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tv   PBS News Hour  PBS  October 15, 2019 3:00pm-4:01pm PDT

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captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc >> woodruff: good evening. i'm judy woodruff. bolton, back in the spotlight. revelations that the oustedti al security advisor raised alarms about rudy giuliani andin the ukaffair add fuel to the impeachment inquir a then, the cithe center of the fight. a look at the criticale of manbij, syria, the former islamic state stronghold,at now caught in the middlef the turkish incursion. plus, rethinking college. as the cost of a degree goes up, housing prices go up right along with it, and students feel the pinch, struggling to afford it at all. >> we estimate thatim apprely one in two undergraduates is finding their housing to be unaffordable. i mean, the most typical thingr that we'll heais a student who
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says "i'm going to have trouble paying my rent this month."s >> woodruff: all that and more, on tonight's pbs newshour. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: ♪ ♪ >> when it comes to wireless, consumer cellular gives itser custome choice. our no-contract plans give you as much, or as little, tal text and data as you want,nd our u.s.-based customer service team is on hand to help. to learn more, go to consumercellular.tv >> bnsf railway. >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions: >> this program way made possiblee corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you.
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>> woodruff: the inquiry into whether to impeach president trump is ramping up, now thats congressck in session. despite the white house trying to block the process, depositions from long-time diplomats are shedding new light on the trump administration's approach to ukraine. for the latest, i'm joined by our own lisa desjardins. lisa, you've been reporting, talking to people all day long. what are we le wning today? ll, we may have some developments any minute in terms of how the nuse proceeds. house speer nancy pelosi as we speak is holding a meeting with her democrats who just returned from two weeks of recess, and she is also holding shortly aftethis a news coference with reporters, where i'm told she will mldke an announcement. the sculation is that this is not only about impeachment but about a possible full use vote. nancy pelosi has indicated she's considered a full house vote to within minutes ink we'll learn whether she's going to go
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ahead with that. theris a lot ofeculation that she will, but that's speculation, so we'll see. this oa day when we had plenty of other activity, as well. we had nw testimony today, a behind-closed-doors deposition in from another state department official. george kent is essentially the erasian or ukraine-russia expert. he spoke today. s testimony is still ongoing as i understand it. ayso todudy giuliani responded to a subpoena from the house for documents from him. he's obviously aentral figure now. let's look at what he said in this letter. rs agot came out a few ho to the house that wants documents from him. he wrote defiantly, he said, "this appears to be an unconstitutional, baseless, and illegitimate impeachment inquiry." he's rejecting their reqnguest.n it a request. it's a subpoena. he's a former prosecutor himself. he knows the power of subpoenas. here he is rejecting it, perhaps inviting a contempt move against
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him. >> woodruff: so there was a former white house aide, fiona hill, an expert on russia, worked in the national security council, she testified yesterday before theommittee, reverberations today about what she had to say. >> quite a lot. fiona hill is in the inner core of the white house and national security council. here's what she tstified. she said she was increasingly concerned about julian castro and -- gia-nnulli - julianna and what some w. she told john bolton and also a white house lawyer.ol atton's urging. he said that bolton sawi giuli himself as essentially a grenade that could explode in any so she basically said she wasm. raising questions about what giuliani was doing whe president, and we understand that today's testimony by many mrkent also reinforced tha as well. >> woodruff: lisa, we know, ankly, it's hard to keeack because there are so many pieces
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of this happening, but what elsp are we eecting to see this week? >> well, we have more deadlin for docr uments. we're waiting to hear from the pentagon tonight. we're also waiting to hear from the office of managemenand budget. e just heard from the vice president, mike pence, who was subpoenaed for documents. he has said he ees not fel he needs to respond. he does not see this as an official impeachment inquiry. we also ve more deositions coming, judy. let's look at some of these spaces. ore we're going to seee long-time diplomats. there you see michael he's actually a formerred advisr to secretary pompeo. there youe se gordon sondland, sd also laura cooper. she's a assistaretary of defense. let's highlight mr. sondland, there because it was his text that we malode -- wed at so closely a few weeks ago about the president wanting deliverables when it came to ukraine. so his testimony is particularly something to focus on. >> woodruff: er -- i know its hard th this going o but
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where does this impeachmentwa business standing to hear from speaker pelosi? >> deep breaths, here's what welee got. a possouse vote, a full house vote on an inquiry. we're waiting minute to minute to learn aout that. second after that, giuliani concerns are rising in all corners. then third, judy, acually we've seen both parties launching tv ads. i want to look at them, because they're targeting particularly vulnerable members. we'll start with this ad from this is a group that is launching ads, a g'loupl get to it in a second, launching ads agalinst vnerable democrats. there is deluge of ads against some republicans. you will see in a second. is is a conservative adt agaiby finnkenauer. next this ad i as targeting an republican, senator joni ernst in iowa asot being tough enough on the president. we're seeing this. what theells me ish parties think there are a lot of
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persuadable amernkans. they tmericans have not made up their minds yet and that want to get out there and do it for them. understand it.ou can there's a lot at stake. lisa desjardins, we'll bepo waiting to r on what we hear from speaker pelosi. >> woodruff: in the day's othene , turkey shod no sign of stopping its widening war inas nortsyria despite new sanctions announced by the u.s. more turkish military vehicles deployed toward syria during the day, and after nightfall, turkish rockets pounded kurdish forcet around ras al-ain. meanwhile, france and others warned that the u.s. withdrawal in northeast syria, and the turkish offensive, will lead to chaos. >> ( translated ): each day, each hour that passes, we can see the devastating consequences
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of these decisions, of these two decisions. this is devastating for the syrian democratic forces. this is devastating for civilian populations, who packed the roads to fleththe fighting. is devastating for our security, as iave said, with the inevitable resurgence of islamic state in northeastern syria, and probably also inir northwes. >> woodruff: also today, russia extended its influence in the region, sending troops with syrian units who took the town of manbij. we will take a closer look at the situation there, after the news summary. in spain, violence erupted for a seftnd night in catalonia, a nine separatist leaders were convicted of sedition. riot police charged hundreds protesters in barcelona, swinging batons and even tackling people to tbreak up the crowd. all of this came after more than 170 people were hurt in last night's clashes. back in this country, new information emerged on the tal shooting of a black woman by a white policeman in fortwo h, texas. it came from atatianas jeffersoght-year-old nephew, quoted in an arrest warrant.rd
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he said they hoises outside, and jefferson pointed her gun at the window-- an instant before she was shot. but police chief ed kraus said today, that changes nothing. >> the gun was found just inside the room, but it makes sense she would have gun if she felt that she was threatened, or there was someone in the backyard. there's absolutely no excuse for this incident, and the personre onsible will be held accountable. >> woodruff: the officer, aaron uran, resigned yesterday, and was charged withr. we will turn to this story, later in the program. actress felicity huffman reported to federal prison in californ today, in the wake of a college admissions scam. she will serve a two-week sentence at a low-security facility outside san francisco. huffman pleaded guilty to paying il fix her daughter's s.a.t. score. in economic news, china warned that a tentative tral with the u.s. could still collapse. e english-language "chin
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trump might cancel the deal. last friday, the president suspended a tariff hike, and lisaid china would buy $50on worth of.s. rm products. on wall street, strong earnings reports boosted stocks. the dow jones industrial avege gained 237 pnts to close at 27,024. the nasdaq rose 100 points, and the s&p 500 added 29. and, two passings of note. the first person to walk in space, former russian aut alexei leonov, was laid to rest ouide moscow today. his feat came in march 1965, three mohs before the first american space walk. today, hundredof people turned out for the funeral. they included former astronaut thomas staord, who joined leonov on the first u.s.-soviet space mission,n 1975. and, author and literary critic
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harold bloom died monday in newe connecticut. the long-time yale professor was renowned for defending western culture and literature against modeea trends. his hrough work, "the anxiety of influen," dealt with how artists deal with inspiration, and became a catch-phrase. harold bloom was 89 years old. still to come on the newshour: tyhow the northern syrian f manbij is a microcosm of the larger fight an officer in texas is charged with murder, and a national debate over police violence is renewed. what to watch, as the 2020 democratic hopefuls take to the stage in tonight's debate.an much more. >> woodruff: turkey's president recep tayyip erdogan said today
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that he would not agree to president trump's request to declare a ceasefire in northern syria. the political map of that areal has been redrawn since the u.s. military began withdrawing in the last few days. nick schifrin examines how one city, manjib, represents howof nd the consequences of that decision could be. >> schifrin: the story of manbiy is the sf the syrian civil war, and a city that achieved hard-fought stability is becoming syria's most contested battleground. in 2012, manbij residents joined nation-wide protests.ug they rode h the city'sll streets and ed for the bashar al-assad.ian president in 2014, those rebels lost the city to isis. an englishpeaking isis fighter filmed celebrations downtown. >>ou can see it's beautifu all the brothers are here, we are celebrating, alhamdiullah.io ( explos ) >> schifrin: in 2016, the u.s. fought back. e
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american andopean air strikes targeted isis fighters, and u.s.-backed, majority kurdish forces provided the ground strength. the fight was difficult, andie many kurds months later, the city was liberated, but decimated. is' paint hadn't even dried, but the manbej military council met in this small room to plot the city's recovery. slowly, life returned, assisted by u.s. troops who arrived in 2018 as part of a strategy to stabilize cities to prevent isis' return. the top u.s. general in the revitalized market, without body armor. u.s. troops conductepatrols with kurdish partners to try and maintain that stability. by this past january, major general jamie jarrard proudly received a kurdish flag and hugged kurdse called his partners. >> our presence here has enabled this area here to be stable.be >> schifrin: the u.s. military also established joint patro with turkey. but, in the last week, those patrols ended. overnight, the u.s. started to
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withdraw, and the free-for-all began.or from theth, the turkish military is advancing towardnd manbijows to seize control. their offensive has already wounded and killed civilians. fred the south, syrian tv sh syrian troops entering manbij for the first time in seven years. and in the middle, those areid russian troops who todayre announced th keeping the peace. on fac journalist showed off a u.s. base, completely abandoned. manbij's future is unc, but what is clear? it won't be corolled by thes. r its partners. >> woodruff: the fatal shootingb of a black woma white police officer in fort worth, texas has left anger in that community. and, as amna nawaz lays out, it questions on a larger scale about police training, race andr
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the use of. >> nawaz: judy, this shooting came less than two weeks after a former police officer in dallas was convicted of murder for fatally shooting a man in his home. in this case, atatiana jefferson was playing video games on saturday with her eight-year-old nephew when a neighbor saw her front door ajar and called the non-emergency police line toy express concern. body camera footage shows officer aaron dean and hisne partr circling around the home, walking through a gate j intoefferson's backyard, before stopping at a window. dean shouts, "put your hands upi and immediatels his gun. jefferson's nephew, who was in that room, says his aunt pointed r gun at the window after hearing noises outside. joining me now is seth stoughton, an associate professor of law at the nauniversity of south caro he is also a former police officer who served in tallahassee, florida. seth stoughton, welcome to the news hour. i want to ask you about what we kn about the exact circumstances in this case.t
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the erim police chief, ed kraus, said earlier nobody looked at that video and said there was any dou this ficer acted inappropriately. you have seen that body camera foote. what to you says his actions were inappropriate? >> the thing to focus on hre is the officer's approach as he walked up to t window, the actions proceeding the shooting. what officers do leading up to a use of force can make a use of force either more or les likely. in this case, the officer's failure to identify the himself, the officer's failure to attempt to contact anyonin the house led to a pretty tragic and horrifying result.wh >> nawazt other questions do you have right now, based on what we've seen, what do you dhi we still don't know that you'd like to know? >> there are loof things we don't have right now. we don't have statement from the officer. my understanding is at this point he's not cooperated with the investigation. i haven't seen a statement from
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the partner. understand there has now been an affidavit filed as part of the indictment from the i would like to see information that may not have been included in that affidavit, information about training and policy ofe th agency. the goal here should be twofold, one of which is to pursue legal action against te individual officer to hold him accountable, another of which is toee if we can improve with the agency and other officers are doing to make this less likely to happen again the future. >> nawaz: you mention that training. i want to ask you about that now, because aaron dean, the officer in this case joined thep force inil 2018. he graduated from the police academy. he underwent some kind training. there based on your experience and what you know what, would that have entailed.he how woulave been trained to assess risks and threats? >> there's lot ofariation in police training. there are more than 600 different academies in the country. training experience. particular
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generally, though, what i want to see is officers getting a robust expure to tactics. tactics are the procedures and techniques that officers use to mitigate risk and threat, to safesure that they are as as the situation allows them to be, and because the officer iss as safe hey can be, they don't have to use force against the individual within their interaction. there is too much of an emphasil ine training on the risks that officers face and thee severity of those risks. and to be very clear, there are risks in policing, and we shouldn't undmaeres those risks, but we also shouldn't exaggerate those risks. the ectics andquip and training thniat officers get now ke policing today significantly safer than policing was 15 or 30 or 50 years ago. unfortunately, a lot of police training emphasizes to officers that they ne to act without
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thinking. they need to act first. that any delay, any hesitation can be faal, that complacency can be fatal. that anyone they interact witha on any callpoe -- potentiallbe armed and willing to kill them. that sets up a really dangerous dynamic for officeys. as tapproach a situation, instead of reviewing the facts in front of th in a way that make sense in the context of that interaction, they're reviewing the facts in front of through the lens o fear andng risk and threat. it hurts commuty policing d it can contribute to avoidable azootings. >> ni want to ask you something about the bigger conversation we're having now that we seem t have again again based on something that family said earlier today in a press conference. take a listen to what he had to say. >> this is a moment where we get to have serious conrsations about systematic problems within
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policing, particularly as it concerns policing the african american community. >> nawaz: seth stoughton, you mentioned some of those training issues you would lio see addressed and here lee mernirick ment these systematic problems. we seem to have this conversation again and again every nme an african ameri is shot by a police officer. what needs to change? >> at some point we need the change from conversation to action. an we are. some agencies are moving in the right direction. having the conversation is important and necessary, but wee havehaving the conversation. it's now time to do something about it. we could see not just chnges to training or changes to agency culture, but also anges to state law, for example, changes to the way that officer are supervised or evaat. thinking beyond this just throwing more training dollars at officeris going to be a necessary part improving policing. >> nawaz: sethtoughton, a former police officer, now an
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associate professor of law at the university of south carolina. thank you very much. >> thank you .r having m >> woodruff: we return now to one of our main stories of the day: the escalating war in syria following president trump's decision to withdraw u.s. troops. nick schifrin is back with a lawmaker at the center of the ifsponse. >> sn: in congress, there is bipartisan anger at turkey for its campaign iatide syria, anresident trump for withdrawing u.s. forces. one of the lead authors ofn legislatat would sanctionan turkey is maryland democratic senator chs van hollen. he joins me now. senator, welcome to the newshour. we wated earlier today a video posted on facebook of a rusian journalist walking through an empty u.s. base. what ithe impact in your
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opinion of president trump's decision to withdraw troops from northeastern syria? >> well, nick, it's a devastatg impact, both in terms of turkey now attacking the syrian kurds who, of couhar been our main partner in the fight against isis, and now could well lead and will likely lead to a resurgence of isis. a lot more leverage in theussia region, as you just indicated. so this a disastrous decision. the congress will be calling upon president trump to reverse it, but calling upon him to reversit is not enough. in my view, we need these bipartisan sanctions if we're going to havany hope of influencing turkey's mishnduct inr attacks on the syrian kurds. >> schifrin: you mentioned bipartisan sanctions. they are cosponsored by republican ken graham. rhey would, among other things, sanction senior kish officials, restrict their visas, target turkey's e sector, prohibit u.s. military sales to tuey aneven require a report
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on the net worth of president thdogan. why are those stbest way to change turkey's behavior today in northern syria? >> well, they will also include sanctions against two turkish government-controlled banks including the hulk bank, which is in the news today, jusan indictment brought down against it. what we need to do is say to turkey, you're going to feel economic pain unless you styop aggression against thesi syrian kurds and pull back your forces and yor proxies. look, the reality is that by withdrawing our 100 special forces, president trump is essentially taken away a lot of the leverhe we had in te region, but sanctions is our next best opportunity to influence what's going to happen there in the days ahead tot protr syrian kurdish allies and the try to preventre thurgence of isis, which is gosh -- guaranteed if the syrian kurds have to spend all their
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time fighting turkey instead of fighting isis. >> schonrin: you men there are only about 100 u.s. special operatins forces i the area. president trump called that a policing effort. tion were on a stabili effort.he said we don't need tot kind of effort. he also announced thancturkey would be paying for their encouragemt to syria. vice president pence will be on his way to ankara soo why are those steps not enough? >> first of all, those 100 special forces were special forces embedded wih our syrian kurdish allies. they were what was stopping turkey for laurahing thi tack some when trump decided to withdraw those special force, he sentially green lighted turkey's action. with respected to sending pence and the announcement yesterday onis sanctions, s like a pea shooter. right? he announced someanctions on turkish seals. the reality is turkish seal
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exports to the united states represent about one-fourth of 1% of all of turkey's exports. so that's not a serious respse. and th president sill says he's gng to meet with president erdogan here ingt sh in november. i mean, what kind of signal does that send? so that's why it's important that congress act on a bipaisan basis. you've got a lot of momentum to stand up for our f syrian kurdih ally to, stand up against isis, and we're going these whatever tools are at our disposal. they are not perfect, but they're the best we've got right noi >> schifrin:tary officials i talk to acknowledge a level of anger among special operations forces inside ofra syria for witng and leaving kurdish partners, but they argued strategically that rkey is more important than kurdish partners.tn turk is nato ally si nce5. consequences of thapgions bill like the one you're advocating on an ally on turkey, whose cooperation is vital in so
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many areas? >> well, a couple poents, on, these sanctions would be lifted if turkey ends its aggression against our syrian kurdish allies in the fight against isis. so turkey has it within its power to relieve the sanctions that would take effect under this bill. second, under president erdogan, you have seen turkey really take positions inconsistent with nato priorities. for example, they just recently took delivery of theussian s-400 air defense system. the united states and nato said that that would put nato pilots risk, because we want to use the advanced f-35 fighter. turkey thumbed their nose at us. they took delivery of that wsystem. and have had to discontinue our partnership with the f-35 th turkey. that also is a trip wire for u.s. sanctions. so turkey under president erdogan has take an number of steps that undermine its role and responsibilities in nato,
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and we can't just sort of sy okay, turkey, whatever you want. a full partner in nato and ay be full partner in the fight against isis. and as you know, turkey allowed isis fighters to trait its territory many years ago. they looked the other way while isis grew in strength, and it was the syrian kurds who were our partners there, not the rks, and so killing our -- allowing turkey to kill ourfi partners in thht against isis also sends a message thate we're an unreliablpartner some the united states has to for its own national security hold turkey to account here. >> schrin: senator chris van hollen, democrat of maryland, thank you very much. >> thank you. >> woodruff: stay with us. coming up on the newshour: "high crimes and mdemeanors."
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getting to the heart of the elusive criteria for impeachment. as the cost of student housi soars, debt and homelessness follow closely behind.d. plus, author elizabeth strout on revisiting the character olive kitteridge in her new novel, "olive, again." we turn now to the democratic presidential race. 12 candidatewill takthe debate stage in westerville, ohio tonight. it comes after former vice president joe biden's son, hunter biden, spoke publicly for the first time about his role as a board member of a ukrainian s company during the time that his father was in office. president trump has spread unsubstantiated claims that thes bingaged in illegal dealings in ukraine, and sparke rrent impeachment inquiry by pressuring the country's leader to look into it. in an interview with abc news, the younger biden admitted "poor judgment" in taking theni position, but any wrongdoing.
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did i make a mistake? well, mae in-- in-- in the grand sche of things, yeah. but did i make a mistake based upon some ethical lapse? absolutely not. i made a mistake in-- in retrospect, as it related to-- creating any perception that that wasrong. >> woodruff: and yamiche alcindor is at the debate site in ohio, and she joins me now. yamich m hello. so hh do we expect this issue of joe biden and hunter biden to come up tonight? you've been talking to these campaigns. what are they saying? >> wellthis is fst democratic debate since nancy pelosi launched that formal impeachment inquiry. so ukraine is going to be a hot topic tonight. sources i'm talking on a number of campaigns have been preppinge for that ion, and they're also questioning hunter biden coming out the morning before this debate. joe biden campaign, say this is joe biden wanting to put this to bed, wanting to have hun er
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bit there to talk about his business dealings to get out ahead of this, but oher campaigns say, look, this is a problem because hunter biden does look as though he was profiting off of joe biden's name and that is problematic, especially as democrats are trying to make the se that president trump had children that were profiting off of hi na, but the biden campaign has been very clear. they say they did not arrange this interview and hunter biden wanted to come out aefend himself. but i think ukraine is going to be a big topic during tonight's debate. >> woodruff: yamiche, i also want to ask you about senator bernie sanders. as we know, hhad a heart attack a couple weeks ago. he has been off the cam pawn trail ever sinc tonight will be the first time he has come back since then.do whate know about how he's doing and about how the otherea campaigns haveed to all that? s ator bernie sanders is eager to tell people that he is become and stronger than ever. i spoke to a campan aide for him for a long time today. that person said bernie sandersl had a piercing moment of
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attack, and that person ld me he really wants to talk about fundamental part osuch a campaign. he sees medicare for all as an even more impngortant thihat all americans should have, because he says if other he did, they might have beene bankrupted. i did push the bernie sanders campaign and say, well, is he healthy enou to go on. frankly, is the democratic party possibly going to be in a badio situif he gets sick again if he wins the nomination andue has isduring the general election against president trump. they told me their response was anybody could t with anything, people can die in get in car crashes, all sorts of tragedies can happen. they say we want people not to live in fear and they should feel comfortable voting for and supporting bernie sanders. >> woodruff: meanwhile, yamiche, senator elizabeth warren, who ws already one of the leaders in this race, she's risen even more in her stus as a front-runner. what are the other cadidates,
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how are they responding to her pick-up in the polls? >> i should tell you, judy, elizabeth warren is very hapry but autious about the fact she's been seeing a rise in the her campaign tellthat she understands that there are going to be phases in this race, and even though she is rising now, that could change. senator rris campaign was really interesting take on this, because they say she saw a bump, senator harris saw a bump after first debate, but they saw that as a sugar high.so ther campaigns are startin to look at elizabeth warren and trying to prepare the make contrasts. they want to talk about her healthcaretances. so we should really expect people to be possibly criticizing elizabeth warren in a different way because she is now sean as merging front-runner here. y woodruff: finally, yamiche, you sat down toth one ofh the candidates, tom steyer, of t cour billionaire entrepreneur, this is going to be his first debate that he's participated in. what did you learn about how he
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plans to approach thiso >>m steyer toll me that he really sees this as introducing himself to the amereople. he understands that he's starting a little bit later than other people.he understands that of work to do, but he tells me that he's going to bealking about climate change and talking about really changing washington help everyday working people. i put the question to him: how as a billionaire are you going to relate and make the ase you understand grassroots people, understand working class people? he said, i'm going to that i traveled with people, i've talked to a lot of people, i understand what peoe are going through. he also said he wants to make it billionaire, he sees himself as a grassroots person. he also made the case that he was out front very early calling for the impeachment of pres ent he made the case to me that nancy pelosi would not have launched an impeachment inquiry if not for him pushing for it. he launched his campaign to impeach dona trump in october 2017. of course, nancy pelosi would but tom steyer is trying to put
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himself out there as a front-runner and rally leading o the iss impeachment, which is going to be another big topic during this debate. >> woodruff: and he's absolutely right about the fact that he was the one candidate who was out there running ads specifically about impeachment well before we got to the point where we areoday. yamiche alcindor, we'll be watching.c >> yeah,ober 2017. >> woodruff: exactly. yamiche, you're going to be watching that debate tonerht, welle, ohio. thank you very much. >> woodruff: it is a power thatd has been exercnly rarely in american history: the power to impeach a federal ol, uten a president. the u.s. constitn mentions impeachment only a handful of times. articl1 assigns the "sole power of impeachment" to the house of representatives, and
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assigns the "sole power to try all impeachmentsto the u.s. senate, where a two-thirds vote is needed to convict. article 2 of the constitution describes what offenses may be cause for impeachment and removal: "treason, bribery o other high crimes and misdemeanors." but how did the impeachment power come to be, in the first place? and have public views about the powers evolved over time? some questio for presidential historian michael beschloss, who joins us now. welcome back to the news hour. >> thank you, judy. >> woodruff: michael beschloss, so the founders, where did they come up with this idea of impeachment in the first >> whe idea was that a lot place? of the founders and when the constitution espially was being written, the whole system, the whole new america was designed as a way to be different from england with monarchs and the despots of europe and tyrants.to they wanteake sure no president ever became a tyrant
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and abused of power, and they were thinking of them in terms of men in those days. so impeachment was supposed to be a crucial check on presidente whhaps behaved badly, but among the founders there were two groups. one was a group that, you know, feared power and wanted impeachment to be used if a president strayed. others were sort of in the spirit of alexander hamilton, that wanted strong presidents, strong central government.o ther were worried the powf impeachment would be used sort of like a vote of confidence in members of congresn't likeat if something a president did, some policy, thy would impeach him. >> woodruff: so they came up this term, for reasons of treason, briewbry, or other high crimes and misdemeanors. how did they pick those terms? >> that was basically a product of the fact that they couldn't agree on exactly what the grounds for impeachment would be. bribery would be grounds forand
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apeachment. they weren't suout other things. theith so much else of constitution, they decided to leave it to congress to interpret. gerald ford in 1970, much, muclh r, a little bit casually said grounds for impeachment are whatever a majity of the house of representatives says it is. >> woodruff: over time you are telling us that our political a leaders lookthis and looked at the distinction between getting rid of aid prt or another central because we diswith ournt, just policies versus because they have done something really terrible. >> tint's right. thntion was very mch to reprimand a president for having done somethg that could be intern ratted as treason, broobry, or other high crimes and misdemeanors. james madison, when he was looking at those things, he said, you know, unfitness would be onee rason, negligence would
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be another lern, perfity would be another reason. >>oodruff: we looked bak. impeachment has only been invoked, what, a handful ofke te republic?3-year history of our >> right. >> woodruff: but michael, th 4e of those in the la years. why? experienced impeachment processes in the last couple generation, perhaps they're more prone to use than they wouldef havee. before richard nixon, you would have to go back the andrew jok son, 1868, to lor an impeachment process in history. and that waone that historically was not well thought of, because historically andrew johnson was saved from reval by a kasas senator named edmund roth. roth essentially said i think johnson should not be impeached because i don't think his infraction has been large enough urge and also he said
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essentiay that he thought that johnson was being impeached for reasons of poli, as we we talking about earlier, rather than there was treason, bribery, or another high crime. anthat generation of americans came to agree with threat. so there was a reluctancto go to impeachment later on. >> woodruff: as we said, just since richard nixon, this is now the thirtime congress looking seriously. they have an impnteachnquiry under way right now. does it say that our system is more political than it usd to be? what do you think it says? >> i think there are two schoolt ught. one would be that the impeachments of the last number of years were done for poalit reasons, richard nixon would have said that, for instance. he said that the move to impeach him in7 194, he said, these were his words, "was an effort to overturn the mandate of 1972." others would say that in th case of nixon and in thease of clinton and later in our ownme hat these are cases of real infractions.
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p woodruff: president tr is saying he won't cooperate in any way with this house inquiry. how does that compare with how other presidents have cooperated? >> there have been evidence of that in the pashistorically. james buchanan, there was a movement against him. he said, i wil not cooperate. it didn't go very far. richard nixon, one of the thre articles of impeachment against him was contempt of congressbe use he refused to cooperate with subpoenas. >> woodruff: because he resed to cooperate. >> yes. >> woodruff: you were also telling us president bill clinton did cooperate. >> there was no such articles of impeacent in the clinton case. there were only two. >> woodruff: michael beschloss looking back for us. thank you very much. >> pleasure always, judy. >> woodruff: the burden of student debt is getting more attention in this election
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cycle. one key part of that puzzle is the rising cost of student housing. between 1989 and 2017, room and board on and off campus went up by more than 82% at four-year public universities. correspondent hari sreenivasan recently traveled to philadelphia to see how college students there are coping with housing costs. it's the latest in our special series on "rethinking college," and part of our relar education segment, "making the grade." >> come on, my friends, we'reg goto get in right here. >> sreenivasan: badia weeks loves spending time in the pool with her young students. >> sreenivasan: th-year-old teaches swim lessons five days a week, while attending philadelphia's temple university. she's a junior majoring in exercise and sports science. weeks is doing wellic academally. she has 3.5 g.p.a. but outside of the classroom, she's struggling.
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>> for this abartment, it's t $6,000tm semester, which, honestly, i feel like isn't worth what i g. me and my roommate both pay that, so it's like we're paying $1,500 a month each. >> sreenivasan: the two-bedroom one-bath apartmentas assigned to her by temple after she transferred last spring from a nearby private college. weeks, who is on her own financially, covers her tuition through scholarshipser part-time wages. she says she tried hard to get into a cheaper apartmentear campus, but didn't have any luck. affordable housing oions are becoming increasingly hard to find. apartment rents in philadelphia have gone up5% over the past decade. so, several months ago, she took out a private loan for $5,000 to pay for her housing. >> it's upsetting. t tong to be in debt j live on campus, i feel like is a little ridiculous. onlyne going into debt forthe housing. a u.s. department of housing and urban development analysis found that "for many students, livingo
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s exceed and even dwarf the cost of tuition and fees."a >> it'ry serious problem. >> sreenivasan: sara goldrick-ss rab is a pro of higher education policy and sociology at temple, who studiesng costs. >> we estimate that approximately onduin two underges is finding their housing to be unaffordable. the most typical thing that we'll ar is a student who says "i'm going to have trouble paying my rent this month." they don't necessarily eat every day.or they aren't able to come to class every day, because they cut the money that they wouldle have spents say, on gas for the car, or, on the subway. >> sreenivasan: our perception of college is, you know, students living in a building, ivy-covered walls. that's not the norm? >> that is vanishingly rare in today's colleges and universities, to the point that only about 12% to 13% of the nation's undergraduates actually reside on a college campus. >> sreenivasan: last year, goldrick-rab founded the hope center for college, community anjustice, a research center
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dedicated to finding solutions for the financial and logistical barriers that prevent students from graduating. at temple, there are efforts to assist food-insecure students, and a university "care team" helps connect students in a housing crisis to emergency funding. but one of the biggest challenges here, and at many other universities, is the lacka ordable housing on-campus. goldrick-rab says public a colleg universities, facing budget cuts, see food and housing as revenue streams. as a profit center you housing begin to charge students more and more simply because you can. the other thing is that a growing number of schools areg really try attract a certain kind of student and family.wi it's a famil a lot more disposable income, and it's a family going to pay more tuitioi with lesncial aid. so the residence hall rooms for
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students are larger than they used to be.en the amies are more substantial. >> sreenivasan: it's a similar story off-campus. new luxury buildings are catering to wealthier students around temple and other college campuses around the country. but not everyone can afford that kind of living experience. one out of four people in the city of philadelphia live below the poverty line, so you'd thins ould be an affordable place to live. well, philadelphia also has the second-most numb of collegeser of any city in the united states, so affordable housing is hard to come by, whether you a at a big four-year institution or a two-year community college. just steps away from downtown, 26,000 students attend the community college of philadelphia. like most two-year schools, housing is not offered.go a 2018 study brick-rab and her colleagues found nearly 20% of the school's students were experiencing homelessness, and more than half were housing insecure. >> shelters, couch surfing, everything.
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i'm not ashamed to say that. >> sreenivasan: thomas, who prefers to go only by his first name, is one of those without a consistent roof over his head. he's a first-year student who opworks in the campus book but says he can't save enough to get an apartment. >> theeposit is unreal. the deposit is three times the rent. i can't even manage the ont times rent tm tre-ng to manage from work, let alone have the money to save for it. it just isn't praccal. >> sreenivasan: a new prcoram, in an olent, hopes to help at-risk students like thomas. room. this will be a typical furnished beds, desks, dressers, and they all have their shared sink with shar bathrooms. >> sreenivasan: sandra guillory is the philadelphia director of depaul u.a., a non-profit focused on homelessness. they plan to rehab this 1950s- era convent house 24 students from colleges across philadelphia. students will be asked to pay $150 a month. >> our topriorities are students in their final years of school, so third, fourth, fifth,
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years of school. they have the most student loan debt, and if they dropped out of dehool today, they would have that debt, and nee, and they'd be worse off than if they had never gone to school. >> sreenivasan: the $17,000 it will cost to house and feed each student per year will be split between the students, the city of philadelphia and private donations. >> if we can gethem to graduate, they will never haveut to worry abo homelessness, hopefully ever again, poverty, their children won't have to worry abouthis. >> sreenivasan: for her part, temple's badia weeks is hoping to squeeze in re hours in the pool this semester, so she can save up and possibly avoid another housing loan next semester. for the pbs newshour, i'm hari sreenivasan in philadelphia. >> woodruff: and by the way, the new housing program at the old convent is expected to opejato students iary. >> woodruff: finally tonight,
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a new addition to our "newshour bookshelf." e fictional character, olive kitteridge, is the creation of pulitzer prize-winni novelist elizabeth strout. known to everyone in her smallt, maine town and loved by many readers around the count. in a sequel that's out today, strout has brought olive back. jeffrey brown headed north to talk with the author, for our ongoing arts and culture series, "canvas." hes a young girl, she would sit in the car with mother, parked on a street like this one in bath, maine, watching theop walk by. >> she'd say "oh, look at that woman. she doesn't seem too eager to get home." and i'd think, why?ve and i'd leanthe back seat and i'd say, "what is it about and my mother migh"oh, well, her coat hem hasn't been mended for a while," or some little detail like that. i mean, i was immediately interested in what the woman's
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story was, and wanting to see what her home looked like and what her other clothes would like. >> brown: years ter, strout would become known as a writer with an uncanny ability to conjure up the innerives of her characters, many of them in small-town coastal maine.in most famouslhe novel "olive kitteridge," which won the 2009 pulitzer prize. and, was later made into an award-winning hbo series starring frances mcdormand. olive, a seventh grade math teacher and wife of the local pharmacist in the fictional village of crosby, is overbearing, hard-to-love, but complicated and compelling. now, olive is back, older if not wiser, in the new novel "olive,
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ain," long after author strout thought she was through with her often ornery character. she just absolutely showed up again. >> brown: and what does that mean, she just showed up? >> i could feel her rid t behind me, could hear her thoughts, and i thought, "well, i better get this down."ct many of my chas come to me gradually, or they'll sidle up to me or something. but olive-- just, bo she's just there. >> brown: for inme, coastal is a vacation spot: picturesque harbors and towns, a place to visit and then go home. for strout, it was h and her family, dating back generations to puritan days, was part of a different maine: hardscrabble, isolated, old ways hard to hold onto amid economic and cultural change. she grew up in tiny harpswell. d r father's funeral was h this congregational church. n she worked as a teenager nearby country store, now a small museum.
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we spoke in the old harpswell meeting house, dating to 1757, across the street. >> when i was a young child here in harpswell, there was a tremdous amount of isolation for me. we didn't have a television, an we jd the outside, and i was by myself. a great deal of time i spent toutside alone, climbing rocks, making friends with t heriwinkles or the tree toads or whatever. >> brown: not people? not people. and i was fascinated by people. i mean, i was happy in the woods or on the rocks, but i was fascinated by people and always, always wanted to know what ile could about pe and it really has remained the one compulsive part life that moves me forward. >> brown: so you grew up imagining? >> yes, i did. i have always watched and watched and listened. i think probably most people aren't. but i can only speak for myself
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as a writer, but there's the compulsion to find out what it feels like to be another person. in olive kitteridge, there was a story that was sort of set right there, whe waitress falls off the cliff, which is not really a cliff, but i made it f a cliff. >> brown: which you're allowed to do. >> yes. er.ause i'm a fiction wr ( laughs ) >> brown: but it's fiction grounded in reality. oldest populations, and in the new novel, we watch olive age after the death of her husband, henr it's also, again, a novel of linked stories. in most, olive is the central character, but somethe's at the periphery of her neighbors' lives. >> i thought, "well, i can make the communpart of this and this will be about the communith as well and everybody's paicular relationship to olive, and yet they of course all have their stories, because they're people." i realized that olive is such a force that if we see her on every page, if she's in every story, full force, it's just too much to ke. it would be too much for me to
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take as a reader. and i'm always thinking about the reader, it's like a dance with the reader: what does the reader need now? >> brown: you really are? because a lot of writers i talk don't. they say, "well, i'm not thinking about the reader at this point." >> right. i'm always thinking about the read. i have an ideal reader. i mean, many years ago, i realized that if i make up characte, i can make up a reader. so, i made up an ideal reader, and the reader >> brown: who is that? >> well, it's somebo who's patient, but they're not super patient, and it's somebody who eds the book, if i can diver it to them. so i have a responsibility for them. >> brown: strout still keeps a home here brunswick, but unlike many of her characters, she left maine long ago for a very different life in new york. living in the big city, t realizing her true subject was >>n a small town, you will find it all.
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you will find the impoverished people, and u'll find the people at the top. there's always a social hierarchy, no matter where you e. and it's fascinating to me to take a look at that, close-up in a small environment. >> brown: "olive, again" is out today. for the pbs newshour, i'm h jeffrey brown pswell, maine.oo >>uff: a news update before we go. democrats in the u.s. house of representatives met earlier this evening. the newshour can report the vnsensus among members is not the hold a forme on going ahead with the impeachment inquiry at the moment. the president, in a lhoter to the, said the executive branch would not participate in an impeachment inquiry without vote or thility to have counsel question witnesses. we are told many democratic members of the house did not white house dictate how ag the separate and equal branch of governmentonducts itself. that reporting from lisa
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desjardins. and that is the newshour for tonight. i'm judy woodruff. join us online, and again right here tomorrow evening. for all of us at the pbs newshour, thank you, and we'll see you soon. >> majorunding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: >> bnsf railway. >> consumer cellular. >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions and friends of the newshour. >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. station from vieweike you.ur pbs thank you. captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc
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captioned by media access group at wgbh access.wgbh.org in >> you're watpbs.ch
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♪ >> hello, eveelone andndcome to "amanpour & co." here's what's coming up. present trump orders all u.s. troops out of syria and ioos is on the again. joiningine shiraz maher, the world's leading authority on radicalm jih and cory ockey, the former pentagon policy-maker. then -- >> this is a collective crisis th demands massive collective action now. >> jane fonda tat again. e longtime actress and oscar ted ing actress gets arr for the climate. >> and most economic groh that's occurred in america has gone to e very, very top of the income distribution. >> harvard economist aboutut

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