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tv   Quadriga - The International Talk Show  LINKTV  May 22, 2016 2:30pm-4:01pm PDT

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♪ peter: helello, and a vevery wam welcome indeeded to ththis latet addition of "quadriga," coming to you from the heart of the german capital, berlin. this week, we are focusing on the political crisis in austria, and the impact it is having on the rest of europepe. the story is this. austria goes to the polls this weekend to elect a new president. the likely winner is norbert hofer, the head of the far right freedom party, who won the first round of voting in april. since then, there has been much talk of the demise of austria's postwar political establishment, and big questions about how developments in austria fit into the rise of nationalism and xenophobia that we are currently
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seeing across the european continent. our question this week here on "quadriga," is this. crisis in austria, who can stop europe's drift to the right? to discuss that question, i'm joined here in the studio by three seasoned observers and analysts. let me introduce them to you. beginning with ewald konig, a freelance correspondent and austrian himself, who has been covering austrian politics for decades now. he says, "it is not only the refugees. there are many other reasons for austria's and europe's drift to the right." also with us today is alan posener, a commentator with the berlin daily "die welt." alan says, "nobody cares who governs a small country like austria, but germany has a responsibility for the whole of europe. we can't afford viennese coffeehouse politics," he says. and my third guest is ulrike guerot, of the european democracy lab, who believes that, "a wildfire is sweeping across europe.
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it's taken in hungary, and now poland, and now austria, with france looking likely to be next." ewald konig, i would likike to begin with you. without any disrespect whatsoever, i would like to suggest that austria is not exactly a big country. it has a population of fewer than 10 million. i would like to ask you to explain to us how and why it is having sucuch a huge impact at this point in time. ewald: well, we have a long series of grand coalitions in austria. therefore, i say this is not only the refugees and mass migration, that we have a drift to t the right wing, but also people are not satisfied. they are fed up with the political system, with the two bigger parties that are not big anymore, and with the wheeling and dealing. they are fed up with many other
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things, beginning from the globalization, down to the interior politics. peter: you've touched on just about every subject we will be talking about inin the next 25 minutes. i would just like you to give us an idea, from the people you have been talking to in austria this past week or so, how great is the sense of crisis in the country, ahead of this crucial election on sunday? especially with the world looking on, of course. ewald: i think many people hope that the candidate of the e gren party -- officially he is independent, but he is of the green party for many years -- that he will make the election. although, there is a big gap between the first candidate of the so-called blue party. i can imagine that many people in austria were so frustrated
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that they wanted to protest with the election, and they voted for norbert hofer, and then they were shocked about his high percentage in the result. now maybe they do not vote in this big mass, and all the other candidates who failed are in favor of mr. van der bellen. although, mr. van der bellen, he is not the ideal candidate as well. a couple of days ago, there was a show on television, private tetelevision in austria, and it was embarrassing. it was done without a moderator, just the two candidates. it really was embarrassing. it is a damage for this
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presidential function. peter: ok. alan posener, ewald konig playing down fears in austria. you have dismissed events in austria as the politics of a viennese coffeehouse. i would like to draw your attention to an article i was reading in "the new york times" about a week ago or so. under the title, austria and the future of europe it said, , "history's shadow of rapid nationalism and xenophobia kept at bay since the end of world war ii is lengthenening across e continent. this is serious." alan: it is very serious. the newspaper needn't look to europe to say that. it is lengthening across america, too. we have, with mr. trump, the presidential candidate of the republican party, it is a western phenomenon. no longer can the americans say it is a european phenomenon. when i said it was viennese coffeehouse politics, i was being just as disdainful and actually wrongheaded about it, because it is a german phenomenon with the afd too.
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and the point is that you talk about dissatisfaction, mr. konig, with the system in austria. i go to austria regularly. it is a great country to live. it is a high standard of living. it is a wonderful place to be. where does all this anger come from? it is a strange, i don't know, it is not as if people are like in the 1930's, out of work, bread lines. even people who are out of work have a great social system in austria. there is something more sinister going on, almost like a death wish. maybe it is no accident that sigmund freud discovered the death wish. it comes from vienna. as if they want to just destroy everything. that european democracy, austrian democracy, is built after the war, and it is very disconcerting. if you could point to something and say this, they let people down on that, you could change it. but people seem hell-bent on destroying themselves.
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what do you do? peter: what do you make of all that? [laughter] i'm fascinated to hear what you have to say. ulrike: what am i doing with the death wish? let's take freud out of here and do politics. i would argue it does not fall from heaven, first. there is a 15-year-old tradition , and another very prominent figure, which was the uprising of modern right-wing populism, which came from austria, 15 years ago. which, by then, we stitill pursd on the legal side of the gotpean union, because we article seven and we wanted to do something against. it could buy time. -- ita seems toto be doesn't come from nowhere, but it hasas been undercover for a long. now in the whole development mr. posener and as
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said, it is not just us,s, it is america with mr. trump. it is in poland as well. right-wing populism. i think what has been latent in thisustrian case now gets way. it brings austrian potential to another ethic. what can you observe is not so distinct from whatat you s see elsewhere, which is that there is a political class in the middle, the moderate ranked, a d momoderate left, which has creed to either side. you see the german coalition, and you see in france where you have the president a lot -- hollande, and for finland, denmark and austria. we are building the margins of the political spectrum in all countries.
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they are building a wall around itself. mr. posener says it is not like w when we were livig in the 1930's, with massive unemployment. but people are comparing the situation with the 1920's and 1930's. very sane and sensible people are doing that in private conversations and have, in the media and in general. ulrike: i would not agagree with that. there is a situation, and if i'm at mistaken, i was hearing story about income discrepancies and austria. under par, sketching out very high discrepancies. elsewhere, like there are many bit people, but many others who did not benefit. indiana, it is -- vienna is a very wealthy town, but it is not for everybody.
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people are scared about their own perspective, and anxieiety about what they will lose, then you have the same centimeter of destabilization of the middle class, to bring these people to the right. , somethingkonig sinister in austria. that word caught my attention. something sinister. do you agree? ewald: i do not agree with some positions of mr. posener. ofhink it is some sort arrogant to say, who cares about a small country, or the government are small countries -- of small countries. i have to say thatat the chancellor d did care about smaller countries, and he did consult them, or and form them -- informed them. this is in the past, it was not done today. the second position that germany has, the responsibility for the whole of europe.
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in fact, it is like this. germany has the leadership for .urope, and many countries neighboring countries care that germany takes leadership, but you cannot say german me has the response -- germany has the responsibility. peter: what you appear to be saying is germany is bullying smaller countries in europe. agree, but not really smaller countries. austria was benefiting by jeremy -- germany. you can talk about the european south, about the austerity policy. countries like austria or even the netherlands benefit from what is gaining to the markeketn germany. on the political side, i agree that thesenig, countries resent they have no more say in the european making. if you go to the refugee criris, the chancellor who just
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resigned, he was given orders by angela merkel to arrange this. it was more her calling for the auaustrian chancelellor to givim a task, as if the chancellor is not on equal footing in the system of european governance.i think there is something building up , in the small countries. we are seeing that we are paying the political price. thed: because the some of smaller countries are powerful. peter: one thing we do know, in austria, norbert hofer's success shook the political establishment to the core. as y you pointed out, to the resignation of the chancellor. austrianresignation of chancellor earlier this month sent a clear signal. in germany, the social democrats have seen a big drop over the past several years in
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their share of the vote, and a number of f party members. chancellor merkel's christian democrats are not doing much better. neither are many of europe's other big political parties. right-wing parties are stealing their votes. people are really nervous right now, and they don't trust the established parties. >> and those parties are nervous, too. >> we are talking about our exisistence here. we could end up in a tailspin and crash. are europe's big political parties dying ouout? peter: interesting question. we are talking about the broad-based, the big 10 political parties that are the cornerstone of european politics for decades, since the second world war, effectively. are they on the way out? alan: it would appear so.
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it is very alarming. this i is partly to o do it -- e basic reason is the electoral systemem in the whole of europe. if you had the electoral system thenin prison -- britain, you would still have two main parties, center left, center right, and a basically stable political set up. where they don't have that and they have proportional representation for european elections, the u.k. comes in on top. a bag of fools, basically. in europe, it is proportional representation, that is the basis. anyone with a grudge for any reason whatsoever, mostly basis -- baseless. the elites discredit themselves in the financial crisis of 2008. ok, they make mistakes. but the fact is, what is going on is people are voting irresponsibly.
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they are saying, i don't agree with the system, i will vote for this other person. they are not voting for a government, they are voting for a protest party. is a breakdown of political education. ulrike: i strongly disagree. people vote for what they want. your comparison doesn't hold, because in france you do have a majority system and they, are she holds 40% i in some of the regions of france. the voting system is just part of the explanation for france. the second thing, it is the right for people to be in anger against the of -- government. it's not that the people are voting wrongly, it may say that the political class is not functioning, and that is s wrong politics. we did a lot of wrong politics. there was everything illegal, but not moral. there was socialization of bank
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debt. there is a system that needs to take the blame that people are giving. what we are seeingng is just a the people, but in a way the people are the soverereign. -- they areclass protesting the political class. the establishment left people behind. instead of pointing to the people, perhaps the establishment could understand that they better do good governance for the people. ewald: the thing is, the more you want people not to vote for the right wing parties, those people who want to protest, they know what to vote because they want to hurt. alan: yes, ok. the whole point t about democray -- it is not taught correctly in school. they say democracy means leadership by the rule by the people. that's not true. liberal democracy means checks on the rules. checks on the emotions of the populace.
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this is why you have the voting system in great britain and the united ststates, designed to kep protest voters to a minimum. ulrike: completely agreed, but -- can fail.of the but the majority of the system comes on two legs, because you need to legs to walk. one is the anti-euro side, thehe other is the racism and xenophobia. because racism and xenophobia can be easily criticized by the establishment, look how these don't are, xenophobic, talk to them, it canan be shifid away. but this basically enables the political class cannot look at the real critique of these people against and is functioning-- this governance. austria it is pretty true. there is a fundamental substantial critique to make, that also comes from science,
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that they europe governance system is flawed for many people and does not work. there's no social component and component.atic if marine le pen says this, she the populace. in essence, she is right. only because in addition she is xenophobic, you can easily push her away, and it makes you not take serious points of critique. we should look at what t the populace are saying. they say we are mistreating people on many levels of the social and democracy field. we should listen instead of pushing them away. peter: i wonder if you are taking the voter seriously, because there are many people clearly, it is a learning process with the emergence of the far right. we are learning there are a lot of people who are very threatened and disgruntled by the accelerating speed of globalization. they feel as though their traditional lifestyles are
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threatened. do you respect that, do you have sympathy for that? or do you dismiss that? alan: you're putting me on the spot here. i don't have any respect for that. why should i respect someone who does not want society to be modern? why should i respect someone, who says, i want to live in a racially pierce society and -- pierce society and i don't want immigrants? why should i respect someone who does knowledge to share their wealth? i have no respect. the problem is not that the parties are ruling. or that they pushed it aside. they did not get up until the people -- this is not how we talk about strangers. this is not how we talk about globalization. it is not how they talk about europe. and david -- if they were not angry enough, they did not take it seriously. ulrike: you are picking up what i was trying to explain. we are picking up on the racist tendencies, but not the legitimate claim that the global
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economy is making them stuck. look -- alan: if it is greece, fine. i have every sympathy with downtrodden greeks. but there are no downtrodden austrians. they are on the top. you,: we will come back to after we have another look at a short report. this is an aspect of what we discussed here, the fierce people have about, what is the word, identity. loss of identity. let's watch the pictures first. announcer: heland. acss europe, right wing political parties are playing up nationonist teams, including what they see as too much immigration. thehe split is not between the left and the right, , but between the globalists and the patrioiots.
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the globalist who favor the dissolution of france in a global magma, and patriots who believe the national arena is the most protected for the french, and that means all of you. announcer: the national front has become the voice of a lot of frustrated voters. there are many of these parties in europe. germany, too. >> we are patriots. we love our homeland, and we want to protect it. announcer: but can this new nationalism protect people from truly global problems? peter: that is the question, ewald konig. globalists versus patriots. ewald: i think it need not be a contradiction. you can be a patriot, and also fond of globalization. there is a special aspect on the euroropean level, especially for the austrians. most people forget it.
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2000, we had the first break of the grand coalition. it was a coalition of conservative parties. it was some sort of maximum , thety from the eu side austrians without being asked. peter: the austrians were not consulted. ewald: yes. and this is still a scar. the austrians had the highest -- of ulrike: agreement. ewald: agreement in entering the eu. but after these sanctions, it is still a scar. peter: a scar on the far right, resentment. it is there.
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but what is the best way to stop it? what is the best way to address it? alan: look, the austrians elected a self hating homosexual, israel hater. a hater of everything truly western. and now they say it is a scar because the european union decided they could not allow that? that something had to be done about it, because it was not the way we do business in europe? all i can say is, it is not for them. we don't let people like that to be part of government, and we should not allow it. peter: how do we stop the far right? ulrike: we need to get the analysis clear. talking about what marine le pen said, it is globalism together with the agenda for openings. -- says she wants closer closure, but you cannot have that on one side. if youou have open markets, bubt ththen you get cosmopolitanism with it.
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this is really we need to understand. the moment liberals want open markets, you can open agendada fromom other people from differt nations, you cannonot havee separate liberalism's. the left wants closed market open human agenda. the right wants only open markets,s, but they want to didisclose identities. because these two liberalisms always come along, left and right are retreating their own electorates, and that goes to the margins. this is the analysis. not a solution, but analysis of the problem. ulrike: but it is very part -- important to get it right. peter: how do you stop the far right? -- i think wet cannot stop it by order, we have to live with them. we have to make a reality check, if they have responsibility in the government.and then we h hae demystification.
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you cannot stop it. peter: so the genie of nationalism is out of the bottle. can it be put back in, or is it going to run and run? alan: it remains to be seen. but you have to fight it. that is not what the center-right is doing now. at the moment, they say, we have to take -- they are pretetending these are real concerns. they are not real concerns. they are demagoguery. worke: but that can only because of the social and economic erosion. if not, it cannonot walk -- wor. the political class needs to fight those emotions. peter: we will have to leave it there. i hope we have given you plenty of food for thought. if you enjoyed the show, come back next week. we would love to hear from you. goodbye. cheers. ♪
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announcer: this is a production of china central television america. walter: the human brain, it weighs a little more than a kilogram and we use it every moment of every day, yet so much about our brain remains a mystery. this week on "full frame," we'll meet some of the field's top researchers who are unlocking the power ofof the brain. i i'm mikeke walter in ls angeles. let's take it "full frame."
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imagine learning a brand-new skill, anything in fact, in just 20 hours, something as tough as speaking a new language or playing an instrument for the very first time. sound impossible? not hardly, according to bestselling author josh kaufman. josh says it can be done and forget that 10,000-hour rule. he says all you need is what he calls the rapid skill acquisition to learn any new skill as quickly as possible. recently, i sat down with josh kaufman, author of the book "the first 20 hours" at the annual aspen ideas festival to discuss his amazing learning method. it's so funny because i've gone to several presentations here but rapid skills acquisition. that'll pack a house. i mean, it was amazing when i went and sasaw your session, hohow many people were there. what's your motivation for this? kaufman: you know, i am curious about a lot ofof different thin. the world is a big place and there are lots of fun ththings o explore. so,o, part of my
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intererest in researching rapid skill acquisisition was s for myself. i had a bunch of things that i wanted to learn how too do and i didn't have an infinite amount of time to lelearn those things. so, becoming more efficient at getting good at a new skill was very motivating for me, but it's also a big issue for pretty much everyone, right? we all have things that would be beneficial for us t to learn for our career or things that we've always wanted to learn for fun but we just haven't got around to investing the time yet. so,o, i wanted to figure ot a meththod or a system to-o--if you're interested in something, to g go from knowing absolutely nothing to being very, very good in a very short p period of time.. walter: get momore money, get me done, but also have more fun. how important is the fun piece of this? because learning new stuff is not always fun. kaufman: oh, it's super important. it's--i think in the process of learning something
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new, the faster it's fun, the more likikely it is that you're going to keep practicing. and the more you practice, the better you are. so, breaking past--i call it the frustration barrier. getting past that initial point of frurustration o the point where yoyou see resuls and you're excited about that, that's really, really valuable and important. and i i think ina broader life context, too, we--a lot of people tend to really place emphasis on c carer types of skills. but learning something because you're curious abobout it or bebecause e you think you would enjoy y it, i mean, there's a lt to be sasaid for just t explorig something for the sake of that. and i think that's a major part of what makes life fulfilling. so, i wanted to help people do that, too. walter: you came up with this number, 20 hours, which breaks down to what, 45 minutes a day for a month or so? kaufman: yeah. walter: : so, how did you arrive at that number, and then of
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course you tested your theory on not just the ukulele, which we'll get to inin a minutute-- kakaufman: sure. walter: but other things as well to find out t whether r or not it--was it reaeally accurate? kaufman: yeah. so, in my research, i was--i was looking for about how long it takes to get pretty reasonably good coming from nothing to noticing how you're performing and saying, "hey, i can do this thing that i have never done before." so, the research that went into "the first 20 hours" was me taking this method that i had developed and learning all sorts of different things. so, i learned computer programming. i learned how to play the ukulele. i learned how to touch type on a brand-new keyboard, so i no longer use the qwerty keyboard that most english speakers use to type. i learned how to windsurf. i learned all sorts of different things. and i wanted to test if this system applied to physical skills, so things you do with your body, m motor skills, and cognitive skskills, learning how to think or make decisisions ina
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different way. and it applies to both, whihich was--was rereay ninice. so, , what i found is tt 20 hours is just enough h of a commitment that if you practice for 20 hours, you're going to be way, way better at the end thanan you were at the beginnnning. but it's s not so mucuch time tt itit feels overwhelming to commt to. so, that--the nunumber came out of all of the research that i did personally to test the method. walter: and i saw the smile when you said "really nice," but was it really surprising? kaufman: it was surprirising! i actually, at the beginning, expected it to be more. and, um... what i found is that the first--regardless of who you are and regardle o of wh you're lrnining,he firir couple hours o-of learngng something w w are st t terriy frustrining. u butut iyou caca make it thugugh the fifirs call i3 3 to 4oursrs, gets much sisier a it't's muchch more funececauseou n note yourse b beingble e toerformrm in aewew way
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walterwhwhat's s th80-20 0 ru? yohave an -20 rulehat you lk aboutwhat is that? kaufman: sure. the 80-20 rule is a phenomenon that appears in all sorts of different areas, which basically saysys that the vast majority of results or outcomes are going to come from a minority of the sources. if you think about it, this appears everywhere. so, you probably wear 20% of the clothes in your closet 80% of the time. you call 20% of the context--or contacts in your--in your cell phone or in your--in your contact list 80% of the time. and so what i found is that this applieses to skill acquisisition as well. u um, mot skills aren't one big thing. they're combinations of lots and lots of smaller things, which i call sub-skills. and you'll use 20% of the sub-skills that exist in t that skill 80% of the time. and so if you want to learn quickly, it stands to reason that you should probably practice the
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things that you're going to be doing all the time first, because if--as soon as you get good at those, you'll use itt for the rest of the time using the skill. walter: so, the great thing about what you talk about is that if you look at things in totality, you say, "oh, i'm never gonna do this." kaufman: right. walter: but if you break it down, as you do, um, suddenly you can focus s on one area andt can make a huge difference as you're describing. you talk about these 4 simple steps. we're talking a a lot of mathematics here, but what are the 4 simple steps? kaufufman: sure. the first steps to decide what you want to do, which is actually hard for a lot of people. when we go about learnining something new, the impulse is to talk about the global skill, right? i want to learn how to speak italian. i want to learn how to golf. but those aren't one thing. it's--there are a lot of skills that go into what we think of. so, the first is to rereally decide what is it you want to be able to do when you're done. what does it look like? so, can
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you imagine yourself in the future actually doing this thing, like define that as quickly as--or as concretely as you can. the next thing that you do is what we were just talking about, deconstructing. so, you take that big skill and you break it down into smaller parts that are much less overwhelming, they're much easier to practice in isolatioion, and you practice te ones that you're going to be using the vast majority of the time first. that's where research comes in, too, because if you look at a couple books, a couple dvds, a couple resources, the ththgs that come up over and over and over again, those are the essentials, and those are the fundamentatals that you practice first. and then it's pretty simple. you remove barriers for practice, so anything that is going to distract you or take you away when you actually sit down and practice. so, turn off the internet, turn off the tv, shut off your cell phone, close the door--you know, all of those things to make sure that you're not interrupted. and then before you start, you
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pre-commit to 20 hours of deliberate practice. and then when you finish those 20 hours, then you can evaluate, "is this a skill that i want to continue improving or did i get what i want? like, am i d done now?" ad i think most of us think that we need to practice and become really, really good at something, when really you may be able to get exactly what you want within that 2 20-hour perid and then y you're done anand you can go on to learn something else. walter: uh, here's something that also kind of struck me that i was surprised at is when you shut the door and when you shut off the internet and when you shut off the phone can be very important in how well you learn. what hour you choose to kind of carve out to do your work is important, isn't it? kaufman: it is. this is one of the fascinating things that i found in the process of researching this book, because i read lots of cognitive science and psychology journals.s. and e
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of the things that's really interesting about hohow we learn is whatever we learn during the day, your brain has a process called consolidation, where it kind of forms those--it puts what you learn into long-term memory. and most of that happens when y you slee. and so, one of the techniques that--that i found in researching this book is if you practice right before you go to bed, that's a very efficient time to practice. because if you practice within, call it 2 or 3 hours before goingo o bed, that consolidation pcecess thatappens aomomatally i in ur brains mumuchore efficient than it heherwis wod be. so, personlyly, i ally like carvinouout 45 minutes at t e end othe e da just beforbebed beusee it--i's rely wei when you wake up in the morning, if you try to do it, you will notice a difference between what you can do in the morning versus what you could do at night. it's very apparent. walter: 'cause the re-- the circuits are just rewired in a sense. kaufman: yeah, it's, like,e, when--when we are
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learning, we are--we are changing the physical structure of our brain, and there's a physical process thahat happens and it happens at night while you sleep.p. walter: i know a lot of parents who've, you know, have the kids down in the basement learning the drums... kaufman: yep. walter: and it's like fifingernails on the chahalkboa. so, i'm curious, how did your wife take the 20 hours of the ukulele? 'cause when i think of the ukulele, it's such a pleasant sound but it can also probably be excruciating. what were her thoughts as you were kind of making your way through the, uh, process? kaufman: s she was very supportive. uh, we both run businesses and we both work out of home officeces, and so, uh, practicing in the middle of the day while she's trying to work is--is usually not such a good idea, but practicing at night while things are winding down, that was a preretty good sustaiainable strarategy in--inr household. walter: so, uh, first of all before i ask the next question, let me pass along my thanks to kelsey kaufman because she was kind enough to have that
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tolerance. now, you've reached the stage where i'd like to display your talents for our audience and maybe you can lift up your ukulele-- kaufman: sure. walter: and kind of walk us through how breaking it down helped you to achieve what you've achieved as a ukulele player. kaufman: sure. so, uh, i think we'll start by playing a little mozart, if that's ok, in the form of "twinkle, twinkle, little star," which is pretty much what--where everybody starts. um, and it's really easy. so, the first thing that you learn how to do is--is play chords. so, "twinkle, twinkle, little star" is c-- ♪ twinkle, twinkle, little f chord--♪ star how i wonder ♪ g--♪ what you are and so just learning the chords and the fingering positions and how to switch between, that's step one. but that gets kind of boring after a while, right? so, you learn how to do more complex things. like, we can add a strumming pattern to this. so... ♪ twinkle, twinkle, little star how i wonder what you are ♪
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so, you can do that, and then you can do even more complex things. so, there's a style of playing called finger picking. so, instead of strumming all of the strings at the same time, you hit them individually in a pattern. so... ♪ twinkle, twinkle, little star how i wonder what you are ♪ and so you just--you start very, very simple, and when you master one thing, you just make it a little bit more complicated and a little bit more complicated. and after a while, youou can do some prettyy complex things. so, i'm learning songs that aren't just chords. you have to do something particular. so... [finger pipicking a tune] and you just pick a little part of the song, you practice that over and over again. when you
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make a mistake, you notice where you made the mistake and you work on that thing specifically, and you just keep going until you've got it. it's really fun. walter: and from "twinkle, twinkle," just knowing that, it leads to several songs, as you demonstrated the other day. can you walk us through that? kaufman: oh, yeah. so, let's see... ♪ just a small-town girl living in a lonely world she picked the midnight train going anywhere ♪ ♪ and i heaeard that yoyou settled down ththat you found a girl that you're married now ♪ ♪ every night in my dreams i see you i feel you that is how i know we'll go on ♪ ♪ let it go, let it go can't hold it back anymore ♪ ♪ because i can't live with or without you ♪
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♪ when i find myself in times of trouble mother mary comes to me ♪ ♪ sometimes i feel like i don't have a partner no woman, no cry ♪ ♪ oh, mama, this surely is a dream ♪ ♪ i come from a land down under ♪ ♪ once e a jolly swagman campfirere, billabong ♪ ♪ hey, i just met you and this is crazy but here's my number so call me ♪ ♪ hey, sexy lady ♪ op, op, op, op oppa gangnam style ♪ ♪ can you feel the love tonight? ♪ ♪ whoa, you think you're something special whoa, you think you're something else that don't impress me ♪ ♪ old macdonald had a farm e-i-e-i-o ♪ walter: well, josh, you are special. kaufman: thank you. walter: and 20 hours, folks, that's what it is. thank you so much. really appreciate it. kaufman: thanks so much for having me. waltlter: coming up p next, min-
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controlled robots are making their way from sci-fi to reality. in 2014, millions around the world watched as a 29-year old paraplegic from brazil used a mind-controlled robotic suit to kick the official ball during the world cup opening ceremony. while it was a brief moment, it was a kick that was years in the making. [man speining foign langge]]
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waer: so, w did at ppen? we, it toodecadeof rearch bduke univeity neoscienst, dr. miel nicolis toake that kk a reity. his pneering brn-machininterfacg searchould mean llionsf inred pele will onday be able to wa again. d dr.
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nicoles joins now frosao paol welco to "fulframe." nicolis: oh, h thank y very mucfor the vitation 's great plsure to re. lter: ta to mebout thi brain-machine interfe. how uld you exain ito us? nicolis: wel basical, abou15 yearsgo, myriend, hn chapi and iere studng brn circuitsand weealized th we could tually cate a direct ierfaceetween livg brn tissuend machis using a coutationa uh, straty thate develod in ourabs. and in the beginngng, wehought thatathat was just to--tststudy, you kn, the brn sesequce in a betteray, but foundut a cole yearsater that at could be t beginng of so mplete n new appach h to treat patients sufringng fm sere parysis. walt: so, yoyohave thi conct, and tn in 22, you art workinwith monys. wh
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diyou findhen? nicoleli well, athat poi, we rlized th we coul directly tnsmit robots th voluary motointentioof monks. so, wn the nkey wanted to ve its a or its leg, we alized tt we cld rerd the ectrical gnals proded by thbrain ofhe animal and decode their intention to move that the animal was producing in the shape of this electrical brainstorms, and translate it into digital commands that a machine can understand. and in 2003, we publish a paper where we show that our monkeys had learned to control the movements of a robotic arm just by thinking. they didn't need to move their own bodies. they just needed to imagine the kind of arm movement they wanted to perform to play a videogame. and in by doing so, they would get some reward, some juice as a reward for accomplishshing ththe task justy imagining these movements and making a robotic arm move a computer cursor on a--on a
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screen. walter: does the brainin get--receive something back from the robot? i mean, is this a two-way street? nicolelis:s: yes, it be--it soon became a two-way communication between brains and machines. first, we did that using visual feedback so the animals could see the device performing a task under the control of the animal's brain, but later we also added to it a tactile feedback so the animals could have a sense of touch that was generated by sensors placed on the robotic device or in virtual devices, like body avatars, so that when the animal imagine a movement and this robotic device touched something, the animal would sense what was being touched by the--by the robotic device. so, this two-way communication allowed the animals to incorporate this device as an extension of their own bodies. walter: it seems like science fiction to some of us. as you were going through this
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process, were you kind of--you must'veve been astonished. nicolelis: oh, yeah. many times, yes. the first time we saw monkeys controlling a robotic arm without moving their own arms, we basically couldn't speak in the lab. you know, the students and everybody involved that were watching the experiment were completely speechless. and then as we progressed, as you said, to the world cup demonstration and we saw the patients could take, you know, an enormous benefit from this technology, we also had great moments in the past two years, you know, seeing our 8 patients basically improve in their condition by using brain-machine interface. walter: so, when you take this from monkeys in a lab and you have a much broader look at things, i mean, where do you see this going? i mean, this could impact millions of people, couldn't it? nicolelis: oh, absolutely. yeah, we--we have found a couple of things with these 8 patients that we work with here in brazil. they are very, very
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important. first, of course, they could u t the bin-m-macne interfactoto conol t thilowerr limb exoeleletonnd r regn the abity to wk in our laborary. and--b also by the fact that the'realking again, just an hour daday, a coupleimes a week, we e seeingigns of neurologic--partiall neurological recovery, so thesee patients a are regaining some movements. they're regaining some sensitivity below the level the spinal cord lesion. and they're, you know, improving in terms of autonomic function, cardiovascular function, gastrointestinal function, so the entire quality of life of these patients have improved significantly. so, i'm thinking in the next few years, we are going to see the technology's spread to many applications in clinical neurology. walter: here's what's really interesting about this. and we've got a piece of video that we want to show, and i want you to talk a little bit about this. this has led to man-to-man, brain-to-brain communication. what we're looking at here, this is at thee
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university of washingtonon, whee reresearchers arare demonsnstrag how the signals from one person's brain arare able to control the hand motions of another person within a a split- second of sending the signal. now, this sounds remarkable but it's actually happening. and you hear the cheers of these researchers, probably the same sort of thing, miguel, that you've gone through in your labs in the past.. man: yes! success! walter: tell us about this as well. man: all right. nicolelelis: yes, about 2 years ago in the beginning of 2013, my students and i reported in a paper the possibility of creating this brain-to-brain interface in rats. we publish a paper that, you know, describe this proof of concept-- when a signal from one rat's brain was delivered to a second animal. and the second animal basically decided what to do, to go left or right, to press a left bar versus a right bar, just based on the signal that it
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was receiving from the first animal. that was the first report on brain-to-brain interface. and my good friends at university of washington basically took that almost immediately to the--a proof of concept in humans. and just about a month ago, we published two more papers, one in rats and one in monkeys, showing that this concept can be generalized to multiple brains interacting to achieve a common goal. we call that a brain net and we had about three monkeys, for instance, collaborating mentally to move a--an avatar arm in 3d. so, the e arm cod onlyly be movd if a at leastwo ofof these monknkeys werere mentalllly comg their r brain acactivity to cree ththis x andnd y movemement 3d. and it t turned ouout that i inw sesessions, , the anals lelearnd to do o that, d theyey were abae to basicically cate a-a--a set f brains wkingng togetheher to hihieve thisis common n motor t.
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walter: : and--andnd as you tinr with this, obviously, you can look at the potential for spinal cord injuries, brain injuries, but does it raise ethical questions? i mean, as you look into the future--i mean, can we go too far? nicolelis: oh, of course. we always can go too far. but that's why it's important to describe this technology and this science not only in scientific papers to the scientific community but also in every opportunity possible to discuss that with, you know, with society, so that society can take a look at this and can decide what are the applications that are acceptable, what is proper, what is not acceptable. as a scientist, i think part of our mission--uh, certainly my mission, i believe, is to communicate as broadly as possible what is real, what is science fiction, and how far can we go and let society decide how this is going to be applied.
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my----my own opinion is that the main application o brain-chine inrfacace,t ast for the nextououple decades, wilbebe medine,e, i rehabbg-g--rehilititatn medine f forarkikinsian patien, , for ral-l--snal coco injury pieients,atieient suffering fr b brainraumuma, and a varietofof oth neurologalal disdersrs. walter: as you lk k at yr remaable a aievements,hat stds out t most for u? colelis:ell, it's diffict to--to sect a sile step.ou know, juano's ck lasyear waperhaps thmost movg momentf my sentific caer. i wajust behd him. ias measurinthings andooking for e moment of the kick, but there was a moment that i could't be a scientist anymore. and i just drop everything i was doing, waitingng for that second--that split-second in which he had to make a decision and communicate with his brain activity to the exoskeleton that was--he was ready to kick the ball. and certainly that i will never forget, but that kick would not
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haveve happened without the work of tens of graduate students, post-docs, scientists, mathematicians, engineers, people working since the late eighties in my lab, in john chapin's lab, and in labs all over t the world, that made that moment possible. and i think the symbolism of that moment is that this is just the beginning. that kick wasas just the start-up of a--of a lot to come in the next few years. walter: just the beginning, but unfortunately, we've come to our end. thank you so much for joining us. it's been a delight. nicolelis: my pleasure. thank you very much for the invitation. walter: brain-to-brain communication and controlling robots with our minds may be just around the corner, but what about today? there is something you can do to help your cognitive function right now. researchers have found that physical exercise, especially aerobics, has a significant positive impact on brain function, everything ranging from improving learning and
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mental performance to preventing dementia, alzheimer's disease, and brain aging. "full frame" contributor sandra hughes set out to find out why hitting the gym can be just as beneficial for your brain health as your waistline. hughes: living out those golden years isn't ideal if you're starting to forget what's so great about retirement. [horse nickers] [bell tolling] that's why philip jamtaas came to the university of california los angeles memory center. jamtaas: i don't have the greatest memory. i can forget something very quickly. a perfect example is my cell phone. putting it down in a hundred different places and then having to look for it all the time. hughes: former full-time script writer and director maggie parker is already a self-proclaimed exercise addict
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but says she knew she needed something to keep her mental spark alive. parker: cognitively, when i ran sets of shows, tv shows, your mind is kept very sharp all the e time. now i'm only working part-time and felt that i needed some...stimulus? woman: then to remember the list, start at the top of your head and work your way down, trying to remember how... hughes: short-term memory loss starts for most people in their 50s to 60s. but a study at the university of california los angeles is finding you don't have to take the problem sitting down. stand up, exercise, and you might just start remembering more. for a 14-week study, maggie, philip, and a handful of other aging americans bike until their hearts are pumping. and then they start to train their mimin. [computer mouse clicking] woman: the name of the study is the memory and exercise training
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study, so the mets study. and what we're trying to find out in this study is looking at the relationship between exercise and memory training and the relationship with that and cognitive enhancement. hughes: but what makes psychologist sarah mcewen's study unique isn't that there is a connection between exercise and increased memory. that's already been eststablished in other research. in her study, participants are training their minds while they train their bodies. mcewen: so what's happening is that you're putting your brain into this optimal state for learning and memory. and the reason for that is because during exercise, actually, our arousal levels are increased, so we're focused more, we're paying special attention to things. you know, we're kind of stuck there and--and we let our minds just get deep into the content in front of us. hughes: the patients have all been tested before they start the study y and have all experienced some kind of mild memory loss. then they have their blooood tested f for levef brain-deriveved neurotrophphic
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factct or bdnf. . these are proteins r released in t the boy duriring aerobic e exercise, and they help p grow neuronsns in te brbrain. mcewen: let's do this. last one. hughes: mcewen practices what she studies. she believes exercise is the key to training the mind. she's a marathon runner herself and a personal trainer. mcewen: ok? so this is a short-term memory test. this is really taxing your prefrontal cortex here. hughes: alex fetter is a professional guitar player who wants to stay mentally sharp on stage. fetter: plane, bus, car, barge. mcewen: i designed a program with my company called genius gyms and that--i call it neurocognitive performance training. so what that is is it's actually trying to combine neuroplasticity-based training of different cognitive functions like memory, attention, executive functioning, all of those things while people are
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actually exercising. hughes: even though alex is young, he wants to jumpstart his brain training now. mcewen: good. all right. good. hughes: and some studies have shown the earlier in life you start exercising, the better your mental outcome. mcewen: all right. good job. awesome. you beat the second. .99. hughes: the united states is facing a silver tsunami. some call it the graying of america. whatever you call it, it's already started, as baby boomers, those born after world war ii, turn 65. baby boomers already make up 26% of the u.s. population and their aging will impact everything from the economy to healthcare. parker: and the--you know, then you hear meshing with... mcewen: the nice thing about looking at people in this stage is that this is the best way to prevent a transition to a mild cognitive impairment or an alzheimer's disease because right now, there's really no
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treatment for those illnesses, unfortunately. you know, we're in a place where we know that there's things that are going to help prevent those things, so we need to be doing everything that we can to try to do that to preserve the gray matter and the brain function and structure that's inside of your brain. hughes: it's estimated that in a decade, the number of older people with alzheimer's disease in the united states alone will increase by 40%, from 5.1 million to 7.1 million. and by 2050, the numbers will triple to 13.8 million people if there is no medical breakthrough to stop the deadly disease. woman: your heart rates, please? jamtaas: 136. parker: wow. you're high. i'm only 90. hughes: that's why philip and maggie have stuck it out behind the handlebars. parker: i've already noticed that every day, i want to do something that i haven't done before. i want t to try to do a crossword puzzle. i wanna try to do a brain game. i want to read
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something historical. i've alreadady noticed that i--i want more. woman: so this is list "a." i'm gonna go on down to list "b" now. jamtaas: i definitely think that going through exercises like this would help you remember stuff, especially by using the tricks that they're teaching you. hughes: and when the study ends, these volunteers say they won't step off their exercise routine. they'll continue to work out their bodies to tone up their mental muscles. for "full frame," this is sandra hughes in los angeles. woman: ok. i think you'll be out here in the hallway. walter: when we come back, a peek inside a baby's mind to find out how they learn. for adults, learning a second
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language can be incredibly difficult, but it's much easier for toddlers and young children. ever wonder why that is? researchers are trying to figure out exactly how a baby's brain works to come up with this amazing accomplishment. one of the leading researchers in this field is dr. andrew meltzoff. he's an internationally renowned infant and child development expert. his 20 years of research has looked at the baby's brain and is focused on the importance of role models in a child's develolopment. his field of stuy has had far-reaching implications for cognitive science. meltzoff is co-director of the institute for learning and brain sciences at the university of washington. he recently sat down with me at the annual aspen ideas festival, where i was able to pick his brain about the mystery of baby brains. so let me start, uh, by taking you back in time. meltzoff: yeah. walter: were you young when you decided you wanted to study the young? when did this hit you?
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meltzoff: interesting. so in high school, i was very interested in doing biology. i got interested in biological processes and mechanism. then it was in college that i actually took courses with some great and wonderful cognitive psychologists anand became interested in ththe mind andnd wanted to devote m my career to undersrstanding the e mind and especially the developmentnt of the mindnd. walter: it's rare that i get the opportunity to do this in an interview setting, so i'm gonna take full advantage of it. meltzoff: ha! walter: you're one of the few people i can stick my tongue out at-- meltzoff: : that's right. walter: and connect with you in a certain way. meltzoff: that's right. walter: because you stuck your tongue out, stuck your basically your reputation out t there and got great results, didn't you? meltzoff: that's right, that's right. yeah, well, i take that as a compliment. and i was interested in n studying t the ororigins of imitation, how wewe learn by observing others. imitation is one of f the chieff chchannels that t we pick up information n about our culture, and wanted to look at the biological basis o of this and ended up testing newboborn babis where i put out my tongue e to e whwhat they would do.
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walterer: and you learned? meltzoff: and i i learned that babies in the newborn hospital would--were able to imitate. if i poked out my tongue, they would do a tongue protrusion back. if i opened and closed my mouth, they would open and close their mouth and this convinced me that human beings are born learning and born social, born with some intrinsic connectitivity to othr human beings, which i i think is fascscinating and completely changes the game of our understanding developmental psychology. walter: empathy. talk to me about empathy and what you've learned about that. meltzoff: well, empathy, you know, school performance is very important, learning academicic susubjects. but justst as import on the other side of the coin is our interactions with otother pepeople and our caring for othr people. that's often called empathy, a and we're interestedn looking at the roooots, the very ororigins, so it's our feeling f compmpassion andnd empathy and r feeling of kinship with other people. so, wewe're beginning to study that in babies and even doing some brain science to
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look at how it all starts. walter: touch is so important. one of the images that i--i took away from your session earlier today is seeing a little baby with their armrm arounund anothr little baby. um, talk to me about touch, the importance of touch from a parent to a child, how--how a baby can identify with touch and--and clearly see how important it is.s. meltzoff: right. so, touch is one of our most important senses. it's--our skin is our largest sense organ of ouour--in our entitire body. the is a about 22 sqsquare feet of n on e each of us adults. it's the largest sense organ and it's the way--it's what separates us from the o outside world. . so a brain scientist, we've been very interested in how the baby's brain responds to touch. what does the baby's skin tell the baby's brain? and we're making some fascinating discovereries, first-in-the-word discoverieies about touch.h. walter: and what are those? memeltzoff: well, what we're fifinding is that if you touchce baby's foot, a particular area of the brainin lights up that
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we're calling the foot area. if you touch their hand, the e hand areaea lights up. and this is really fascinating because it tells yoyou not only about the baby's sense of self, t their identification of different parts of their body but is the basis for socicial intereraction and identifying with others. you knknow, the child has a hand and you asas an adult have a had and we think the baby can recognizize that self-other sisimilarity throuough brain regions that are tuned to touch. they have a hahand, you have a hand and they recognize the similarity. and that's the initial bridge between self and other that gives rise when they're older to a feeling of empathy for others and caring for others, but it all begins with a sense of touch and a sense of their own body and their body map. here is my hand. there is mother's hand. mother's hand and my hand are in some sense similar. the first bridge between self and other. and from there on, social emotional development can proceed. it's incredibly important and
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it's exciting time to be doing with brain science now. the first time in history that we've been able to look inside a baby's brain and look at their body map and their sense of touch and how they respond to others inside their brain in a perfectly safe and non-ininvasive way. wawalter: so prior t to this, at ofof it was guessworork. meltzoff: yeah. walter: how close were you on the guesswork do you think? meltzoff: well, you know, brain science is capapitalizing on decades of behavioral science. before the behavioraral science, there wawas true g guesswork and therere was philosophy. and the truth is that the philosophy has been enormously impoportant. may philosophers h have talked abobt ththe body, about social interaction, and eveven the roos of empathy, how w we can feel compassionon to other people, hw we can put ourselves in other people's shoes. these are philosophical, often releligious and cultural questions and theyy set the stage from--for scientists. scientists then did behavioral research on babies and found out quite a bit. and now, we're entering the age of
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infant neuroscience, even infant social neuroscience where we can see what's happening in the brain of this little baby before they can talk and how they can relate self to other. so science goes in stages. starts with philosophy, , then looks at behavior.r. and now finally, we're inside the baby's brain, trying to understand what they know about us. walter: i'm almost fearful to ask this question and it's all--it's a purely selfish question. meltzoff: uh-hmm. walter: but when my daughter was born, i used to spend a lot of time talking to my wife's stomach and-- meltzoff: yeah. walter: and we knew that it was gonna be a girl and i'd always call her by name. and when she was born, of course, you know, it's obviously has to be traumatic as a baby to be born and come into this world. and she was crying, and i--and i said her name and she stopped and craned her neck. meltzoff: yeah, yeah. walter: now, is that happenstance or is there a connection that way? meltzoff: yoyou know, there's actually been some scscience about childrdren hearg in the womb and d they can hearn the lalast trimemester, especiay last monthth in the womb.
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people--scientists have done studies about recognizing parental voice and even the language that's spoken. and children, uh, who are growing up in chinana and who have a chchie mother carrying the baby, obviously that m mother is speaking chinese and the baby in the womb is getting bathed in chinese. and if you do a study with them after they're born and give them a choice between chinese language or another language that's not chinese, they can already tell the difference between them because they've been listening in the womb to the mother's language. the mother's language comes--gets transmitted to the baby not only through the air but through her bones. and that makes s vibrations in the womb, and the baby is listening. now you are e a dad and you spokoken the outside and there is some transmission of sound through the uterus from the outside to the baby that they can hear. so there's been studies on that and i think you're probably right. the baby probably could recognize your voice or recognize her name. it's
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fascinating that culture begins to affect children not only after they're born but even in the womb. they're listening to us. walter: so i guess when you look at the full panoply of what's out there, nature, nurture-- meltzoff: right. walter: outside influence, friends, peers, all of that, as a parent, that mixture-- meltzoff: yeah. walter: that stew, what should we be concentrating on? meltzoff: well, you know, they're all important. biology plays a deep role and the brain is sculpted by thehe environmen, by the culture, byby the paren's interaraction. so, the culture determines the shape of the brain, and the neural connections in the brain often are--are created because there's a need by culture to solve a certain problem or think about--think in a certain way. so we as parents have a lot of work to do. we're actually brain builders. we're building our children's brains when we interact with them. it's nice to hold them, nice to touch them. it makes us feel good, but we like to tell
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parents that you're building a child's brain. biology just doesn't happen by itself. one of the most distinguishing characteristics of the human species, one of the most important things of humans is that we bring up our children and care for them and have empathy for our children when they're young and they have empathy for us when they get older and for their peers. so child development is one of the most important things we can do in society to bring up the next generations of citizens. walter: and one of the things that i find fascinating about your research is those first 5 years. i mean, people are blown away at the concept of how much learning, how much explosion in growth occurs in those first 5 years. meltzoff: yeah, you're right. children learn m more in the fit 5 years than any other 5-year period in their lives. they learn more from zero to 5 than they did from 5 to 10 or 20 to 25 or even 40 to 45. children are learnrning at an amazing rate, and there's a difference between them and
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adults. children are what we call neurally plastic. they're very flexible. they can learn many new things like multiple languages quite easily. they're learning very quickly, m more quickly thanan we are. but aduls hahave the wisdom of being o ol. we canan focus in on things on the way children can't. we can drill in on details. we have the wisdom of a life led, and so we'd love to combine someday the plasticity and flexibility of the young children's mind, their ability to switch their ideas and not be stuck in old ways and combine that with the wisdom and the focus that adults have. that would be something if we can figure out how to combine the two. walter: how do we do that? 'cause, boy, everybody would like it, wouldn't they? meltzoff: everybody would like that. it would help business, national competitiveness. it would promote us as a compassionate culture and way of being in the world. you know, neuroscientists are hard at work at that and trying to understand what turns on and off this neural flexibility
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that young children have that what--the neuroplasticity. and we wanna know can we somehow keep that alive in young--in older adults? can we make them more ready to learn and more open for change? so we're working on it. walter: and science can change things in such a way. and i wanna talk to you about how your research and this type of research has changed society in a sense, and i wanna frame it this way. um, a few years back, i interviewed art rolnick, who's a noted economist. meltzoff: yeah. walter: and he talked about that first 5 years. here's an economist talking about-- meltzoff: exactly. walter: the first 5 years. and he was talking about high- risk kids. kids in tough neighborhoods with parents who probably didn't get the nurturing and probably didn't have the skills. and getting a home visitor in, a social worker or a nurse to come in and kind of model behavior. and he said those high-risk kids can become high- return kids. meltzoff: yeah. walter: and he talked about how cities, countries--i mean, we look at brazil and russia
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spending all this money on stadiums. he said the money should be spent on this. meltzoff: yeah, yeah. walter: when you first entered this, did you ever think at some point you'd hahave economimists talking about what you're doing? meltzoffff: well, there's been a revolution in our r understandig about the importance in the first 5 years of life and it's making a difference in all walks of life and all segments of society. i'm delighted to see it picked up, you know, the work by heckman in chicago that showed that the return on investment, the i, is greater in the firirst 5 years than any other periodod of time and that society ought to be investing more in the fifirst 5 years of life. you know, we know this from common sense. business people know it. you have to get the foundation right to build the business. you have to get the foundation right to build the rest of the house. it's much more expensive and much more e difficult to tae care of the child and fix things later than it is to get it right the first time. and so, part of what scientists wanna do is share the excitement of this research on early learning and hope that society will change. and of
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course we wanna take care of children all through k through 12 education. but if we don't deliver our children ready for school and we don't transform our schools to be ready for children, then k through 12 will continue to have difficulty. we have to get the first 5 years of life right, and we at--in--studying early learning are trying to help society do that. walter: let me ask one final question about touch because we know it's so important when they're little. meltzoff: yeah. walter: um, but as they grow, our kids kind of move away from us. how important is it for the 17-year old or the 23-year old to pat them on the head or tousle their hair or-- meltzoff: yeah. walter: put ththeir arm around? meltzoff: so that's very interesting. you know, i think when kids get overwhelmed and they get overwhelmed in elementary school and having a meltdown and are overly excited, but even our teenagers who often want to push us away. at those moments when they really need us, it turns out the sense of touch and the feeling of being hug--hugged and loved cocomes
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directly from a pat on the shoulder or a touch of the skin, a touch of the hand. even doctors know t that. bedside manner has to do with how kind and compassionate you are with a patient and sometimes reaching out and holding their hand will be important for healing as well as for having a conversation with a child. so for the newborn baby, their survival depends on n touch. their very survival depends on being on the mother'r's chest ad feeling that warmth and that sense of trust that they develop. but as children get older, there's contact through voice and sight where you don't have to be in touch, but touch still matters. if you want the child to really feel securure, you wanna hug and touch them. and there's some work that says that they learn better. it turns on learning in school or when they're doing their homework if you put your hand on their shoulder or touch their hand when they're doing a difficult math problem. touch is important throughout life. it's important when you're a baby, important for
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teenagers, and it's important for the elderly. and what can be more enendearing than to see an elderly grandparent holding their grandchild skin to skin again is lighting g up the brain in the grandchild and lighting up the pleasure centers in the brain in the grandparent. it's the way we progress as a species.s. we can't ever lose that. sometimes in modern society with all thiss technology, withth the cell phones which i have myself, we are holding our cell phones and paying a attention to our phones and our technology instead of looking at our children and paying attention to them. they can notice that. theyey wat to be the e center of attention and they know whenen you're papaying attttention to them whn you hold and hug them. whehen you'rere hugging your cell phon, you're not hugging your baby. your baby needs it. walter: andrew, thanks so much for your time. meltzoff: ok. thank you. walter: we'll be right back with this week's "full frame" close up.
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imagine a shirt that lets you feel your favorite athlete's excitement when he or she scores a goal or wins a race. billie whitehouse not only imagined this, she designed it. her company wearable experiments has produced alert shirt and nl fan jersey which gives sports fans a more emphatic experience. whitehouse along with her co-founder ben moir are currently working on a new clothing item for yoga enthusiasts. the yoga pants use haptic feedback or light tapping to help correct difficult yoga poses. by continuing to incorporate hardware and software into clothing, wearable experiments hopes to take fashion to the next level.
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[horns honking] woman: we've seen tenonology g from this thing that helps us to this thing that has become a frustration and a--an irritation. and we're so dependent on it now that you sort of dodon't see people at a dinner table without it. so we would love to be able to bring people back to this human connection. it's not just about technology to make us more efficient. it's actually technology to make us more human.
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wearable experiments is a wearable technology company and we create the hardware, the software, and the apparel for technology that's on the body. and i combined forces with my co-founder ben moir. and as a technical director, he sort of feeds us the insight about the latest hardware and the latest software. and then together, we work on how we can integrate that into an amazing experience on the body. i i sort of found my inspiriration ththrough technoly in a weird and wonderful way. a lot of it was on travelingng back and forth to san frananciso and a lot of it was just personal research. and one mentor of mine s said thatat i should go to bed with dead pepeople and i thougught that ws the oddestst thing in the world, but it quite literally just meant books. [hook and loop tape ripping] looking at, you know, ways of inventing and discovery and that really inspired me to just start thinking differently. and the more i do that--dove into it, the more possibilities i realized there were. that basic excitement really was what drew me over the line to
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start this company. so empathy and design is really at the forefront of where we position our branding. through that, we've used physical touch as the subtle form of communication and we believe that haptic feedback and vibration on the body is this empathetic soft communication that can be really subtle and unobtrusive. [whistle blows on tv] so, we've worked on several products to-date and following that, we worked on a product with fox sports in australia and it was called the alert shirt. and the alert shirt communicates the emomotional feedback of your f favorite team live as you're watatching the game. [crowd cheering] we've reinvigoratated that and we've used a similar concept but for the netherlands rugby female sevens team. this is like a whole new ballpark for them. that's--this is the first year they've ever been on olympic sport and it's really
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exciting to be part of thahat journey with them and not only have the athletes at the forefront but also the fans, um, and really designing for the fan experience as much as you are for the athlete's experience. [whistle blows] currently holding up the fan jersey for the netherlands, you can see we produced this for their trial that they've just done for the olympic squad, which is great. it was amazing. this is the first time this sport has become an olympic sport. and so, we've gone through the emotions that they experience in the game and anxietety being one of them. [simulated heartbeat] this s sort of heartbeat t thatu build d up when someone takes a big tackle. boom. [siren]
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[horns honking] um, i believe, like, you shouldn't have to look like the techchnology that you'u've growo dependent on. and i don't think we wanna walk arouound lookingng lilike a compuputer. i genuinely believe that this has to be a beautifuful experience visually as well as emotionally andnd physically. so, i hope that thee way yoyou've e experienceded our clothing and you experienced the way that it changed your day-to-day activities will only give people more time and more pleasure in the activities they really enjoy. walter: that's it for this week. join the conversation with us on social media. we are cctv america on twitter, facebook, and youtube. and now, you can
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watch "full frame" on our new mobile app available worldwide on any smartphone for free. search cctv america on your app store to download today. all of tonight's interviews can still be found online at cctv-a-america.com and let us know w what you'd like us to t e "full frame" next. simplplemail us at fullframe@cctv-america.com. until then, i'm mike walter in los angeles, we'll see you next time. 2 dúr
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>> i hope you will join me for an exciting new w televisi series, aa unique inquiry into human consciciousness itselelf. in thesese programs, we are tryg to conveyy an experience, a sene of feeling it rather than just talking about it. we join our trusted guide and host phil cousineau on a most memorable episode of "global spirit."

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