tv European Journal LINKTV July 3, 2014 7:30am-8:01am PDT
>> hello and a very warm welcome to "european journal" coming to you from dw studios in brussels. it's very good to have you with us. here's a look at what's coming up in this edition -- centenary. why serbs are celebrating the assassin who sparked the great war. sunshine and propaganda -- going on holiday in crimea. saving sounds -- how a swede is creating a special archive.
this week marks a special anniversary. it was 100 years ago that archduke francis ferdinand was shot dead in sarajevo. the assassination sparked the first world war. bosnia was part of the austria-hungary a -- hungarian empire. a serb nationalist shot the archduke and his wife dead from up close. a short while later, austria declared war on serbia, and europe was plunged into a terrible war which was to last for long years and would enter history books as the first world war. decades later in the 1990's, war raged again in the balkans between bosniak's, croats, and serves -- serbs. the differences between the ethnic groups still exist today, and it becomes particularly clear now that the world is commemorating the assassination 100 years ago.
>> that was when this bridge went down in history as the place where archduke frantz ferdinand of austria was assassinated. these days, it is a tourist attraction. >> 100 years ago, this month on the 28th of june -- >> the assassin, a serbian from bosnia, was sentenced to hang for his crime. while bosnian muslims and croatian catholics generally regard him as a terrorist of his time, orthodox serbs hold him up as a hero. since the bosnian war, most serbs have lived on the outskirts of the capital in eastern sarajevo. the serbian mayor has come up
with a way for them to mark this anniversary year. >> we knew that it would be 100 years from the start of the first world war, and we were trying to find some very important person from our history. >> by which he means a figure for a new memorial, and that figure is none other than the assassin his gunshots triggered the first world war. the serbian hero will soon take try of place in a local park. >> ok, we can go out. >> that make the mayor proud. three meters high. >> his face will be on the side, so his back will be here. >> the monument also sends a
message to the heart of the city . >> his face will look in sarajevo because he is preparing to go kill batman. he is looking in the future. this will be the position, and this will be a playground for children. >> so children, too, become familiar with this serbian hero. a second monument of the assassin was to have been erected in neighboring serbia. a gift from the serbs in bosnia, it should have gone up by the memorial to the serbian victory over the austria-hungarian empire. on the former border to austria-hungary, which until a century ago stretched to the far side of the river. but the eu complained about the nationalistic undertone of the monument, and belgrade responded by not putting it up.
nonetheless, the assassin is no stranger in belgrade. besides having a street named after him, he also features on t-shirts. and belgrade football fans use him as the face of nationalistic sentiment. this shop owner is a peaceful man that has no qualms about supporting the hero. >> this is an image of graffito can set -- governor deal prints up -- gavrilo princep. he had no choice but to be part of the organization that advocated freedom or death. he chose death to ensure freedom for the others. >> 100 years later, he is still a hero for young serbs.
>> he did his best. >> it is the centennial of the start of the first world war. we were supposed to go to vienna, but we are not because of the anniversary. we are going to greece instead. >> and why is that? >> because a lot of germans live there, and our professors told us we are not going to be there in order to avoid any kind of conflict. >> while western europe pays tribute to the first world war suffering, the serbian celebrations are more nationalistic in nature. this world war i historian does not approve of the western european approach. >> who is responsible for the war? >> we are back in this ugly
business. >> he accuses germany and austria of using the anniversary year to deflect attention from their war guilt. >> germany has this burden of the responsibility for two world wars. it would be better if she is relieved from one, at least. >> princep is regarded as a serbian hero. >> it is terrifying that you are calling a terrorist a guy who fought for freedom against colonial rule. i would say that the real princep was maybe nelson mandela using may be wrong means at the time. >> in sarajevo, tourists are little concerned with the nationalistic debate that rages around them. they see the war commemorations as nothing more than the marking of historic events 100 years on.
>> pro-russian separatist and the ukrainian army are still grappling for dominance in eastern ukraine. on the crimean peninsula, though, russian president vladimir putin has long created pact on the ground. the inhabitants of crimea have been trying to earn their way in the new russian reality there. holiday season has just started. traditionally, this is the most important time of the year for the region. tourism is an essential economic sector, after all. even the russian czars loved the mild climate back in the 19th century and had their summer residences built on crimea, but now, after russia's annexation, the holiday season is off to a slow start, and life has not
become any easier for the people of crimea. >> it takes a ferry to get from mainland russia to crimea. plans to build a bridge are years away. meanwhile, traffic is backed up or kilometers. mostly russian tourists heading to crimea. they used to drive through ukraine. everyone is on edge. >> where are you headed? >> home to crimea. i have been trying for two days now. >> these trucks are not getting very far. they have to give way to the tourists in cars. >> they have promised fairies, but nothing is happening. >> officials did offer cheap flights for vacationers headed to crimea, but not enough. the tickets sold out fast. >> we have been on the road for two days now. >> how long in traffic? >> since five: 30, 7 and a half hours. >> how do you manage? >> you don't.
>> in crimea, things are not much better. >> we sat in traffic for 10 hours. the line was longer than this one, but we rested well. the waiting is really frustrating, but we will get past these minor problems. >> the spirit of patriotism has taken hold in crimea. the peninsula is now drawing also to people from curious adventurers to investors. >> there are new investment opportunities. things are developing. >> 6 million tourists vacation in crimea last year, and only a quarter of them were russians. the majority were ukrainians. this year, though, most of them will be staying away, as with the big cruise ships from europe . tourism has also taken a hit in
the resort city of yalta. moscow is trying to salvage this year's high season. that's why the kremlin has urged state-owned companies to offer employees cheap travel packages to crimea. moscow has long since dominated the propaganda war here. most russians stand firmly behind vladimir putin's move to annex the peninsula. t-shirts bearing images of russian soldiers and good in himself are a big hit -- images of russian soldiers and putin himself. the ukrainian t-shirts are hidden in the back, long since forgotten. crimea has already switched its currency to rubles, and that has hiked up prices, but just how much have they climbed? >> one and a half to two times as much. >> groceries here used to come from ukraine, and they were a lot cheaper than russian
product. >> a kilo schnitzel costs 80% more than it used to. half the people do not even by me anymore with prices like these. >> these women insist inc. have gotten better. they say retirees have seen their pensions tripled. >> nothing has more -- nothing is more expensive. everything is fine. >> for many here, criticism is seen as a kind of treason. only a few people are willing to tell us that ukrainian goods are intentionally held up at the border. >> of course prices are going up when people are suffering. russia is not sending us meet on those fairies. how could they? what's worse, we don't have any customers anymore. >> the beach chairs sit empty, and is only a slow trickle of
passengers boarding a tour boat. crimea used to see 30 million of 4 million ukrainian tourists a year. without them, it's empty. -- 3 million or 4 million ukrainian tourists a year. without them, it's indeed. >> we usually see up to 3000 people on this promenade. >> how many are there now? >> barely 50. the russians have not really started coming yet, and the ukrainians do not want to out of principle. i come from kiev, and my friends say there's no way they will come here. >> this man has been unsuccessful in offering his own apartment for tourists to read, something that used to be common practice as an important source of income. for most of the people here, there still a long road ahead.
>> benefits, tourism, welfare, migration, right wing parties in britain and germany have come up with many different terms to warn about people from eastern europe who allegedly only come to western european countries to abuse social systems there. since the beginning of this year, romanians and bulgarians have been allowed to work in any country of the european union, including germany, of course, without any restrictions. if they can prove that they have a residence in germany, they can, for example, claim child benefits, but the reality is that many eastern europeans are not even aware of those options. our reporter met a group of migrant workers in berlin, and they were quite the opposite of benefit tourists or social migrants.
>> every saturday, week in, week out, several small buses from bulgaria arrived here. it's a gateway into germany for the passengers, and this café is their first stop in their new home. the passengers come from bulgaria's poorest circles. many are minorities. turks and roma. >> we left bulgaria behind. our kids cannot go to school there. there's not even money for clothes there. we've come here hoping for better lives so our kids can go to school and get an education like western europeans. >> my wife is at home expecting me to send money. the kids are sick, but there's no money for medicine. we are here to find good work, but we cannot find anything.
>> many of them have given everything they have to make the journey to germany, and their pockets are empty when they arrive. they trade advice on finding work or apartments. most -- she is bulgarian and runs the café with her turkish husband. wherever she can, she helps her fellow bulgarians. >> they arrive at night without a place to stay, no plan. we take care of them. they sleep on the tables, and we give them food for free. >> but the café has also turned into a market for a legal workers. men stand in front of the door hoping cars. then pick them up and take them on as untrained day laborers. michael's husband -- her husband is wary. he makes several phone calls. he could be warning potential
contractors that we are filming, but it's hard to say. in the end, the men are disappointed. not one car stops. they worked under the table, and the contractors are often turkish, so they share a common language, but the workers say they are forced into a dependent relationship. >> they tell us they will pay later, say we should go home and relax over the weekend, but then they do not answer their phones, and we are forced to go to the construction site. then they threaten us because we are a legal. >> i cannot be german. i have to work with the turks. why do they treat us like that? they are foreigners just like us . i would learn german if i could. yes, i would. if i could speak german, i would work for germans. i would have rights and pay into the system. i could afford an apartment and not have to hang around here like a bomb -- a bomb -- a bum.
>> he works for three euros an hour if that. he does not know the city where he is working or for whom, and that is often used against him. employers no men like him are desperate. the construction companies turn a blind eye to what their subcontractors to and profit from the exploitation. >> around 60% of the time, they trick us. then we do not get our money. normally you would be furious because you are constantly being cheated. but what can you do? you are angry. you are sad. what help is that? it makes me depressed. in bulgaria, we have nothing. no work. this is still better than nothing. even if it is tough. >> but they would rather be exploited then have no work at all. the confederation of trade unions in germany knows problem
well. the organization tries to help the workers get the money they are owed, but it's not easy. >> they get scared when we call and inform other agencies like the authorities who monitor illegal labor, for example. the workers are worried that their employers were half to close up shop, and that would mean losing their job and their only income. >> exploitation on the job and off. nicky and alex take us into the one-room apartment they share. >> one person sleeps here. the other two there and over there. and another friend sleeps here, but he is back on the streets because he cannot pay. this is our kitchen. we make coffee and tea here.
here's the pan. we did vegetables out of the trash or beg restaurants for leftovers. that's how we get by. >> the apartment does not have a bathroom or a toilet. there's a shower in the kitchen where the men can relieve themselves. they also use the café on the ground floor. heating is nonexistent, and to make matters worse, the turkish owner uses the kitchen for storage. >> is 150 euros a person. it's 600 euros total. rent is due in four to five days. how am i going to manage to pay that again? >> if i don't pay into a three days, he will throw me out. it is his right.
>> i don't get any welfare. i don't even know where to go. i don't speak german and don't know how it works. >> an evening game of cards helps lift the mood, but not for long. tomorrow morning, the struggle to survive starts all over again , right in the heart of berlin. >> this sound here -- do you know what it is? can you guess? it sounds a bit like a bike inflator or some other kind of air pump, but i will tell you where it comes from -- it's this machine here, a slab press. the sound this machine makes has almost become extinct, like the many other sounds that get lost when technology evolves, but thanks to a sound collector from sweden, future generations will still be able to immerse themselves in times that are long gone.
>> most people grimace at the grinding of an old cabinet maker's stock, but it is music to his ears. once this old engine is running at full speed, he knows he has hit just the right note. it is a keeper for his recorder. industrial historian collects antique noises, the kinds made by machines now seen in museums but almost never heard. >> noises are also part of history, in part we hardly know anything about. the oldest sound recordings date to the year 1860. it is a woman singing a french folk song. but we know very little about how the cities and vintages sounded back then. >> this drill from the early
20th century has a unique sound, a historically significant sound that can be preserved for future generations. the viking also has a sound all its own. this 1942 d.c. three saw many years of service with scandinavia's biggest airline. a veteran pilots club keeps the plane air worthy. nostalgia buffs willing to pay the airfare for a spin revel in the 40's-era cabin. nielsen enjoys the sound of the propellers. >> my parents took their first charter holiday on a play like this. many swedes are flown to spain on planes like this one and bigger ones. it brings back memories of the time when air tour is him was just getting started.
>> for their part, the veteran pilots insist it is just not true that the d.c. three was rickety and much too loud. >> that isn't noise. to us, it's music. every year when we bring the plane out of the hangar for the first time and crank it up, people asked us when we will be taking off. >> in the labor museum, nielsen is collecting every sound that he deems of historical value and worthy of preservation. the european union is providing financial support. that is music to the museum staff's years -- years -- ears. his objective is to record a total of 600 sounds and post them on the internet for anyone who is interested to listen to. >> genuine diver sounds would be
the fulfillment of a dream. a deep-sea diver working in a heavy helmet -- that sounds awesome. >> since he began seeking out noises from bygone eras, he says he has started hearing the world around him differently, even when he is not carrying his recorder. he says he especially likes the sound of tires crossing train tracks. >> only a world full of sound evoke the images in our heads. >> of course, with his finely tuned ears, he has a very particular musical taste. after a hard day of collecting vintage noise, he likes to unwind to be sounds a german rock -- sounds of german rock. >> by the way, he does not just collect swedish sounds. he is going to travel all over europe and answer questions like, "does a kitchen mixer from slovenia make the same sound as one from finland?"
07/03/14 07/03/14 [captioning made possible by democracy now!] >> from visby, sweden, this is democracy now! anti-apartheid leader ahmed kathrada thanks the people of sweden for their support of the african national congress. while the united states considered the anc to be a terrorist organization, sweden funneled millions of dollars to nelson mandela's banned organization. then we cont