tv PBS News Hour PBS October 15, 2019 6:00pm-7:01pm PDT
♪ ♪ judy: good evening. i'm judy woodruff. on the newshour tonight bolton , back in the spotlight. revelations the ousted national security advisor raised alarms about rudy giuliani and the ukine affair add fuel to t impeachment inquiry. d then, the city at the center of the fight. a look at the critical role of manbij, syria -- the former islamic ate stronghold now caught in the middle of the turkish incursion. plus, rethinking college. as the cost of a degree goes up, housing prices go up right alo with it, and students feel the pinch, struggling to afford it at all. >> we estimate that approximately one in two undergraduates is finding their housing be unaffordable. the most typical thing that we'll hear is a student who says
, i am going to have trouble paying my rent this month. judy: all that and more on tonight's "pbs newshour." ♪ ♪ major funding for "the pbs newshour" s been provided by -- >> when it comes to wireless,um cons cellular gives customers the choice. our no contract plans give you as much or little tal a text and dayou want, and our u.s.-based customer svice team is on hand to help. >> bnsf railway. and with the ongoing support of these institutions. ♪ ♪ this program was made possible by the corporation for public nd bdcasting, contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. ikthank y.
to impeach president trump is ramping up, now that congress is back in session. despite the white house trying to block the process, depositions from long-time diplomats are shedding new light on the trump administration's approach to ukraine. for the latest, i am jolied by our ow desjardins. lisa, you have been talking to peop all day long. what are we learning today? lisa: we mayop have devnts any minute in terms of how the house proceeds. house speak nancy pelosi is holding a meeting with democrats, who just returned from two weeks of recess, and she is also holding shortly after this a news conference with reporters, where i am told she will make ant. announcem the speculation is that this is not only aut impeachment, but about a possible full houseboat. nancy --ull house vote. nancy pelosi has indicated she would vote for the inquiry, but
it is speculation, so we will see. plenty of other activity as well. new testimony behind closed doors, deposition from another state department offenial, george george kent is the eurasian, you create -- ukraine, russia assistant deputy secretary. we also had rudy giuliani respondingna to a subp from the house for documents from him. he's obviously a central figure now. look at what he said in this letter that came out a few hours ago, to the house, which wants documents from him. he wrote defiantly, this appears to be an unconstitutional, baseless and illegitimate impehment inquiry. is rejecting their subpoena. it is interesting. he is a former prosecutor himself, and he knows the power ofe subpoenas, and here rejecting it. judy: an expert on russia who
worked on the national security council, fion hill, testified yesterday before the committee. reverberations today about what she had to say? lisa: quite a lot. fiona hill is somee -- she said s was increasingly concerned about giuliani, and what some saw as sort of an underground or rogue diplomacy with the his behalf, president. she told john bolton, they national securvisor at the time, and also a white house lawyer at bolton's urging. she said bolton sawiuani himself as essentially a e, that could explode i any situation for those around him. she says she was raising was doing with the president, and we understand that today's justimony by mr. kent reinforced that. : lisa, frankly it is hard to keep track because there's so many pieces of this happening,
but what else are we expecting to see this week? lisa: we have more deadlines for documents,ti w to hear from the pentagon tonight, and also of management andt.m the office we heard from the vice president, mike pence, who was dsubpoenaed foruments. he says he doesn't feel he needs to respond, does not see this as an officl impeachment inquiry.ws coming. we will see some long-time diplomats. there you see michael mckinley. he's a former advisor to secretary pompeo. gordon sondland, and lauren cooper, one of the assistant secretaries of defense. let's highligh mr. sondland. his texts, we looked at so closely a few weeksgoabout the president wanting he"deliverables" wit came to ukraine, so his testimony is something particularly to focus on. judy it is hard with this all going on to step back and look at it all, but where does this impeachment business stand right
now? we are waiting to hear from speaker pelosi. lisa: deep breath. here is what we have got. first of all, a possible full house vote on an inquiry. second, after that, giuliani concerns are rising in all corners. third, we have seen both parties launching tv ads. i want to look at them, because they are targeting particularly vulnerable members. this ad from the right, a group launching ads, we will show it in a second, against vulnerable democrats, including abby finkenauer of iowa. a daily use of adsst aga -- deluge of ads against democrats. but thispu ad targets a ican , senator joni ernst of iowa, as being not tough enough on the president. this tells me both parties think ablee are a lot of persu american
they think americans haven't made up their minds, and they want to get out the. judy: i can understand. there is a lot at stake. we will be waiting to reporaron what we he from speaker pelosi. thank you. ♪ ♪ stephanie will return to judy woodruff right after these headlines. an update to our top story. speaker of the has nancy pelosi said this evening she is not planning to call for a formal house vote authorizi an impeachment inquiry, and that a full vote is not a constitutional requirement. ntinuing the administration's stonewalling, the pentagon now is unable to comply wit the committee's request for documents at this time. tonight's democrat debate, which is now underway,nd all 12 ates on stage were unanimous in backing the impeachment inquiry. in the day's other news, new
information on the fatal shooting of a black woman in her own home by a policeman in fort worth, texas. atatna jefferson's eight-yearotld nephew was in the police statement, saying her on pointed her gun at the window an instant before she was shot. the police chief said thatt justify -- that did not justify the officer reaction. >> it made sense that she would have a gun, if she felt she was being threatened or there was someone in the backyard. there is absolutely no excuse for this incident, and the person responsible will be held accountable. stephanie: the officer, aaron dean, resigned yesterday and was charged with murder. we will return to that story later in the program. two minor earthakes strikeak in northern and central california. one late lt night in the bay area, and one late today during a remote part of the central valley. both wer under 5.0 on the richter scale, and were not related.
oil refinery operaons in martinez, california were malfunctions didn't result in any "known spills or releases." oer major damage or injuries were reported. the u.s. forest service is proposing opening up more than half of alaska's tongas national forest to potential logging. congressional delegation and president trump have been pushing for ane exemption. their preferred action is to redesignate more than 9 million acres of the forest as timberland. th public has 60 days from this week to weifg in on the plans -- weigh in on the plans. further fallout from the me too movement. eknevada regulators o ban casino mogul steve wynn entirely frta the's gaming industry after an investigation into misconduct. of sexual the gaming control board launched a five-count complaint on monday, citing multiple
instances of sexual contact by wynn involving employees under him, and recommending his license be revoked. wynn resigned as ceo of his company earlier last year, and has yet to comment. actress felicity huffman reported to federal prison in california today, in the wake of a college admissions scam. she will serve a two week sentence at a facility outside san francisco. huffman weeded guilty to paying to fix her daughter's sat score --ed pleuilty to paying to fix her daughter's sat score. turkey showed no signs of stping their widening war in northeast syria despite new sanctions announced by the u.s. eore turkish vehicles were deployed during day, and after nightfall turkish rocke pounded kurdish forces. meanwhile, france and others warned of t u.s. withdrawal in northeast syria and the turkish offensive will lead to chaos. >> each day, each hour that passes, we canee the destating consequences of these decisions.
this is devastating for civilian polations, who packed the roads to flee the fighting. this is devastating for our security, as i have said, with the inevitle resurgence of islamic state in northeastern syria and probably also in northwest iraq. extended its influn therussia diregion, s troops with syrian units who took the town of manbij. we ill take a closer look at the situation there, after the news summary. in spain, violence erupted for a second night in catalonia, after separatist leaders were nine convicted of sedition. riot police charged hundreds protesters in barcelona, swinging bats and even tackling people to try to break up the cro. all of this came after more than 170 people were hurt in lastgh in economic news, china warned a tentative trade deal with the u.s. could still colla the english-language "china daily" suggested president trump mighcancel the deal. last friday, the president
nd saided a tarf hike ina would buy $50 billion of u.s. farm products. two passings of note. the first person to walk in space, former russian cosmonaut alexei leonov, laide to rest outsscow. hiseat was in 1975, three months before the first ak.rican spacew today, hundreds of people turned out for the fundeal. they inc former astronaut thomas stafford, who joined leonov on the first u.s.-soviet space mission in 1975. alexei leonov s 85 years old and author and literary critic harold bloom died monday in new haven, connecticut. the longtime yale prr was renowned for defending western culture and literature against modern trends. his breakthrough work, "the anxiety of influence" dealt with artists and inspiration, and became a cch-phrase. harold bloom was 89 years old. as we returned to judy woodruff, how the northern syrian city of manbij is a microcosm of .e
larger fig an officer in texas, charged with murder, and a national debate over police violence renewed. the fourth debate f democratic hopefuls is in full swing. what to watch for. and much more. ♪ from weta studios in washington, and in the west from the walter cronkite school of journalism at arizona state university. judy: turkey's president recep tayyip erdogan, said he told would not ree to president trump's request of a cease-fire northern syria. the political map of that area has beenin redrawn, the u.s. military began withdrawing in the last few days. nick schifrin examines how one city, manbij, represents how be.found the consequences could nick: the story of manbij is the story of the syrian civil war.
and a city that achieved hard-fought stability, is becoming syria's most contested battleground. in 2012, manbij residents joineo nationwide ptests, calling for the overthrow of syrian president bashar al-assad. they took over the city. in 2014,hose rebels lost the city to isis. filmed celebrations downtown. >> you can see it l beautiful. the brothers are here, we are lebrating, alhamdiullah. nick: in 2016, the us fout back. american and eruopean airstrikes ghtargeted isis firs. and us-backed, majority kurdish forces prothe ground firength. the fight was dlt, and many kurds died. months later, the city was liberated, but decimated. isis' paint hadn't even dried, --ad barely dried. t the manbij military council met in this small room to plot the city's recovery. slowly, life returned, assisted by u.s. troops who arrived in 2018 as part of ststrategy to abilize cities to prevent isis' return.
the top u.s. general in the middle east even toured a armor. izemarket without body u.s. troops conducted patrols with kurdish partners to try and maintain that stability. by this last january, major generajamie jarrard proudly received a kurdish flag and hugged kurds he called his partners. >> our presence here has enabled this area here to be stable. nick: the u.s. military also esblished joint patrols with turkey. but in the last week those patrols ended. overnight, the u.s. started to withdraw,and the free-for-all began. tufrom the north, thish military is advancing towardnb maij and vows to seize control. their offensive has already wounded and killed civilians. from the south, syri tv showed syrian troops entering mrsbij for the time in 7 years. and in the middle, those are ping thed they're k peace. on facebook, a russian journalist showed off a us base , completely abandoned. manbij's future is unclear.
but what is clear, it won't be controlled by the u.s. or its partners. in congress, there is bipartisan anger at turkey for its campaign inside syria, and at president trump for withdrawing u.s. forces. one of t lead authors of legislation that would turkey is senator chris van hollen, who joins us now. welcome to the newshour. we watched earlier today a video posted on facebook, of a russian journalist walking through an empty u.s. base. what is the impact in your opinion of president trump's decision to withdraw troops from northeastern syria? sen. van hollen: nick, it is a vastating impact, both in terms of turkey now attacking syrian kurds, who of course have been our main partner in the fight against isis, and now could well, and will likely lead to a resurgence of isis. also, we just handed russia a lot more leverage in the region, as you indicated.
this is a disastrous dision. the congress will call on it,ident trump to reverse but calling upon him to reverse it is not enough, in my view. need these bipartisan sanctions, if we want any hope key'sfluencing t misconduct in their attacks on the syrian kurds. sanctions, cosponsored bytisan republican lindsey graham. they would among other things sanction senior turkish officials, restrict visas target the turkish energy sector, prohibit les. military to turkey and even require a report on the net worth of president why are those steps the best ways to change turkey's behavior today in northern syria? sen. van hlen: they also include sanctions against two turkish government-controlled banks, including the halk bank, which is in the news today with an indictment brought against it what we need to do is say to turkey, you are going to feel
economic pain unless you stop your aggression against the syrian kurds and pull back your forces a your proxies. look, the reality is that by withdrawing our 100 special forces, president trump is essentially taking away a lot of the leverage we had in the region. buts sanctions iur next-best opportunity to influence what's going to happen therehe in days ahead, to protect our ,rian kurdish alltos, and to trrevent the resurgence of isis, which is guaranteed if the syrian kurds have to spend all insteadf fighting isis.key ni: you mentioned there are only about 100 u.s. special operations forces in the area, and president trump today call that a policing effort. they were on a stabilization effort, and he said we don't need to do tt kind of effort. he also announced turkey would feel pain for their incursion into syria, announcing sanctions. of course, vice president pence is on his way to ankara soon.
why are those steps not enough? sen. van hollen: first of all, those 100 special forces were embedded with our syrian kurdish allies, and they were what were stopping turkey from launching this attack on our partns. so when trump decided to withdraw the special forces, he essentially green lit turkey's actions. with respect to sending pence, and the announcement yesterday on sanctions, this is like a p ooter. he announc some sanctions on turkish steel. the reality, turkish steel exports to the united states represent about 0.25% of all turkish exports, so that's not a serie s response. esident still says he will meet with erdogan in washington in november. what signal does tt send? that's why it is important congress act on a bipartisan sis. there is a lot of momentum to stand up for our syrian kurdish allies, against isis, and we
will use whatever tools are at they are not perfect tools, but they are the best we have got right now. nick: military officials i spoke to acknowledged a level of anger among the special operation fol -- special operations soldiers in syria for withdrawing partners.urdish but they argue strategically turkey is more importan than kurdish partners. turkey is a natoce ally, s 1952. are you worried about consequences of sanctionsyoike thosare advocating on an whoseon turkey, cooperation is vital in many areas? sen. van hollen: a couple points. one, the sanctions would be lifted if turkey ends its aggression againstku our syrian ish aies. turkey has it within its powerel tove the sanctions that would take effect under this bill. second, under president erdogan, you have seen turkey really take positions inconsistent with nato priorities. for example, they just recently
took the delivery of the russian s-400 air defense system. nato said that would put nato pilots at risk,t bectose we want se the advanced f-35 fighter. turkey thumbed nose at us and took delivery ofwe that, s had to distinguish are part -- just continue our partnership with the f-35. that was also a tripwire for sanctions. turkey under president erdogan has tken a number of steps t undermine its role and responsibilities in nato, and we can't just sort of say, ok, turkey, whatever you want. we need to insist turkey be full partner in nato and a full partner in the fight against isis. as you know, turkey allowed isis fighters to transit through its they looked the other way, while isis grew in strengt a it was the syrian kurds who are our partners there, not the turks.
so allowing tuey to kill our partners in the fight against isis, it sends a message thawe are an unreliable partner. the united states has do for its own national security hold turkey to account here. nick: senator chris van hollen, democrat of maryland. thank you very much. sen. van hollen: thank you. ♪ ♪ judy: stay with us. coming up, high crimes and misdemeanors. getting to the heart o the elusive criteria for impeachment. as the cost of student housing source, -- soars, deby and -- debt and homelessness follow close behind. stand elizabetud on revisiting olive kitteridge. the fatal shooting of a black woman by a white police ficer in fort worth, texas
anger in that community. and, as amna nawaz lays out, it's raising once again many questions on a larger scale the use of force.ning,ace and amna: judy, this shooting cam less than two weeks after a former police officer in dallas was convicted of murder for fatally shooting a man in his home. in this case, atatianna jefferson was playing video games on saturday with her 8-year-old nephew when a neighbor saw her front door ajar and called the non-emergency police line to express concern. body camera footage showsce offiaaron dean and hisli partner circng around theci home, walkg through a gate into jefferson's backyard. before stopping at a window. dean shouts, "put your hands up," and immediately fires his gun. jefferson's nephew, who was in that room, says his aunt point her gun at the window after hearing noises outside. joining me now is seth stoughton, an associate professor oferaw at the unty of south carolina. he's also a former police officer who served in llahassee, florida. welcome to the newshour.
i want to ask what we know about the exact circumstances in this case. the interim police chief, ed kraus, said nobody look at the doubt this officer acted inappropriately. you have seen that body camera footage. wh do you says that his actions were inappropriate? prof. stoughton: the thing to focus on is e officer's approach, as he walked up to the window. the actions pceding the ooting. what officers do leading u to a use of force can make a use of force either more or less likely. in thise, che officer's failure to identify himlf, the officer's failure to attempt to contact anyone in the house, led to a pretty tragic, horrifying result. amna: wt other haestions do yo, based on what you know so far, on what we have seen? what do we still don't know that you would like to know? prof. stoughton: therengre lots of twe don't have. we don't have a statement from the officer.
myha understanding is at this point he has not cooperated with the investigation. i haven't seen a statement from the partner. i understand there has been affidavit filed as part of the indictment from the eight-year-old nephew. i'd like to see information that may not have been included in thatffidavit, information about training, policy, the agency. hothe goald be twofold, one i which is to pursue legal action against tividual officer, to hold him accountable. f wther of which is to see can improve what the agency and ther officers are doing, to make ts less likely to happenag. amna: you mentioned training. aaron dean, the officer involved, joined the force in aprilra 2018,ating from the police academy where he underwent some kind of training. based on your experience, what would that have entailed? how would he be trained to assess risks and threats? prof. stoughto there is a lot of variation ine polaining.
more than 600 different academies in the country, and i can't speak to his particular training experience. generally, i want to see officers getting a robust tactics are the procedures and techniques that ficers use to mitigate risk and threat, to make sure that they are as safe as the situation allows them to be. d because the officer is as safe as they can be, they don't have to use force against e individual with whom they are interacting. there's too much emphasis in police training on the risks officers face, and the severity of those risks. to be verylear, there are sks in policing, and we should not unrestimate those. buwe also should not exaggerate those risks. the tactics, equipment and training officers get now make policingoday significantly safer than it was 15, 30, 50 years ago.
unfortunately, a lot of police training emphasizes to officers that they need t act without thinking, they need to a first. that any delay, any hesitation can be fatal, tha complacency can be fatal, that anyone they can interact with ca potentially be armed and willing to kill them. that sets up a really dangerous dynamic from officer as they approach a situation. instead of reviewing the facts in front of them in a way that makes sense in the context of that interaction, they are reviewing the facts in frowa of them in that, looking through the lens of fear and risk and threat. it hurts communityic pg, and can contribute to avoidable shooting. amna: i want to ask about the bigger conversation were having now, which we seem to have again and again, basedin on somethe attorney for the jefferson family said earlier today in press conference. listen to what he had to say. >> this is a moment where we get
to have serious conversations about systemic problems within policing, particularly policing of african-american communities. amna: you mentioned some training issues you would like to see. we heard about the systemic problems. we seem to have this conversation again and ain, every time there is another black american shot by a police officer. how do we stop from having this conversation? what needs to change? pr. stoughton: at some point, we need to change from conversation to action, and we are. there is good reason to think at least some agencies are moving in the right direction.ng hahe conversation is important, but we have been having the conversatioe and it is t do something. training or agency culture, but also changes to stater law, example. changes to the way that office o are supervis evaluated. thinking beyond just throwing more training dollars at officers is going to bpaa necessar of improving policing. amna: seth stoughton, former
police officer, now associate professor at the university of south carolina. prof. stghton: thank you for having me. ♪ ♪ democratic preside race. debate stage in westerville, ohio tonight, after former vice president joe biden's son hunter spoke publicly for the first time b about his role asrd member of a ukrainian gas company during the time his father was in office. president trump has spread unsubstantiated claims that the bidens engaged in illegal dealings in ukraine, and sparked the current impeachment inquiryp ssuring the country's leader to look into it. n interview with abc new the younger biden admitted poor
judgment in taking the position, but denied any wrongdoing. >> did i make a mistake? maybe, in the grand scgrme of things yeah. but did i make a mistake based on some ethical lapse? nabsolutely. i made a mistake in retrospect, as it related to creating any perception that that was wrong. judy: the democratic presidential debate is now underway. yamiche aindor is there, and i spoke to her ah.ut what to wa how much do we expect the issue of joe biden and hunter biden ht come up ton you have talked to the campaigns. what have they said? yamiche: this is the first democratic debate since nancy pelosi launched that formal impeachment inquiry, so ukraine will be a hot topic tonight. sources i spoke to on a number of campaigns have been preparing for that question, and they are also questioning hunter biden coming out the morning before
this debate. othepa cns, not joe biden's campaign, says this is jto biden wantinut this to bed, having hunter biden out there to to get out ahead of thiealings but other campaigns say this is a problem because hunter biden does look like he was profiting off of joe biden's name, which trying to make the case thate president trump had children profiting off his name. but the biden campaign has been clr. they say they didn't arrange the interview, and hunter biden wanted to defend himself. pic during tonight's debate.g judy: i also want to ask aut senator bernie sanders. as we know, he had a heart attack a cple weeks ago, and has been off the campaign trail ever since. tonight will be the first time he's come back since then. what do we know about how he's doing, and about how the o campaigns have reacted to all that? yamiche: senator bernie sanders is eager to tell people that he's back,r and stronan ever.
i spoke to a campaign aide for him for a long time today. thaterson said that bernie sanders had a piercing moment of clarity when he had that heart attack, and that person told me he really wants to talk about how health care is such a fundamental part of his campaign. he sees medire for all as an even more important thing that because h said of otherve, americans had a heart attack like he did, they might have all been bankrupted. i did push the campaign, is he frankly is the democratic party in a bad situation if he gets sick again after winning the nomination, and has issues during the general election? they told me that their response was anybody could get hit. by anythi people could die in plane crashes, can happen, and we went people not to feel fear, and they should feel comfortable supporting and voting for rnie sanders. judy: meanwhile senator elizabeth warren, who was already one of the leaders in
this race, has risen even more in her status as a front runner. whdi are the other ctes, how are they responding to her pickup in the polls? yamiche: i should tell you, judy,th eliza warren is very happy but very cautious about the fact she has seen a rise in the polls. her campaign tells me she understand there will be phases in this race, and even though she's rising now, that could change. senator harris' campaign had a really interesting take. theyth said, ssator haraw a bump after the first debate, but they saw that as a sugar high. other campaigns are looking at elizabeth warren, trying to prepare to make contrasts. they say they want to talk about her health care stances. .we should expect people to be possibly criticizing elizabeth warren in a different, way because she is now seen as an emerging front runner. judy: finally, you sat down today with one of the candidates, tom steyer, the
billionaire entrepreneur. this will be his first debate that he has participated in. what did you learn about how he plans to approach this? old me hom steyer sees this as introducing himself to the american people. little later than some, and that he has a lot of work to do. but he told me he's going to be talking about climatein change, ta about change in t washingthelp everyday working people. i put the question to him, howre as a billionill you relate and make the case you understand grassroots people, working-class people? he said, i will be saying i have traveled with people, talk to people, and i understand what people are going through. he saide wants to make it clear that even though he's a billionaire, he sees himself as a grassroots person. he also made the cas thahe was out front very early calling for the impeachment of president trump. he c made thee to me that nancy pelosi would not have launched an impeachment inquiry without him.
he launched his campaign to impeach donald trump in october 2017. nancy pelosi would probably take issue with tha but tom steyer is trying to put himself out as someone w leading on the issue of impeachment, another big topic during this debate. judy: he's right, he was the one candidate who was out there running ads specifically about impeachment well before we got to the point where we are today. yamiche alcindor, we'll b watching. westeille, ohio, otterbein college. thank you very much. ♪ judy: it is a power exercised the power to impeach a federaly, official, even a president. the u.s. constitution mentioon
impeachment ly a handful of times. article i assigns the sole power of impeachme to the house of representatives, and assigns the sole power to try all u.impeachments to th senate, where a two thirds vote is needed to convict. article ii of the constitution describes what offenses may be cause for impeachment and removal. treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors. but how did the impeachment power come to be in the first e?pl and haveublic views of these powers evolved over time? questions for the presidential historian who joins us now. thehe founders, did they come up with this idea of impeachment in the first place? mideael: the was that a lot of the founders, when the constitution was being written, the wholeed system was desi as a way to be different from england, with monarchs and e
desperate -- despots of europe and tyrants and so forth. they wanted to make sure no president ever became a tyrant or abused power. so the result was that impeachment crucial check on presidents who perhaps behaved badly. but among the founders, there were t groups. one group wanted impeachment to be used if a president strayed. others were in the spirit of alexander hamilton, wanting a strong president, strong central government, ave they were worried the power of impeachment would be used to sort of like a vote of confidence in british parliament. if members of congress didn't like something the preside did, some policy, they would impeach him. judy: so they came up witthis term, w for reasons of treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors. how did they pick those terms? michael: that was basically a product of the fact they
couldn't agree on exactly what the grounds for impeachment would be. they were sure treason and bribery would be grounds for impeachment. they were not sure about other things. sso with so much else in the constitution, they decided to leave itle c togress to interpret. gerald ford in 1970, much later, a little casually said groundsar for impeachmen whatever a majority in the house ofsa representative it is. judy: over time, you fold usl r politiaders have looked at this, and the distinction between getting rid of a president or another central leader in our government, just because we disagr with their policies, versus because they have done something really terrible. chael: that's right. the intention was very much to reprimand a president for having done something that could be interpreted as treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors. james mison, when he was looking at those things, said
that unfitness would be one ason, negligence would be another, perfidy another, but they knew it would depend on congress to make the decision. judy: we look back. impeachment has only been invoked what, a handful of times in the 234-year history of our republic. but three of those in the last 45 years. why? michael: because people have experienced impeachment processes in the last couple generations, perhaps they are more prone to use it tha before richard nixon, we havello gohe way back to andrew johnson, 1868, to look for anhm impet process in history. and that was one that was cause historically andrewught johnson was saved from removal by a kansas senator named edmund west, by one roa -- vote. he essentially' said, i 't
think johnson should be impeached, because i don't think hih.infraction was large eno and he also said essentially he thought johnson was being for reasons of policy, as we talked aboutra earlier, er than because there was treason, bribery or another high crime. that a generation ricans came to agree with that. so there was a reluctancego t to impeachment laid around. judy: but as we said -- peachment later on. judy: but as we said, this is now the third time congress is looking seriously. an impeachment inquiry is underway now. does that say our system is more political than it used to be? michael: there are two schools of thought. one would be that the aciments of the last number of years were done for political reasons. richard nixon,d he sai the move to impeach him in 1974, his words, was anffort to overturn the mandate of 1972. others would say, in t case of
nixon,, clintd later in our own time, these are cases of real infractions. judy: president trump is saying he won't cooperate in any way with the house inquiry how does that compare with how other presidents have cooperated? michael: there has been evidence of that in the past, historically. james buchanan, he said he would not cooperate, and it didn't go very far. riard nixon, one of the three articles of impeachment against hiwas contempt of congress, because he refused to cooperate with subpoenasju : and you were also telling us, bill cnton, president bill clinton did cooperate. michael: there was no such article of impeachment in the clinton case. they were onlywo. judy: thank you michael: a pleasure always, judy. ♪
judy: the burden of college studen b debt is getting more attention in this election cycle. one key part of the problemoss the risingof student housing. amtween 1989 and 2017, room and board on and offs went up by more than 82% at four-year public universities. correspondent hari sreenivasan recently traveled to philadelphia to see how college students there are coping with housing cos. it is the latest in our special series on rethinking college, and part of our regular educatn segment, making the grade. hari: badia weeks loves spending time in the pool with her young students. the 19-year-old teaches swim lessons five days a week while attending philadelphia's temple university. she's a junior majoring in exercise and sports science. -- sports medicine. >> weeks is doing well
academically. she has a 3.5 gpa. but outsidof the classroom, she's struggling. >> for this apartment,s i about $6,000 a semester, which honestly i feel like isn't worth what i get. me and my roommate both pay that, so it is like we are paying $1500 a month each. ha: the two bedroom one bath apartment was assigned to her by temple after she transferred last spring from a nearby private college. financially, covers her tuition through scholarships and her part-time wages. she says she tried hard to get into a cheaper apartment nr campus, but didn't have any luck. affordable housing options are becoming increasingly hard to find. apartment rents in philadelphia have gone up 25% or the past decade. so several m tths ago, sheook out a ivate loan for $5,000 to pay for her housing. >> it is upsetting, having to be in debt just to live on campus, i feel le is a little ridiculous. hari: she's not the only one
going in debt for housing. a u.s. department of housing and urban development analys found that for many students, living , costs exceed and even dwarf the cost of tuition and fees. hari: sara goldrick-rab is aem. professor of higher education policy and sociology at temple who studies housing costs. >> we estimate that approximately one in two undergraduates is finding their housing to be unaffordable. the most typical thing that we'll hear is a student who saysou"i'm going to have e paying my rent this month. " they don't necessarily eat every day. or they aren't able to come to class every day because they cut the money that they would ha spent, let's say on gas for the car, or on the subway.wa hari: our perception of college is, you know, students living in a building, ivy coved walls, . that's not the norm. >> tt is vanishingly rare in today's colleges and universities, to the point that only about 12% to 13% of the nation's undergraduates acta lly reside ollege campus.
hari: last year, goldrick-rab founded the hope center for college, community and justice, . a research center dedicated to finding solutions for the financial and logistical barriers that prevent students from graduating. at tople, there are efforts t assist food insecure students. and a university care team hel connect students in a housingis to emergency funding. >> weee have bable to support them also with the resources of our counseling center. hari: but one othe biggest challenges here, and at many other universities, is the lack of affordable housing on-campus. goldrick-rab says public colleges and universities, facing budget cuts, see food and housing revenue streams. >> if you begin to see housing as a profit center, then you begin to charge studore and more simply because you can. the other thing is that a growing number of schools are really trying to attract a certain kind of student and family. it'a family with a lot more disposable income and it's a
family that is going to pay more tuition with less financial aid. hesoesidence hall rooms for students are larger than they t usbe. the amenities are more substantial. hari: it is a similar story off campus. new luxury buildings are catering to wealthier students around temple and other college e campuses around the country. but not everyone can afford that kind of living experience. ou one out ofpeople in the city of philadelphia live below the poverty line, so you'd think this would be an affordable place to live. philadelphia also has an,ther distinctowever. the second-most number of colleges of any city in the nation. that makes affordable housing hard to come by, whether you're at a big four year institution or a community college. just steps awafrom downtown, 26,000 students attend the community college of siladelphia. like most two yeools, housing is not offered. a 2018 studyy goldrick-rab and her colleagues found nearly 20% of the school's students wereex
riencing homelessness, and more than half were housing insecure. >> everything. 'm not ashamed to say that. shelters, couch surfing, everything. things i have had to do. hari: thomas -- who prefers to go only by his first name -- is one of those without a eansistent roof over his h he's a first year student who works in the campus bookshop, but says he can't save enough to get an apartment. >> the deposit is unreal. three times the rent. i can't even imagine the one timesent i am tryg to manage from work, let alone to have the money to save for it. it just isn't practical. >> this building was built in the 1950's. hari: a new program, in an old convent, hopes to help at-risk students like thomas. >> this will be a typical room. students will have fully furnished rooms. beds, desks, dressers, and they all have their own sink with shared bathrooms. hari: sandra guillory is the filadelphia director of depaul usa, a nonprofitused on homelessness. they plan to rehab this convent to house 24 students from colleges across philadelphia. students will be asked to pay $150 a month.
>> our top priorities are school, so third, , fifth,ars of years of school. they have the most student loan debt, and if they dropped out of school today they would have that debt, ando degree, and they'd be worse off than if they had never gone to school. hari: the $17,000 it will cost to house and feed each student per year will be split between the students, city of philadelphia and private donations. >> if we can get them to graduate, they will never utve to worry aomelessness, hopefully, ever again, poverty, their children won't have to worry about this. hari: for her part, temple's badia weeks is hoping to squeeze in more hours in the pool this s semestshe can save up and loan next semester. er housing >> good job! hari: f the pbs newshour, i'm hari sreenivasan in philadelphia. judy: the new housing progr c at the oldonvent isec edo open to students in january. ♪
♪ judy:ht finally tona new addition to our newshour bookshelf. e e fictional character "olive kitteridge" is eation of pulitzer-prize winning novelist elizabeth stro. olive is abrasive and difficult , known to everyone in her small readers around the country. in a sequel out toda strout has brought olive back. jeffrey brown headed north to talk with the thor, for our ongoing arts and culture series, "canvas. " elizabeth: very often, i absorb people that i just pass on the street. jeffrey: when elizabeth was an young girl, he would- she would sit with her mother in her car on a street in bath, maine, tching people walk by. elizabeth: that woman, she doesn't seeme.ager to go h i would think, why, what is it about her?
my mother might say, well, her coat hem hasn't been mended for a while, or some little detail. i was immediately interested in what the woman's story wgo, wanting tome to see what her home looked like, what her other clothes l would looke. jeffrey: years later, strout would be known as a writer with an uncanny ability to conjure up the inner life of her characters, many in small town coastal maine, most famously in "olive kitteridge," which won the 2009 pulitzer prize and was later made into an award-winning hbo series starring frances mc dormand. >> your mother is not depressed. >> yes, i am. happto have it. jeffrey: olive, a seventh grade math teacher and the wife of a local pharmacist in e ctional village of crosby, is overbearing and hard to teve but compli and compelling.
now, she's bac older, if not wiser, in the new aftl "olive again," long strout thought she was tftough with her ornery character. elizabeth: she just showed up again. jeffrey: what does tha mean? elizabeth: i could feel her behind me. i thought, i should get this down. many of my characters come tutme gradually, olive just is there. jeffrey:or some, coastal maine is a vacation spot. picturesque harbors and towns. a place to visit and then go home. for strout, it was home, and her family dating back generations to puritan days was part of a different maine. hardscrabble, isolated. oldays hard to hold onto amid economic and cultural change. she grew up in a tiny town.
herather's funer was held in this congregational church. she worked as a teenager in a nearby country store, now a small museum. we spoke in the old harpswell meetinghouse dating to 1757 across the street. izabeth: when i was a young child here, there was a term and amount of isolation for me. we didn't have a television. i was by myself a great deal of time, outside,lone. climbing on rocks, making friends with the tre toads whatever. not people. d i was fascina people. i was happy in the woods, or on the rocks, but i was fascinated by people, and always, always wanted to know wha i could abo ut people. jerey: you grew up imagining people? elizabeth: in one of my books, people are always telling you who they are, if only you listen.
obviously i wrote that, but i think it itrue. i can only speak for myself as a writer, but the compulsion to find out what it means to be another pern, things we will never know. in the original olive kitteridge, there was a story sort of set right here, where a waitress falls off aff c it is not really a cliff, but i jeffrey: which you are allowed to do. because i am fiction writer. jeffrey: but it isediction groun reality. maine has one of the nation's oldest populations, and in the new novel bc olive aging aft the death of h husband, henry. it is a novel ofd lin stories. usually she is the central saracter, but sometim is at the periphery of her neighbors' lives. elizabeth:th i could mak community part of this. this would be part of the community, and their o relationship tve, and of course they all have their people --their b storiause
they are people. olive is such a force. she's in every story full force, it would be too much for me to take as the reader. i'm always thinking about the reader. reader.am in a dance with the what does the reader need now? jeffrey: a lot of writers i talk to say they don't think about the reader. elizabeth: i am always thinking about the reader. if i make up characters, i can make up a reader, so i made up ideal reader. jeffrey: who is that? elizabeth: somebody who is patient, but not super patient. and somebody who needs theoo if i can deliver it to them. iave a sponsorbity to them. jeffrey: sstrout keep home here in brunswick. but unlike many of her characters, she left maine long ago for a very different life in livithe big city, but
realizing her to subject was life in a small tn. elizabeth: in a small town, you will find it all.wi you will find impoverished people, and people at the top. there is a social hierarchy, no matter where you are, a it is fascinating for me to look at that close-up, in this small environment. jeffrey: the novel "olive again" is just out. i'm jeffrey brown in harpswell, maine. judy: and that's the newshour for tonight.dr i'm judy wf. join us on-line, and again here tomorrow evening. for all of us at the pbs "newshour," thank you and see you soon. >> major funding for "the pbs newshour" has been provided by -- >> bnsf railway. consumer cellular. and with the ongoing support of these institutions. and friends of the newshour.
this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting, and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. kth ♪you. ♪ >> this is "pbs newshour" west, from weta studios washing bn and oureau at the walter cronkite school of journalism at arizona state university. ♪ ♪ >>
♪ pati narrates: if you could assign the perfect setting for farm land, it would look a l little somethinge this. ocean to the west, e mountain range to thst. rain falling on the mountains nieding into vast rivers r through a lush valley in between. it would look exactly like sinaloa. there's a saying here, throw a seed, and a jungle grows.an right here in the middle of this farming oasis, culiacan, the capitol. ♪ pati narrates: this city of one million people has lived through hard times. the same lush farm land that supplies the entire country with almost forty percent of it's produce, was also used to grow the crop at the root of one of mexico's