrer, ank you very much for coming back to talk about ross perot. >> thank you, judy , >> woodruff: nw a view of the past is stirring up a modern legal showdown. conservationists around europe are awaiting a verdictrom
greece's supreme court, which will determine whether athenians have the right to clearly see the acropolis-- the citadel fron angreek times. the case is likely to set a precedent about the skylinesf around alle country's ancient monuments, and may outlaw the construction of engh-rise buildings. special correspomalcolm brabant reports for our art and culture series, "canvas." >> reporter: before the sun fully rises and reveals modern athens, it's possible to feast on a panora the ancients would have recognized. 2,500 years ago, they built the parthenon temple in honor of athena, the goddess of wisdom and war. and with it, the foundations of western civilization. th connection to a gloriou past is seared into the greek national psyche. >> wn i see acropolis, i fee richer. this is the easure of my life. >> reporter: this room with a view belongs to architect irini frezadou. >> it's a part of my identity as
a greek. many years ago, i chose to liv here, so i identify myself with this great world heritage monument. so i have to see it. i have to feel its energy. i feel i feel that it's very important fo see and to identify yours from all over around. >> reporter: frezadou had been in danger of losing the spectacular view.a rge hotel was slated for the plot next to her apartment block. but, the building permit was withdrawn for early may, after the government acknowledged it would jeopardize the skyline around the acropolis.re >> greece, ourure is environment and culture. .and you cannot divide thha yo to look at them and to plan responsible to out environment and our great culture.
>> reporter: fazadu just has to go to another part of her rooftop terrace to see another ten-story building. two floors higher than mt of the blocks near the acropolis. this is another angle, from the apartment of maria simitopoulou. she usedo lie in bed and go to sleep with a clear view of the parthenon-- bunot anymore. >> ( translated ): for me, it's an ancient building that all the foreigners come to admire. in any case, if the view was unblocked, it would be good for all the people. it's not a nice thing to do, to destroy what we have. greece lives off this. tourists come, and go straight there. >> reporter: this is the latest hotel in the portfolio of a greek company called coco-mat. the management team didn't take kindly to me filming the construction. >> no, no you n't do it. i can call the police. >> reporter: but the confrontation came to the
attention of the hotel's owner, paul efmorfidis, andagreed to talk to us.ou by chance, oway to the interview, we caught up to him as he cycled through heavy athenian traffic on one of his trademark wooden bicycles. t >>t's it, man, haha. i'm going to be on time, man. what is the appointment? at 3:00, no? they tk a picture like i took a picture, like i took a piure. now, i cannot see what is behind here. this is fake. and by the way, we produced, we created, we const something, according to the greek law. the most modern eco-building now in athens. the only hotel buildin yin the last trs. you people don't build? because they a afraid of this people that they pretend to protect the environment. they don't. >> reporter: conservion groups across europe are closely monitoring this case. it's qui clear that the owner of this hotel is determined to press ahead with his very expensive project.
and so, this case is now in greece's highest court-- thete counsel of s the judges are expected to make a ruling sometime this autumn, and it's expected also that it can set a precedent for antiquities across greece. after ten years of financial crisis and austerity, one of the bright spots of the greek economy is the tourist industry and in attraction of all is the acropolis. on this particular morning, the monument was seething with visitors.ar greece's popy has icreased, at the expense of other mediterranean countries like egypt, tunisia and turkey, whose tourist revenues have been hit by a combination of terrorism and authoritarianism. between 2014 and 2018, the number of visitors to greece rose by 50%, from 22 million to 33 million. >> you need all kinds of hotels. you need boutique hotels. you need small hotels. you need big hots. you need everything. >> reporter: the greekas governmentesperate for
more income to overcome the financial crisis, and introduced new construction laws which allowed bigger and taller buildings, as long as they conformed to environmentally- friendly standards. the coco-mat group is renowned for its green credentials. this hotel is also a showcase for the wooden bicycles which the company owner paul efmorfidis insists are at the heart of his philosophy. >> the wood, a tree, dies. and we don't honor them. we burn them in greece. we burn them. i don't, because i believe thats they can, they can listen, they can feel. i take them around the world. >> reporter: the challenge to efmorfidis is being orchestrated from plaka, the neo-classical district beneath the acropolis,o and is in athens' concrete sprawl. t it's base of lydia carras, head of the greek society for the protection of the environment and cultur heritage. >> the truth is, the law allowed them to go high, but it just,
certain times, the law allows you things which the public feeling doesn't want. and there's such a strong publis feeling about that you're surprised how this company did it. >> reporter:he hotel is right next to the acropolis museum in the heart of a low-rise district where most of the cotry's leading archeologist. coco-mat says the archeologists didn't object-- but lawyer andreas papapetropoulos did. he outlines the type of victory he hopes to achieve at the supreme cour >> ( translated ): we are not crazy; we're not saying they should knock down a hotel that has just been built, but to remove the two top floors and bring it to the appropriate height. that's what we're asking. so, it's not at all a lost case. >> most people have the feeling, okay, it's the greek identity, but it's not just greek. we are here to look after it. it belongs to humanity. >> reporter: over the ne
15 years, part of the temple will be reconstructed using original marble, so the view will be slightly, ifferet still spectacular. that is, if a modern building is not in the way. for the pbs newshour, i'm malcolm brabant in athens. >> woodruff: on the newshour online right now, the u.s. will celebrate the world cup champioe s soccer team with a parade in new york tomorrow. will the latest victory make a difference in their fight for equal pay?we that's on ouite, www.pbs.org/newshour. and that is the newshour for tonight. i'm judy woodruff.ne join us onand again here tomorrow evening. for all of us at the pbs newshour, thank you,nd we'll see you soon. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: >> babbel.
a language app that teacheser real-life convtions in a new language, like spanish, french, german, italian, and more. >> consumer cellular. >> financial services firm raymond james. >> t ford foundation. working with visionaries on the frontlines of social change worldwide.gi >> carcorporation of new york. supporting innovations in education, democratic engagement, and the advancent international peace and security. at carnegie.org. >> and with the ongoinsupport of these institutions and individuals. >> this program was made possible by the corporation for
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