>> hello and welcome to live from paris. i am and that young. it is 1:00 p.m. in the french capital. being called in as greece begins to evacuate thousands of stranded refugees off the northern border of macedonia. the french government is urging people not to panic as the growing number of petrol stations are running dry as a result of the ongoing industrial campaign against the government toss controversial labor laws.
survivors and founders of the victims of the paris attacks last november meet with the judges who are carrying out investigations into the city's worst ever terrorist incident. but we began in greece, where the government has begun evacuating thousands of refugees campthe makeshift idomeni on its northern border with macedonia. officials began blocking access to the area at dawn this tuesday and had sent in more than 400 riot police. sprang up in february after more than 80,000 people were stranded there. it ignored appeals largely for organizing caps elsewhere around the country because they say it
would move them further away from the border. nathalie savaricas has more from athens. the situation of calm , the america -- in idomeni riot police are inside. they are more kind of asking the refugees to get on the buses that have arrived since the middle of the night yesterday to send them to more organized facilities throughout the country. volunteers and journalists who have been living there for weeks if not months now, have all been asked to leave, which has raised a lot of anger and suspicion across colleagues of mine who said that they have never seen so many members of the riot police in one place for so long. some migrants are now getting on the buses, which are preparing to leave. i heard from colleagues that
some buses have left already. the administration, the government is making this happen in an organized and calm fashion. i think the riot police are there more as an idea, that they will use force if they must but that this is going on in a peaceful manner. annette: how has the greek government been handling this crisis? nathalie: to give you an idea of the numbers, at the moment greece is home to 54,124 refugees and migrants, according to official data. on the greekivals we saw last summer essentially because of the au-turkey deal from march. greeks have around 49 reception centers throughout the country
to host all of these migrants who are coming to the realization they are very much stuck in greece for the coming months if not years. the greeks, many of them think the administration is quite disorganized, but this is no novelty. previous administrations have also been accused of not dealing with this migration crisis in an organized way. but it is not to top of their priority. the greeks have far more pressing matters to attend to, such as the ways to pay their mounting taxes with the debt crisis just worsening on a daily basis. annette: nathalie savaricas reporting there earlier. figures just released in the last hour or so, migrant deaths in the mediterranean averaged only 13 so far this month, down from 95 in may of last year, and 330 in may of 2014. the figures are coming from the international organization for migration.
do not panic, says french chemist or manuel valls. a number of petrol stations and france are running on empty as protesting workers continue to block oil refineries. this is all part of an industrial campaign against the government policy controversial new labor reforms. mark thompson has the latest. mark: cleared with water cannons and tear gas in the early hours of the morning, security forces stepped in as the blockade at -- the blockade alone had caused fuel shortages at hundreds of petrol stations in the southeast of the country. riot police also intervened, and strike action is underway. refineriesf france's are under controversial labor reforms. >> we hear from parts of the
media that there will be a fuel shortage for three weeks because of the reserves. there are strikes all over the country and there are already shortages. mark: workers of the airport terminal has also said they will join the strike. crude all the country's stock passes through the port. 12,000 petrol stations have already either run dry or are running low on resources. the crisis has even forced some in the northeast of the country to cross the border into belgium in search of fuel. there are easily 30% or 40% more than usual. we do not want it to be that bad. mark: manuel valls has called the strike blackmail, that he insists there is no reason to panic. the government says if necessary it has enough emergency reserves
to last for 90 days. annette: in other news, austria came within an edge of becoming the first european country to elect a far right head of state since the end of world war ii. independent alexander van der won by just 31,000 votes. he has since issued a call for unity. support for the far right has surged across europe in recent years as many parties are going from obscurity to gaining feet in parliament. at the traditional -- this is as the traditional parties have tumbled. catherine clifford has more. catherine: an independent greenback candidate and his far right rival head-to-head with traditional parties eliminated in the first round. austria's shock election was seen by many as symbolic of
europewide politics. for some it is a sign that widespread changes needed. trend that people are this has five with the ies,itional political part and i believe it is time frustrated reflect upon it because we must be doing something wrong. catherine: it is a pattern that the incoming prime minister says that he will address. >> obviously many people in this country feel they have not seen or heard enough -- they are not seen or heard enough, or both. we will need another culture of comedic haitians in politics -- we will need another culture of communication in politics the focus on the real issues. catherine: leaders across europe sighed with relief over the final results are the french prime minister tweeted everyone in europe must get strong lessons from this. >> we now have europe that is divided, and we have a europe divided east-west on the
migration crisis with austria almost building to the east. germany is the pivotal country, but even germany is no longer immune to the parties that are now making major inroads. partiese: far right across the continent celebrated their own victories. they congratulated norbert hofer's freedom party. their candidate, marine le pen, is leading in next year's election in france. annette: benjamin netanyahu has ejected -- has rejected a multilateral initiative. meantime, manuel valls is visiting ramallah this tuesday, and meeting with the palestinian
leadership. unlike the israelis, the palestinians have called for meetings. let's take a listen to what the french prime minister had to say. it is in the interest of all israel is to see this initiative succeed. , andtations are high everyone knows that if the situation doesn't change, tensions will continue to rise. that is why this extremism. annette: in paris, hundreds of plaintiffs are attending an extraordinary hearing over the next three days. they are the survivors and families of victims of the paris attacks last november. it will be their very first .ontact let's go to claire williams, who is covering the hearing. what are they going to say to the judge?
we are notl, expecting the judges to be able to tell them an awful lot because the judges want to jeopardize -- do not want to jeopardize their own investigation. what the family members want to know is first of all, they want access to the autopsy reports that were done at the time. it has been months that they are waiting for the access to the autopsy reports, and they had not managed to get it yet. which means they do not know how their loved ones were killed. to grieve, that is important access for them to have. i spoke to a lawyer earlier representing several clients, and a lot of them say they are traumatized, living in shock after what happened. themof the most -- some of are frightened about using public transport. some of them are frightened about being in large crowds. they want to know, what is france doing now to protect them? what measures is france doing now to track down and hunt down homegrown terrorists?
the third thing, extremely important to the family members of survivors, they have plunged themselves into this justice system, and a lot of them say they feel completely lost and confused. today is also about helping them understand how the procedure actually works. annette: the only person linked directly to the attacks who is in custody is salah abdeslam. catherine: salah abdeslam is a 26-year-old national brought up in belgium. for four months he was europe's most wanted man. he is the only person directly linked to the november 13 attacks in paris. is note that night completely clear, but we understand he drove three suicide bombers to the stadium, then left. he left an explosive belt at the
scene and drove back to belgium. he was then arrested in march, transferred to france at the end of april. he had his first hearing last friday but refused to talk. he exercised his right to stay silent. that is very frustrating for the investigating judges, but it is also extremely frustrating for the families who come here today. annette: claire williams, thank you. in other news, to the states now. a police officer has been acquitted of charges over the death of a black man, this after he was held in police custody in baltimore. cleared by aas judge of second-degree assault, among other charges. freddie gray, 25, died after sustaining a severe spinal injury in the back of a police van during his arrest in april of 2015. days ofh sparked massive protests and unrest in baltimore.
now, has brazil gotten an interim government? now it has a new political scandal. has stepped aside amid allegations that he conspired to obstruct the country's biggest ever corruption investigation. he is vowing to return to office was public prosecutors have exonerated him. nick rushworth has the story. nick tow days into the job and out he goes. the brazilian planning minister, romero juca, with over 20 years in the senate, said secret recordings of him are being taken out of context. anything thatdone would make any investigation difficult. i never tried with anybody, neither in the supreme court nor in the federal prosecutors office, to obstruct any investigation or any result of it.
goes the investigation into a bribery scheme involving petrobras. he agreed on the need to limit the graft probe and staunch the bleeding. of the word use "bleeding," referring to brazil's freefalling economy in the recent political turmoil. the scandal is fueled to the pro-rousseff cap, saying the former president is now facing a political trial, essentially a two. romero juca says it is a blow to president tmeemer. arer and other ministers currently under investigation for their alleged roles in the petrobras scandal. annette: a reminder of what is
making headlines this hour. right police are called in as police begin to evacuate thousands of stranded refugees from the idomeni camp. the french government is earning people -- is urging people not to panic. the result is an ongoing industrial campaign against the government's controversial new labor reforms. survivors and families of the victims of the paris attacks last november are meeting with judges who are carrying out the investigation into the nation's worst ever terrorist incident. it is time now for business news. i am joined by stephen carroll. you are starting with news of a swiss bank that has landed itself in hot water. stephen: it certainly has. the private bank bsi has been ordered to shut down operations in singapore for breaching anti-money laundering rules there or switzerland has begun charges against the
bank. the singaporean authorities said it is the worst case of gross misconduct they had ever seen. they have already been fined 100 million euros over for to identify dubious transactions over four years. to greece next. main subject of finance ministers taking place in brussels later, helping to unlock 11 billion euros in bailout money, after capping a series of tax rises over the weekend. the meeting would tackle the controversial subject of debt relief. mark thompson report. reforms for much needed cash. the latest round of deeply unpopular tax increases and privatizations resulting in angry demonstrations. but the signs going forward are
positive. >> the measures are not pleasant because the people of this country have already paid a lot. it is probably the first time of -- andossibility giving us a new future is so clear. the latest round of reforms, the last requirement demanded by greece's creditors. in return, the countries hoping to unlock a package of up to 11 billion euros in bailout funds, but negotiations are far from over. among the up on points on the table, debt relief. european creditors have been called upon to reduce greece's burton, which is 176% of the country's gdp. the fund has called for payments to be postponed until 2040 and for interest rates to be frozen at 1.5%. opposed byiercely germany. debt couldims greek
double if nothing is done to alleviate its weight on the economy. it has threatened to pull out the 86 billion rescue package unless its european counterparts agreed to give greece some breathing room. stephen: the federal reserve is in focus as speculation rises among investors that will raise interest rates in the coming months. london, paris, frankfurt, all seeing gains in the midpoint of the trading day. we've seen the sterling rise after a new poll shows strong support for the u.k. to stay in the european union. two more business headlines now -- one in four trains on france's b2b network will be canceled tomorrow. it is the fifth time the workers at the train company has gone on strike since march. due to over working conditions. revenues of the music streaming
service spotify jumped by 80% in the last year to almost 2 billion euros, but the company is still struggling to make a profit. spotify says it has 89 million active users at the end of last year. 28 million of them were paying for their subscriptions. coca-cola has had to stop using soft drinks in venezuela because of a shortage of sugar. venezuela faces shortages of many consumer goods. the biggest brewer has also closed plans due to a shortage of barley. facebook is making changes to how it selects trending topics for users. the world's biggest social network came under fire from a republican senator in the united states for apparently suppressing right wing news in its trending subject. facebook has retrained staff and added additional controls and oversight to the team that compiles a list.
no evidence of systemic political bias was found. mark zuckerberg invited several prominent conservatives to come to facebook to see how it works. annette: very interesting. that is stephen carroll with the day's business news. time now for the press review. and it is time now to take a look at what is making headlines across the world. i am joined in the studio by florence villeminot. lots of focus on the austrian presidential election, where it is biting right to the end. see -- flo: you can see the figure there -- 31,026 votes exactly. rizzikind of feeling of -- it is kind of a feeling of
relief in austria in the wake of that election, and outside of austria as well. take a look at the editorial in "the guarding," of this election being a frightening test for austria in particular but also a test for the european union's tired political systems in general, according to "the guardian." that is a feeling i get from the french paper today. -- votersfficer is are impatient and are drawn to parties but have -- that have simple but often dangerous -- to presidents go barack obama posited to vietnam, which kicked off on sunday. flo: a vietnamese paper has the latest on that visit. you can see him meeting with the vietnamese counterpart. what is incredible about his visit is that he announced the u.s. is fully lifting a 41-year-old arms embargo on the sale of arms in vietnam.
it's once upon a time enemy. a lot of attention on this decision. has nothing to do with the u.s. relations with china, it is just a case of normalizing relations with vietnam. a lot of papers disagree with this. "the wall street journal" says this vietnam pivot is part of a wider strategy that we have seen throughout obama's presidency, and that is this asian pivot we have been talking about. for once, the wall street journal actually approached -- applauded barack obama for his policies. vietnam is one of several countries in the region involved in maritime disputes with china, so this decision sends an unmistakable sign to beijing that its efforts to bully its neighbors are backfiring. annette: not surprising that chinese media is not that thrilled. flo: let's take a look at "the
global times." the trip to hanoi is essentially a bolster of the united states' containment of china, and according to this paper, the u.s. is casting three nets around china -- one of ideology, one of security, and one of the economy and trade. "china daily" also says that bodes ill for the original peace and stability. former foes must not spark this regional tinderbox. france, papers are focusing on the continued social unrest against the government's controversial changes to lipa. a fuel are facing crisis in france. dozens of stations across the country are low on fuel. the paper is getting fed up. it is getting better and better,
ironic because we are facing this fuel crisis. there have been announcements that there will be further strikes in the coming days in france. running out of patience for what it calls the stubborn dialogue of the death taking place between the government and trade unions. righte: particularly the wing has very harsh words for those leading the industrial campaign. one in campaign, and that is the cgt trade union. it comes up a lot. it is one of the leading trade unions in france. a," one of the right wing papers, accuses social terrorism for waging this kind of war against the government. the pro-business paper here also has harsh words, taking advantage of france while it is weak. all of these strikes are terrible for france's image abroad. it is essentially going to drive
tourism away because a lot of tourists are already concerned about the series -- about the security situation in france. given the strength of the travel unrest, they will not come to france. it will also keep the business away. all of this will have devastating effect on our economy. interestingly, the government is not backing down in the face of this pressure on the street. you can see here, this is the economy minister. he gets an interview today, where he says actually we should go even further than this very controversial reform to labor law. we should go even further than that, according to him. they are talking about how this interview happens without any kind of taboo. annette: finally, papers are focusing on the brexit vote, which is now only a month away. stephen: i'm kind -- flo: i'm kind of glad it is getting closer. ofis focused on one part
announcer: this is a production of china central television america. walter: the human brain, it weighs a little more than a kilogram and we use it every moment of every day, yet so much about our brain remains a mystery. this week on "full frame," we'll meet some of the field's top researchers who are unlocking the power ofof the brain. i i'm mikeke walter in ls angeles. let's take it "full frame."
imagine learning a brand-new skill, anything in fact, in just 20 hours, something as tough as speaking a new language or playing an instrument for the very first time. sound impossible? not hardly, according to bestselling author josh kaufman. josh says it can be done and forget that 10,000-hour rule. he says all you need is what he calls the rapid skill acquisition to learn any new skill as quickly as possible. recently, i sat down with josh kaufman, author of the book "the first 20 hours" at the annual aspen ideas festival to discuss his amazing learning method. it's so funny because i've gone to several presentations here but rapid skills acquisition. that'll pack a house. i mean, it was amazing when i went and sasaw your session, hohow many people were there. what's your motivation for this? kaufman: you know, i am curious about a lot ofof different thin. the world is a big place and there are lots of fun ththings o explore. so,o, part of my
intererest in researching rapid skill acquisisition was s for myself. i had a bunch of things that i wanted to learn how too do and i didn't have an infinite amount of time to lelearn those things. so, becoming more efficient at getting good at a new skill was very motivating for me, but it's also a big issue for pretty much everyone, right? we all have things that would be beneficial for us t to learn for our career or things that we've always wanted to learn for fun but we just haven't got around to investing the time yet. so,o, i wanted to figure ot a meththod or a system to-o--if you're interested in something, to g go from knowing absolutely nothing to being very, very good in a very short p period of time.. walter: get momore money, get me done, but also have more fun. how important is the fun piece of this? because learning new stuff is not always fun. kaufman: oh, it's super important. it's--i think in the process of learning something
new, the faster it's fun, the more likikely it is that you're going to keep practicing. and the more you practice, the better you are. so, breaking past--i call it the frustration barrier. getting past that initial point of frurustration o the point where yoyou see resuls and you're excited about that, that's really, really valuable and important. and i i think ina broader life context, too, we--a lot of people tend to really place emphasis on c carer types of skills. but learning something because you're curious abobout it or bebecause e you think you would enjoy y it, i mean, there's a lt to be sasaid for just t explorig something for the sake of that. and i think that's a major part of what makes life fulfilling. so, i wanted to help people do that, too. walter: you came up with this number, 20 hours, which breaks down to what, 45 minutes a day for a month or so? kaufman: yeah. walter: : so, how did you arrive at that number, and then of
course you tested your theory on not just the ukulele, which we'll get to inin a minutute-- kakaufman: sure. walter: but other things as well to find out t whether r or not it--was it reaeally accurate? kaufman: yeah. so, in my research, i was--i was looking for about how long it takes to get pretty reasonably good coming from nothing to noticing how you're performing and saying, "hey, i can do this thing that i have never done before." so, the research that went into "the first 20 hours" was me taking this method that i had developed and learning all sorts of different things. so, i learned computer programming. i learned how to play the ukulele. i learned how to touch type on a brand-new keyboard, so i no longer use the qwerty keyboard that most english speakers use to type. i learned how to windsurf. i learned all sorts of different things. and i wanted to test if this system applied to physical skills, so things you do with your body, m motor skills, and cognitive skskills, learning how to think or make decisisions ina
different way. and it applies to both, whihich was--was rereay ninice. so, , what i found is tt 20 hours is just enough h of a commitment that if you practice for 20 hours, you're going to be way, way better at the end thanan you were at the beginnnning. but it's s not so mucuch time tt itit feels overwhelming to commt to. so, that--the nunumber came out of all of the research that i did personally to test the method. walter: and i saw the smile when you said "really nice," but was it really surprising? kaufman: it was surprirising! i actually, at the beginning, expected it to be more. and, um... what i found is that the first--regardless of who you are and regardle o of wh you're lrnining,he firir couple hours o-of learngng something w w are st t terriy frustrining. u butut iyou caca make it thugugh the fifirs call i3 3 to 4oursrs, gets much sisier a it't's muchch more funececauseou n note yourse b beingble e toerformrm
in aewew way walterwhwhat's s th80-20 0 ru? yohave an -20 rulehat you lk aboutwhat is that? kaufman: sure. the 80-20 rule is a phenomenon that appears in all sorts of different areas, which basically saysys that the vast majority of results or outcomes are going to come from a minority of the sources. if you think about it, this appears everywhere. so, you probably wear 20% of the clothes in your closet 80% of the time. you call 20% of the context--or contacts in your--in your cell phone or in your--in your contact list 80% of the time. and so what i found is that this applieses to skill acquisisition as well. u um, mot skills aren't one big thing. they're combinations of lots and lots of smaller things, which i call sub-skills. and you'll use 20% of the sub-skills that exist in t that skill 80% of the time. and so if you want to learn quickly, it stands to reason that you should probably practice the
things that you're going to be doing all the time first, because if--as soon as you get good at those, you'll use itt for the rest of the time using the skill. walter: so, the great thing about what you talk about is that if you look at things in totality, you say, "oh, i'm never gonna do this." kaufman: right. walter: but if you break it down, as you do, um, suddenly you can focus s on one area andt can make a huge difference as you're describing. you talk about these 4 simple steps. we're talking a a lot of mathematics here, but what are the 4 simple steps? kaufufman: sure. the first steps to decide what you want to do, which is actually hard for a lot of people. when we go about arnining something new, the impulse is to talk about the global skill, right? i want to learn how to speak italian. i want to learn how to golf. but those aren't one thing. it's--there are a lot of skills that go into what we think of. so, the first is to rereally decide what is it you want to be able to do when you're done. what does it look like? so, can
you imagine yourself in the future actually doing this thing, like define that as quickly as--or as concretely as you can. the next thing that you do is what we were just talking about, deconstructing. so, you take that big skill and you break it down into smaller parts that are much less overwhelming, they're much easier to practice in isolatioion, and you practice te ones that you're going to be using the vast majority of the time first. that's where research comes in, too, because if you look at a couple books, a couple dvds, a couple resources, the ththgs that come up over and over and over again, those are the essentials, and those are the fundamentatals that you practice first. and then it's pretty simple. you remove barriers for practice, so anything that is going to distract you or take you away when you actually sit down and practice. so, turn off the internet, turn off the tv, shut off your cell phone, close the door--you know, all of those things to make sure that you're not interrupted. and then before you start, you
pre-commit to 20 hours of deliberate practice. and then when you finish those 20 hours, then you can evaluate, "is this a skill that i want to continue improving or did i get what i want? like, am i d done now?" ad i think most of us think that we need to practice and become really, really good at something, when really you may be able to get exactly what you want within that 2 20-hour perid and then y you're done anand you can go on to learn something else. walter: uh, here's something that also kind of struck me that i was surprised at is when you shut the door and when you shut off the internet and when you shut off the phone can be very important in how well you learn. what hour you choose to kind of carve out to do your work is important, isn't it? kaufman: it is. this is one of the fascinating things that i found in the process of researching this book, because i read lots of cognitive science and psychology journals.s. and e
of the things that's really interesting about hohow we learn is whatever we learn during the day, your brain has a process called consolidation, where it kind of forms those--it puts what you learn into long-term memory. and most of that happens when y you slee. and so, one of the techniques that--that i found in researching this book is if you practice right before you go to bed, that's a very efficient time to practice. because if you practice within, call it 2 or 3 hours before goingo o bed, that consolidation pcecess thatappens aomomatally i in ur brains mumuchore efficient than it heherwis wod be. so, personlyly, i ally like carvinouout 45 minutes at t e end othe e da just beforbebed beusee it--'s ally wei when you wake up in the morning, if you try to do it, you will notice a difference between what you can do in the morning versus what you could do at night. it's very apparent. walter: 'cause the re-- the circuits are just rewired in a sense. kaufman: yeah, it's, like,e, when--when we are
learning, we are--we are changing the physical structure of our brain, and there's a physical process thahat happens and it happens at night while you sleep.p. walter: i know a lot of parents who've, you know, have the kids down in the basement learning the drums... kaufman: yep. walter: and it's like fifingernails on the chahalkboa. so, i'm curious, how did your wife take the 20 hours of the ukulele? 'cause when i think of the ukulele, it's such a pleasant sound but it can also probably be excruciating. what were her thoughts as you were kind of making your way through the, uh, process? kaufman: s she was very supportive. uh, we both run businesses and we both work out of home officeces, and so, uh, practicing in the middle of the day while she's trying to work is--is usually not such a good idea, but practicing at night while things are winding down, that was a preretty good sustaiainable strarategy in--inr household. walter: so, uh, first of all before i ask the next question, let me pass along my thanks to kelsey kaufman because she was kind enough to have that
tolerance. now, you've reached the stage where i'd like to display your talents for our audience and maybe you can lift up your ukulele-- kaufman: sure. walter: and kind of walk us through how breaking it down helped you to achieve what you've achieved as a ukulele player. kaufman: sure. so, uh, i think we'll start by playing a little mozart, if that's ok, in the form of "twinkle, twinkle, little star," which is pretty much what--where everybody starts. um, and it's really easy. so, the first thing that you learn how to do is--is play chords. so, "twinkle, twinkle, little star" is c-- ♪ twinkle, twinkle, little f chord--♪ star how i wonder ♪ g--♪ what you are and so just learning the chords and the fingering positions and how to switch between, that's step one. but that gets kind of boring after a while, right? so, you learn how to do more complex things. like, we can add a strumming pattern to this. so... ♪ twinkle, twinkle, little star
how i wonder what you are ♪ so, you can do that, and then you can do even more complex things. so, there's a style of playing called finger picking. so, instead of strumming all of the strings at the same time, you hit them individually in a pattern. so... ♪ twinkle, twinkle, little star how i wonder what you are ♪ and so you just--you start very, very simple, and when you master one thing, you just make it a little bit more complicated and a little bit more complicated. and after a while, youou can do some prettyy complex things. so, i'm learning songs that aren't just chords. you have to do something particular. so... [finger pipicking a tune] and you just pick a little part of the song, you practice that over and over again. when you
make a mistake, you notice where you made the mistake and you work on that thing specifically, and you just keep going until you've got it. it's really fun. walter: and from "twinkle, twinkle," just knowing that, it leads to several songs, as you demonstrated the other day. can you walk us through that? kaufman: oh, yeah. so, let's see... ♪ just a small-town girl living in a lonely world she picked the midnight train going anywhere ♪ ♪ and i heaeard that yoyou settled down ththat you found a girl that you're married now ♪ ♪ every night in my dreams i see you i feel you that is how i know we'll go on ♪ ♪ let it go, let it go can't hold it back anymore ♪ ♪ because i can't live
with or without you ♪ ♪ when i find myself in times of trouble mother mary comes to me ♪ ♪ sometimes i feel like i don't have a partner no woman, no cry ♪ ♪ oh, mama, this surely is a dream ♪ ♪ i come from a land down under ♪ ♪ once e a jolly swagman campfirere, billabong ♪ ♪ hey, i just met you and this is crazy but here's my number so call me ♪ ♪ hey, sexy lady ♪ op, op, op, op oppa gangnam style ♪ ♪ can you feel the love tonight? ♪ ♪ whoa, you think you're something special whoa, you think you're something else that don't impress me ♪ ♪ old macdonald had a farm e-i-e-i-o ♪ walter: well, josh, you are special. kaufman: thank you. walter: and 20 hours, folks, that's what it is. thank you so much. really appreciate it. kaufman: thanks so much for having me. waltlter: coming up p next, min-
controlled robots are making their way from sci-fi to reality. in 2014, millions around the world watched as a 29-year old paraplegic from brazil used a mind-controlled robotic suit to kick the official ball during the world cup opening ceremony. while it was a brief moment, it was a kick that was years in the making. [man speining foign lauage]]
able to wa again. d dr. nicoles joins now frosao paol welcomeo "full ame." nicoles: oh, h thank y very mucfor the vitation 's great plsure to re. lter: ta to mebout thi brain-machine interfe. how uld you exain ito us? nicolis: wl, basicly, abou15 yea ago, my fend, hn chapi and i we studng braicircuitsand weealized th we could tually cate a direct ierfaceetween livg brn tissuend machis using a computional, u straty that we veloped our lab and in the beginngng, wehought thatathat was just to--tststudy, you kn, the brn sesequce in a a bett way, , t we found out a uple y yea laterhat that could be t beginng of so mplete n new appach h to treat patients sufringng fm sere parysis. walt: so, yoyohave thi conct, and tn in 200 you art workinwith monys. wh
diyou fi then? nicoleli well, athat pnt, we rlized at we coul directly tnsmit robots th voluary motointentn of monks. so, wn the nkey wanted to ve its a or its leg, we alized tt we cou rerd the ectrical gnals proded by thbrain ofhe animal and decode their intention to move that the animal was producing in the shape of this electrical brainstorms, and translate it into digital commands that a machine can understand. and in 2003, we publish a paper where we show that our monkeys had learned to control the movements of a robotic arm just by thinking. they didn't need to move their own bodies. they just needed to imagine the kind of arm movement they wanted to perform to play a videogame. and in by doing so, they would get some reward, some juice as a reward for accomplishshing ththe task justy imagining these movements and making a robotic arm move a computer cursor on a--on a
screen. walter: does the brainin get--receive something back from the robot? i mean, is this a two-way street? nicolelis:s: yes, it be--it soon became a two-way communication between brains and machines. first, we did that using visual feedback so the animals could see the device performing a task under the control of the animal's brain, but later we also added to it a tactile feedback so the animals could have a sense of touch that was generated by sensors placed on the robotic device or in virtual devices, like body avatars, so that when the animal imagine a movement and this robotic device touched something, the animal would sense what was being touched by the--by the robotic device. so, this two-way communication allowed the animals to incorporate this device as an extension of their own bodies. walter: it seems like science fiction to some of us. as you were going through this
process, were you kind of--you must'veve been astonished. nicolelis: oh, yeah. many times, yes. the first time we saw monkeys controlling a robotic arm without moving their own arms, we basically couldn't speak in the lab. you know, the students and everybody involved that were watching the experiment were completely speechless. and then as we progressed, as you said, to the world cup demonstration and we saw the patients could take, you know, an enormous benefit from this technology, we also had great moments in the past two years, you know, seeing our 8 patients basically improve in their condition by using brain-machine interface. walter: so, when you take this from monkeys in a lab and you have a much broader look at things, i mean, where do you see this going? i mean, this could impact millions of people, couldn't it? nicolelis: oh, absolutely. yeah, we--we have found a couple of things with these 8 patients that we work with here in brazil. they are very, very
important. first, of course, they could u t the bin-m-macne interfactoto conol t thilowerr limb exoeleletonnd r regn the abity to wk in our laborary. and--b also by the fact that the'realking again, just an hour daday, a couple tes a a wk, we ar eing sig of neneological--partiall neurological recovery, so thesee patients a are regaining some movements. they're regaining some sensitivity below the level the spinal cord lesion. and they're, you know, improving in terms of autonomic function, cardiovascular function, gastrointestinal function, so the entire quality of life of these patients have improved significantly. so, i'm thinking in the next few years, we are going to see the technology's spread to many applications in clinical neurology. walter: here's what's really interesting about this. and we've got a piece of video that we want to show, and i want you to talk a little bit about this. this has led to man-to-man, brain-to-brain communication. what we're looking at here, this is at thee
university of washingtonon, whee reresearchers arare demonsnstrag how the signals from one person's brain arare able to control the hand motions of another person within a a split- second of sending the signal. now, this sounds remarkable but it's actually happening. and you hear the cheers of these researchers, probably the same sort of thing, miguel, that you've gone through in your labs in the past.. man: yes! success! walter: tell us about this as well. man: all right. nicolelelis: yes, about 2 years ago in the beginning of 2013, my students and i reported in a paper the possibility of creating this brain-to-brain interface in rats. we publish a paper that, you know, describe this proof of concept-- when a signal from one rat's brain was delivered to a second animal. and the second animal basically decided what to do, to go left or right, to press a left bar versus a right bar, just based on the signal that it
was receiving from the first animal. that was the first report on brain-to-brain interface. and my good friends at university of washington basically took that almost immediately to the--a proof of concept in humans. and just about a month ago, we published two more papers, one in rats and one in monkeys, showing that this concept can be generalized to multiple brains interacting to achieve a common goal. we call that a brain net and we had about three monkeys, for instance, collaborating mentally to move a--an avatar arm in 3d. so, the e arm cod onlyly be movd if a at leastwo ofof these monknkeys werere mentalllly comg their r brain acactivity to cree ththis x andnd y movemement 3d. and it t turned ouout that i inw sesessions, , the anals lelearnd to do o that, d theyey were abae to basicically cate a-a--a set f brains wkingng togetheher to hihieve thisis common n motor t.
walter: : and--andnd as you tinr with this, obviously, you can look at the potential for spinal cord injuries, brain injuries, but does it raise ethical questions? i mean, as you look into the future--i mean, can we go too far? nicolelis: oh, of course. we always can go too far. but that's why it's important to describe this technology and this science not only in scientific papers to the scientific community but also in every opportunity possible to discuss that with, you know, with society, so that society can take a look at this and can decide what are the applications that are acceptable, what is proper, what is not acceptable. as a scientist, i think part of our mission--uh, certainly my mission, i believe, is to communicate as broadly as possible what is real, what is science fiction, and how far can we go and let society decide how this is going to be applied.
my----my own opinion is that the main application o brain-chine inrfacace,t ast for the nextououple decades, wilbebe medine,e, i rehabbg-g--rehilititatn medine f forarkikinsian patien, , for ral-l--snal coco injury pieients,atieient suffering fr b brainraumuma, and a varietofof oth neurologalal disdersrs. walter: as you lk k at yr remaable a aievements,hat stds out t most for u? nilelis: wl, it's diffict to--toelect a ngle step.ou ow, juano's ck lasyear waperhaps thmost movg momentf my sentific caer. i wajust behd him. ias measurinthings andooking for e moment of the kick, but there was a moment that i couldn'be a scientist anymore. and i just drop everything i was doing, waitingng for that second--that split-second in which he had to make a decision and communicate with his brain activity to the exoskeleton that was--he was ready to kick the ball. and certainly that i will never
forget, but that kick would not haveve happened without the work of tens of graduate students, post-docs, scientists, mathematicians, engineers, people working since the late eighties in my lab, in john chapin's lab, and in labs all over t the world, that made that moment possible. and i think the symbolism of that moment is that this is just the beginning. that kick wasas just the start-up of a--of a lot to come in the next few years. walter: just the beginning, but unfortunately, we've come to our end. thank you so much for joining us. it's been a delight. nicolelis: my pleasure. thank you very much for the invitation. walter: brain-to-brain communication and controlling robots with our minds may be just around the corner, but what about today? there is something you can do to help your cognitive function right now. researchers have found that physical exercise, especially aerobics, has a significant positive impact on brain function, everything ranging from improving learning and
mental performance to preventing dementia, alzheimer's disease, and brain aging. "full frame" contributor sandra hughes set out to find out why hitting the gym can be just as beneficial for your brain health as your waistline. hughes: living out those golden years isn't ideal if you're starting to forget what's so great about retirement. [horse nickers] [bell tolling] that's why philip jamtaas came to the university of california los angeles memory center. jamtaas: i don't have the greatest memory. i can forget something very quickly. a perfect example is my cell phone. putting it down in a hundred different places and then having to look for it all the time. hughes: former full-time script writer and director maggie parker is already a self-proclaimed exercise addict
but says she knew she needed something to keep her mental spark alive. parker: cognitively, when i ran sets of shows, tv shows, your mind is kept very sharp all the e time. now i'm only working part-time and felt that i needed some...stimulus? woman: then to remember the list, start at the top of your head and work your way down, trying to remember how... hughes: short-term memory loss starts for most people in their 50s to 60s. but a study at the university of california los angeles is finding you don't have to take the problem sitting down. stand up, exercise, and you might just start remembering more. for a 14-week study, maggie, philip, and a handful of other aging americans bike until their hearts are pumping. and then they start to train their mimin. [computer mouse clicking] woman: the name of the study is the memory and exercise training
study, so the mets study. and what we're trying to find out in this study is looking at the relationship between exercise and memory training and the relationship with that and cognitive enhancement. hughes: but what makes psychologist sarah mcewen's study unique isn't that there is a connection between exercise and increased memory. that's already been eststablished in other research. in her study, participants are training their minds while they train their bodies. mcewen: so what's happening is that you're putting your brain into this optimal state for learning and memory. and the reason for that is because during exercise, actually, our arousal levels are increased, so we're focused more, we're paying special attention to things. you know, we're kind of stuck there and--and we let our minds just get deep into the content in front of us. hughes: the patients have all been tested before they start the study y and have all experienced some kind of mild memory loss. then they have their blooood tested f for levef
brain-deriveved neurotrophphic factct or bdnf. . these are proteins r released in t the boy duriring aerobic e exercise, and they help p grow neuronsns in te brbrain. mcewen: let's do this. last one. hughes: mcewen practices what she studies. she believes exercise is the key to training the mind. she's a marathon runner herself and a personal trainer. mcewen: ok? so this is a short-term memory test. this is really taxing your prefrontal cortex here. hughes: alex fetter is a professional guitar player who wants to stay mentally sharp on stage. fetter: plane, bus, car, barge. mcewen: i designed a program with my company called genius gyms and that--i call it neurocognitive performance training. so what that is is it's actually trying to combine neuroplasticity-based training of different cognitive functions like memory, attention, executive functioning, all of those things while people are
actually exercising. hughes: even though alex is young, he wants to jumpstart his brain training now. mcewen: good. all right. good. hughes: and some studies have shown the earlier in life you start exercising, the better your mental outcome. mcewen: all right. good job. awesome. you beat the second. .99. hughes: the united states is facing a silver tsunami. some call it the graying of america. whatever you call it, it's already started, as baby boomers, those born after world war ii, turn 65. baby boomers already make up 26% of the u.s. population and their aging will impact everything from the economy to healthcare. parker: and the--you know, then you hear meshing with... mcewen: the nice thing about looking at people in this stage is that this is the best way to prevent a transition to a mild cognitive impairment or an alzheimer's disease because right now, there's really no
treatment for those illnesses, unfortunately. you know, we're in a place where we know that there's things that are going to help prevent those things, so we need to be doing everything that we can to try to do that to preserve the gray matter and the brain function and structure that's inside of your brain. hughes: it's estimated that in a decade, the number of older people with alzheimer's disease in the united states alone will increase by 40%, from 5.1 million to 7.1 million. and by 2050, the numbers will triple to 13.8 million people if there is no medical breakthrough to stop the deadly disease. woman: your heart rates, please? jamtaas: 136. parker: wow. you're high. i'm only 90. hughes: that's why philip and maggie have stuck it out behind the handlebars. parker: i've already noticed that every day, i want to do something that i haven't done before. i want t to try to do a crossword puzzle. i wanna try to do a brain game. i want to read
something historical. i've alreadady noticed that i--i want more. woman: so this is list "a." i'm gonna go on down to list "b" now. jamtaas: i definitely think that going through exercises like this would help you remember stuff, especially by using the tricks that they're teaching you. hughes: and when the study ends, these volunteers say they won't step off their exercise routine. they'll continue to work out their bodies to tone up their mental muscles. for "full frame," this is sandra hughes in los angeles. woman: ok. i think you'll be out here in the hallway. walter: when we come back, a peek inside a baby's mind to find out how they learn. for adults, learning a second
language can be incredibly difficult, but it's much easier for toddlers and young children. ever wonder why that is? researchers are trying to figure out exactly how a baby's brain works to come up with this amazing accomplishment. one of the leading researchers in this field is dr. andrew meltzoff. he's an internationally renowned infant and child development expert. his 20 years of research has looked at the baby's brain and is focused on the importance of role models in a child's develolopment. his field of stuy has had far-reaching implications for cognitive science. meltzoff is co-director of the institute for learning and brain sciences at the university of washington. he recently sat down with me at the annual aspen ideas festival, where i was able to pick his brain about the mystery of baby brains. so let me start, uh, by taking you back in time. meltzoff: yeah. walter: were you young when you decided you wanted to study the young? when did this hit you?
meltzoff: interesting. so in high school, i was very interested in doing biology. i got interested in biological processes and mechanism. then it was in college that i actually took courses with some great and wonderful cognitive psychologists anand became interested in ththe mind andnd wanted to devote m my career to undersrstanding the e mind and especially the developmentnt of the mindnd. walter: it's rare that i get the opportunity to do this in an interview setting, so i'm gonna take full advantage of it. meltzoff: ha! walter: you're one of the few people i can stick my tongue out at-- meltzoff: : that's right. walter: and connect with you in a certain way. meltzoff: that's right. walter: because you stuck your tongue out, stuck your basically your reputation out t there and got great results, didn't you? meltzoff: that's right, that's right. yeah, well, i take that as a compliment. and i was interested in n studying t the ororigins of imitation, how wewe learn by observing others. imitation is one of f the chieff chchannels that t we pick up information n about our culture, and wanted to look at the biological basis o of this and ended up testing newboborn babis where i put out my tongue e to e
whwhat they would do. walterer: and you learned? meltzoff: and i i learned that babies in the newborn hospital would--were able to imitate. if i poked out my tongue, they would do a tongue protrusion back. if i opened and closed my mouth, they would open and close their mouth and this convinced me that human beings are born learning and born social, born with some intrinsic connectitivity to othr human beings, which i i think is fascscinating and completely changes the game of our understanding developmental psychology. walter: empathy. talk to me about empathy and what you've learned about that. meltzoff: well, empathy, you know, school performance is very important, learning academicic susubjects. but justst as import on the other side of the coin is our interactions with otother pepeople and our caring for othr people. that's often called empathy, a and we're interestedn looking at the roooots, the very ororigins, so it's our feeling f compmpassion andnd empathy and r feeling of kinship with other people. so, wewe're beginning to study that in babies and even doing some brain science to
look at how it all starts. walter: touch is so important. one of the images that i--i took away from your session earlier today is seeing a little baby with their armrm arounund anothr little baby. um, talk to me about touch, the importance of touch from a parent to a child, how--how a baby can identify with touch and--and clearly see how important it is.s. meltzoff: right. so, touch is one of our most important senses. it's--our skin is our largest sense organ of ouour--in our entitire body. the is a about 22 sqsquare feet of n on e each of us adults. it's the largest sense organ and it's the way--it's what separates us from the o outside world. . so a brain scientist, we've been very interested in how the baby's brain responds to touch. what does the baby's skin tell the baby's brain? and we're making some fascinating discovereries, first-in-the-word discoverieies about touch.h. walter: and what are those? memeltzoff: well, what we're fifinding is that if you touchce baby's foot, a particular area of the brainin lights up that
we're calling the foot area. if you touch their hand, the e hand areaea lights up. and this is really fascinating because it tells yoyou not only about the baby's sense of self, t their identification of different parts of their body but is the basis for socicial intereraction and identifying with others. you knknow, the child has a hand and you asas an adult have a had and we think the baby can recognizize that self-other sisimilarity throuough brain regions that are tuned to touch. they have a hahand, you have a hand and they recognize the similarity. and that's the initial bridge between self and other that gives rise when they're older to a feeling of empathy for others and caring for others, but it all begins with a sense of touch and a sense of their own body and their body map. here is my hand. there is mother's hand. mother's hand and my hand are in some sense similar. the first bridge between self and other. and from there on, social emotional development can proceed.
it's incredibly important and it's exciting time to be doing with brain science now. the first time in history that we've been able to look inside a baby's brain and look at their body map and their sense of touch and how they respond to others inside their brain in a perfectly safe and non-ininvasive way. wawalter: so prior t to this, at ofof it was guessworork. meltzoff: yeah. walter: how close were you on the guesswork do you think? meltzoff: well, you know, brain science is capapitalizing on decades of behavioral science. before the behavioraral science, there wawas true g guesswork and therere was philosophy. and the truth is that the philosophy has been enormously impoportant. may philosophers h have talked abobt ththe body, about social interaction, and eveven the roos of empathy, how w we can feel compassionon to other people, hw we can put ourselves in other people's shoes. these are philosophical, often releligious and cultural questions and theyy set the stage from--for scientists. scientists then did behavioral research on babies and found out quite a bit. and now, we're entering the age of
infant neuroscience, even infant social neuroscience where we can see what's happening in the brain of this little baby before they can talk and how they can relate self to other. so science goes in stages. starts with philosophy, , then looks at behavior.r. and now finally, we're inside the baby's brain, trying to understand what they know about us. walter: i'm almost fearful to ask this question and it's all--it's a purely selfish question. meltzoff: uh-hmm. walter: but when my daughter was born, i used to spend a lot of time talking to my wife's stomach and-- meltzoff: yeah. walter: and we knew that it was gonna be a girl and i'd always call her by name. and when she was born, of course, you know, it's obviously has to be traumatic as a baby to be born and come into this world. and she was crying, and i--and i said her name and she stopped and craned her neck. meltzoff: yeah, yeah. walter: now, is that happenstance or is there a connection that way? meltzoff: yoyou know, there's actually been some scscience about childrdren hearg in the womb and d they can hearn the lalast trimemester, especiay last monthth in the womb.
people--scientists have done studies about recognizing parental voice and even the language that's spoken. and children, uh, who are growing up in chinana and who have a chchie mother carrying the baby, obviously that m mother is speaking chinese and the baby in the womb is getting bathed in chinese. and if you do a study with them after they're born and give them a choice between chinese language or another language that's not chinese, they can already tell the difference between them because they've been listening in the womb to the mother's language. the mother's language comes--gets transmitted to the baby not only through the air but through her bones. and that makes s vibrations in the womb, and the baby is listening. now you are e a dad and you spokoken the outside and there is some transmission of sound through the uterus from the outside to the baby that they can hear. so there's been studies on that and i think you're probably right. the baby probably could recognize your voice or
recognize her name. it's fascinating that culture begins to affect children not only after they're born but even in the womb. they're listening to us. walter: so i guess when you look at the full panoply of what's out there, nature, nurture-- meltzoff: right. walter: outside influence, friends, peers, all of that, as a parent, that mixture-- meltzoff: yeah. walter: that stew, what should we be concentrating on? meltzoff: well, you know, they're all important. biology plays a deep role and the brain is sculpted by thehe environmen, by the culture, byby the paren's interaraction. so, the culture determines the shape of the brain, and the neural connections in the brain often are--are created because there's a need by culture to solve a certain problem or think about--think in a certain way. so we as parents have a lot of work to do. we're actually brain builders. we're building our children's brains when we interact with them. it's nice to hold them, nice to touch them. it makes us feel good, but we like to tell
parents that you're building a child's brain. biology just doesn't happen by itself. one of the most distinguishing characteristics of the human species, one of the most important things of humans is that we bring up our children and care for them and have empathy for our children when they're young and they have empathy for us when they get older and for their peers. so child development is one of the most important things we can do in society to bring up the next generations of citizens. walter: and one of the things that i find fascinating about your research is those first 5 years. i mean, people are blown away at the concept of how much learning, how much explosion in growth occurs in those first 5 years. meltzoff: yeah, you're right. children learn m more in the fit 5 years than any other 5-year period in their lives. they learn more from zero to 5 than they did from 5 to 10 or 20 to 25 or even 40 to 45. children are learnrning at an amazing rate, and there's a
difference between them and adults. children are what we call neurally plastic. they're very flexible. they can learn many new things like multiple languages quite easily. they're learning very quickly, m more quickly thanan we are. but aduls hahave the wisdom of being o ol. we canan focus in on things on the way children can't. we can drill in on details. we have the wisdom of a life led, and so we'd love to combine someday the plasticity and flexibility of the young children's mind, their ability to switch their ideas and not be stuck in old ways and combine that with the wisdom and the focus that adults have. that would be something if we can figure out how to combine the two. walter: how do we do that? 'cause, boy, everybody would like it, wouldn't they? meltzoff: everybody would like that. it would help business, national competitiveness. it would promote us as a compassionate culture and way of being in the world. you know, neuroscientists are hard at work at that and trying to understand what turns on and off this neural flexibility
that young children have that what--the neuroplasticity. and we wanna know can we somehow keep that alive in young--in older adults? can we make them more ready to learn and more open for change? so we're working on it. walter: and science can change things in such a way. and i wanna talk to you about how your research and this type of research has changed society in a sense, and i wanna frame it this way. um, a few years back, i interviewed art rolnick, who's a noted economist. meltzoff: yeah. walter: and he talked about that first 5 years. here's an economist talking about-- meltzoff: exactly. walter: the first 5 years. and he was talking about high- risk kids. kids in tough neighborhoods with parents who probably didn't get the nurturing and probably didn't have the skills. and getting a home visitor in, a social worker or a nurse to come in and kind of model behavior. and he said those high-risk kids can become high- return kids. meltzoff: yeah. walter: and he talked about how cities, countries--i mean, we look at brazil and russia
spending all this money on stadiums. he said the money should be spent on this. meltzoff: yeah, yeah. walter: when you first entered this, did you ever think at some point you'd hahave economimists talking about what you're doing? meltzoffff: well, there's been a revolution in our r understandig about the importance in the first 5 years of life and it's making a difference in all walks of life and all segments of society. i'm delighted to see it picked up, you know, the work by heckman in chicago that showed that the return on investment, the roi, is greater in the firirst 5 years than any other periodod of time and that society ought to be investing more in the fifirst 5 years of life. you know, we know this from common sense. business people know it. you have to get the foundation right to build the business. you have to get the foundation right to build the rest of the house. it's much more expensive and much more e difficult to tae care of the child and fix things later than it is to get it right the first time. and so, part of what scientists wanna do is share the excitement of this research h on early learning and hope that society will change. and of
course we wanna take care of children all through k through 12 education. but if we don't deliver our children ready for school and we don't transform our schools to be ready for children, then k through 12 will continue to have difficulty. we have to get the first 5 years of life right, and we at--in--studying early learning are trying to help society do that. walter: let me ask one final question about touch because we know it's so important when they're little. meltzoff: yeah. walter: um, but as they grow, our kids kind of move away from us. how important is it for the 17-year old or the 23-year old to pat them on the head or tousle their hair or-- meltzoff: yeah. walter: put ththeir arm around? meltzoff: so that's very interesting. you know, i think when kids get overwhelmed and they get overwhelmed in elementary school and having a meltdown and are overly excited, but even our teenagers who often want to push us away. at those moments when they really need us, it turns out the sense of touch and the feeling of being hug--hugged and loved cocomes
directly from a pat on the shoulder or a touch of the skin, a touch of the hand. even doctors know t that. bedside manner has to do with how kind and compassionate you are with a patient and sometimes reaching out and holding their hand will be important for healing as well as for having a conversation with a child. so for the newborn baby, their survival depends on n touch. their very survival depends on being on the mother'r's chest ad feeling that warmth and that sense of trust that they develop. but as children get older, there's contact through voice and sight where you don't have to be in touch, but touch still matters. if you want the child to really feel securure, you wanna hug and touch them. and there's some work that says that they learn better. it turns on learning in school or when they're doing their homework if you put your hand on their shoulder or touch their hand when they're doing a difficult math problem. touch is important throughout life. it's important when you're a baby, important for
teenagers, and it's important for the elderly. and what can be more enendearing than to see an elderly grandparent holding their grandchild skin to skin again is lighting g up the brain in the grandchild and lighting up the pleasure centers in the brain in the grandparent. it's the way we progress as a species.s. we can't ever lose that. sometimes in modern society with all thiss technology, withth the cell phones which i have myself, we are holding our cell phones and paying a attention to our phones and our technology instead of looking at our children and paying attention to them. they can notice that. theyey wat to be the e center of attention and they know whenen you're papaying attttention to them whn you hold and hug them. whehen you'rere hugging your cell phon, you're not hugging your baby. your baby needs it. walter: andrew, thanks so much for your time. meltzoff: ok. thank you. walter: we'll be right back with this week's "full frame" close up.
imagine a shirt that lets you feel your favorite athlete's excitement when he or she scores a goal or wins a race. billie whitehouse not only imagined this, she designed it. her company wearable experiments has produced alert shirt and nl fan jersey which gives sports fans a more emphatic experience. whitehouse along with her co-founder ben moir are currently working on a new clothing item for yoga enthusiasts. the yoga pants use haptic feedback or light tapping to help correct difficult yoga poses. by continuing to incorporate hardware and software into clothing, wearable experiments hopes to take fashion to the next level.
[horns honking] woman: we've seen tenonology g from this thing that helps us to this thing that has become a frustration and a--an irritation. and we're so dependent on it now that you sort of dodon't see people at a dinner table without it. so we would love to be able to bring people back to this human connection. it's not just about technology to make us more efficient. it's actually technology to make us more human.
wearable experiments is a wearable technology company and we create the hardware, the software, and the apparel for technology that's on the body. and i combined forces with my co-founder ben moir. and as a technical director, he sort of feeds us the insight about the latest hardware and the latest software. and then together, we work on how we can integrate that into an amazing experience on the body. i i sort of found my inspiriration ththrough technoly in a weird and wonderful way. a lot of it was on travelingng back and forth to san frananciso and a lot of it was just personal research. and one mentor of mine s said thatat i should go to bed with dead pepeople and i thougught that ws the oddestst thing in the world, but it quite literally just meant books. [hook and loop tape ripping] looking at, you know, ways of inventing and discovery and that really inspired me to just start thinking differently. and the more i do that--dove into it, the more possibilities i realized there were. that basic excitement really was what drew me over the line to
start this company. so empathy and design is really at the forefront of where we position our branding. through that, we've used physical touch as the subtle form of communication and we believe that haptic feedback and vibration on the body is this empathetic soft communication that can be really subtle and unobtrusive. [whistle blows on tv] so, we've worked on several products to-date and following that, we worked on a product with fox sports in australia and it was called the alert shirt. and the alert shirt communicates the emomotional feedback of your f favorite team live as you're watatching the game. [crowd cheering] we've reinvigoratated that and we've used a similar concept but for the netherlands rugby female sevens team. this is like a whole new ballpark for them. that's--this is the first year they've ever been on olympic sport and it's really
exciting to be part of thahat journey with them and not only have the athletes at the forefront but also the fans, um, and really designing for the fan experience as much as you are for the athlete's experience. [whistle blows] currently holding up the fan jersey for the netherlands, you can see we produced this for their trial that they've just done for the olympic squad, which is great. it was amazing. this is the first time this sport has become an olympic sport. and so, we've gone through the emotions that they experience in the game and anxietety being one of them. [simulated heartbeat] this s sort of heartbeat t thatu build d up when someone takes a big tackle. boom. [siren]
[horns honking] um, i believe, like, you shouldn't have to look like the techchnology that you'u've growo dependent on. and i don't think we wanna walk arouound lookingng lilike a compuputer. i genuinely believe that this has to be a beautifuful experience visually as well as emotionally andnd physically. so, i hope that thee way yoyou've e experienceded our clothing and you experienced the way that it changed your day-to-day activities will only give people more time and more pleasure in the activities they really enjoy. walter: that's it for this week. join the conversation with us on social media. we are cctv america on twitter, facebook, and youtube. and now, you can
watch "full frame" on our new mobile app available worldwide on any smartphone for free. search cctv america on your app store to download today. all of tonight's interviews can still be found online at cctv-a-america.com and let us know w what you'd like us to t e "full frame" next. simplplemail us at firstname.lastname@example.org. until then, i'm mike walter in los angeles, we'll see you next time. r
> was it a conscicious decis? or a momentary lapse of reason? how did progress take priority over humankind? how could the desire for a modern way of life that threatens our future be considered a way of life? could it be we are connected to all things in the universe, not the center of it? that suburbs inin los angeles affect the melting ice caps of antarctica? deforestation in the congo affects the typhoons of japan? now, we must face the insurmountable challenges for whahat they realllly are, opportunities to reinventt d redesisign. "e2: the economies of t the environmementally conscious."