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tv   60 Minutes  CBS  August 21, 2016 6:00pm-7:00pm CDT

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ugh, celebrity endorsements are the worst. canided cbs and ford. go further, so you can. >> anderson cooper: accusation fauradnowingly ided defective surcal gowns to u.shealthre wor were first shared th "60 mi atimenus"hen the eba crisis was spiking. did you ll protectiv knew was defective? >> no,nd fly i think the legations are not based on the facts. >> cooper: you're sang they >> falsees.ely? >> is at what he told you? >> evident, he forgothe 11th commandment. dnolito "60 minutes." >> leslie stahl: it's being called a financial technology-- or "fintech"-- revolution. say you need a loan. fintech sites match borrowers
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need financial planng? algorithms are replacing human advisorsnd brokers. apps le venmlet people click money to each other, similar t texting. >> many of the innovative that have come along in the past ten years are not coming from banks. >>y: t pelle fort oversaw the trafficking of more than 400,000 >> the amoof money invested in slaves was mohan th amount of money invested in railroads, banks, and busisses mbined. this wcono the ec engine of eurondhe united states. this capital of the slave trade launchmerica's new national
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y vtesting thing. >> i'm steve kroft. >> i'm lstaheslie >> i'm anderson cooper. >> i'm bill whitaker. i'm scott pelley. those stories tonight on "60 i'm scott pelley. those stories tonight on "60 minutes." e, tomorrow is not a given. but entresto is a medicine w... ? ? i love ya, tomorrow ? in the largest heart fai study ever. entresto helped more people stay alive and t of the hospital than a leading heart failure medicine. women who are pregnant must not take entresto. it can cause harm or death to an unborn baby. don't take entresto with an ace inhibitor or aliskiren. if you've had angioedema while taking an ace or arb medicine, don't take entresto.
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>> cooper: during thmost recent outbreak ofhe ebola virus, more th 5 hlth care workers died of the disease, and something called personal otecti equment became essential preventing the deaths of evenore. we're talking about gowns, glov designed to block the ansmission of deadly bacteria and viruses. they're used every dayn spitalto protect doctors, andnursesatients. but ebola so letl, it raised the stakes enormously. if the protectivequipmt fails, infectious bodilyids can get through-- a problem known asstrikehrough." the height of the ebola outbreak, we received a tip that major american manufacturer had knowingly ovided defective
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care workers in the u.s. and abroad. had ver beliclubexaminedn that story in may.t broadcast this (ambulance siren ) if there's one thing that beca outbreak of 14, it that pers protective equipment, properly used, could mean the difference between life and death. yoablyu obemember e tragic ages from west africa, and the rkers in biohazard suits tryingo help without getting infect themselves. may >>elp uso be blessing tr patits. >> cooper: certain types o gowns alsused ding the the nurses at this hospitain liberia used gowns and full-body sus to protect themselves aftetwo of their top doctors every day in the u.s doctors and nurses rely on some of the disease control recommended for ebola. one of them is the microcool
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health, which sells about 13 million gowns a year wde,orwi including a quarter of the u.s. market the microcool gown is supped to provide the highest level of protection available against ood-borne bacteriand viruses. its label says it meets a rigorous industry standard known mi lev fr" >> dr. sherry wren: ght, t's go >> cooper:- which mes it's impermeable,o at blood containing virus like hepatis and h.i.v. won't get onurgeon's skin during an operation. there's just one problem. what w wrong with the level four gowns? >> bernaezeau: they would leak. when we pressu teste, especially in the seam >>ooper: bernard vezwas the global strategic mketing rect for mrocoolnd oth products fm 12 to early he wked for halyard health, which was part of thkimberark cr 2014. when tses at a dallas hospital bame infected after caring for a patie with ebola,
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es hadn't been using microcool gowns, bute was concerned by the way compa went into high gear tol the produc e gowns weeing recommended e wifor us ebola. >>ezeau:ggressively being recommended. >> cooper: in what way aggrsively? vezeau: we fullput a ourt presto drive microcool sales. we told hospals totock up on our microcool products. we told them to have at least ght to 12 weeks product o and that'sn things became very difficult for me. >> cooper: difficult because vezeau says he knew the gowns were not consistentlmeeting industry standar. there's a test for thi right?>>. and it's conducted in oue facili. ooper: so did your gowns consistently ps this test? >> veau: no, they did not. >> cooper: w the f.d.a. aware of this? re they noed? >> vezeau: n not that i'm aware . >>ooper:ere cuoms waed? custerwere narned ei. ooper: why not? >>ezeau:ell, because kimberly kne-clarkthat if they-- they told customers, it would cost us a lot of business. >> michael avenatti: they didn't tell the public. they didn't tell the f.d.a.
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they kept selling the gown to e tune of millionsf dollars every month. >> cooper: michael avettis a california attorney who represents hospitals that are th ag haly slees of mrocool gowns inhowed i deer 201at the request of one of kimrly clark's compets, cardinal health. >> avenatti: at the time cardinal and kimberly-clark were in litigation against e another. anrdinal had these gownstestedns were disastrous for erly- clarper: chat do youean, "distrous?" avenayolooktti: well, ugh the reportu'll see tested failed.e gowns that were >> cooper: 77%? u.f.ltinacksonville,als like florida, we found eoho told us they repeatedly experienced strike-through, with gowns and onto their skin.
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about it they took pictures of their bloody arms and gowns and sent them to the company. did you receive complaints from nurses, from surgeons at all? >> vezea on these gowns? >> coor: yeah. >> vezeau: oh, frequently. on a very frequent basis. >> cooper: what kind of complaints? >> vezeau: oh, complaints of strike-through, sleeves falling off, ties falling off. >> cooper: sleeves fling off. >> vezeau: sleeves falling off. sleeves falling off ring a procedure. >> cooper: were you at meeting where these problems were discussed? >> vezeau: every time. we were the ones who were telling senior management the problems that we were having. >> cooper: and what was their response? remember the response one time fromhe c.o was, "nobody really cares about this. nobody really cares about surgical gowns." >> chris lowery: yeah, that-- that's-- that's justot true. >> cooper: chris lowery is the "c.o.o." vezeau was talking about, the chief opeting officer of halyard health. did you sell protective uipment for ebolthat you knew was defective? >> lowery: no. and ankly, i-- i-- i think t allegations aren't based in the facts. >> cooper: you're saying they're completely false? >> lowery: yes we get less than one complaint
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and even more so is we've never received even one report of a health care professional contracting an infection as a result of a flaw in our product. >> cooper: lowery says bernard vezeau didn't raise his concerns until after he left the company; vezeau says he was fired because he was vocal about the problems. the company also questions the motives of this man, keith edgett, the former head of research and engineering for the gowns. in thivi expresses the same concerns as vezeau about what was going on at the company. >> keith edgett: i believe that they were putting customers in harm's way, and i was struggling with that. >> cooper: i want to show you the-- the results of a test performed by intertek labs. it shows that 77% of your both of the sleeves.ed one or >> lowery: yeah. >> cooper: 77% is a lot. >> lowery: anderson, it's-- it's-- it's very important to put this-- this cardinal test data into context. first-- extreme outlier test
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we had never seen test data that reflected anything like this before, or that matter since. >> cooper: halyardhowed us its own test results from the reports show the sleeves passed some of the time, and failed at others, but chris lowry says they passed far more than they failed, and when they failed it was at much lower rates than the cardinal test suggests. for the test in february 13, 18 out of 85 samples fail. that's 21%. >> lowery:e test failure in the context of all the tests that are passing. >> cooper: but you-- you have failures in the product. you're still selling the product. and you don't inform the f.d.a. anyou're not informing customers? >> lowery: it-- it-- it's-- it's important to understand that the no manufacturing process is perfect. you take that into-- >> cooper: but these failures were above the industry standard. you're allowed a certain amount of failures. when you actually fail a test, though, that's above the failure rate that's already built in. >> lowery: and-- a in the testing that we completed after
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believe that we were fully compliant with our requirements for the product as it had been cleared. >> avenatti: is that what he told you? >> cooper: yeah. >> avenatti: evidently he forgot the 11th commandment. >> cooper: which is? >> avenatti: do not lie to "60 minutes." >> cooper: the company had shown us this march 2013 lab report as part of its proof the gowns passed the test. but attorney michael avenatti says that's not what really happened. >> avenatti: they claim to have submitted 79 sam a passed. >> cooper: they said they passed, yeah. >> avenatti: well, they didn't pass; they failed because they didn't submit 79 samples. they submitted 85 samples and, in fact, six of the samples weren't even tested because the sleeves were so bad. the lab took them out of the package and they were so bad that they didn't even test them. because it was obvious what was going to happen. >> cooper: and they didn't include that in as failures? >> avenatti: no, they didn't. and, in fact-- i mean, i brought the document that shows it. it's a spread sheet prepared
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>> cooper: "six failed, not tested due to unsealed seams." lot fails. you're saying this is an example of fuzzy math? >> avenatti: no, this isn't fuzzy math; this is fraud. >> cooper: when we asked halyard about this, the company acknowledged it had not told us about those untested samples but denied it was trying to deceive us. the company says even if a sleeve seam fail the risk of a doctor or nurse getting infected is extremely low. >> lowery: they would have to have some type of cut thatld allow transmission. the fect would have to be in th exactlace. the surgeon would have not covered the cu abrasion as they should have per their procedure. there's so many factors that have to align for that to occur. >> dr. sherry wren: i think it's really easy for him toay that. but he's not the guy doing it.
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vice chair of surgery at medicine.universitschool of he gng to stand andthere volunteer toet me paint some hepatitis c blood on his arms and on his stoma? probably not is going to be my gues >> cooper: and you've had hepatitis c blood on your arms and on your stomach? >> wren: of course. >> cooper: dr. wren specializes in gastro-intestinal surgery, and iso-author of guidel for surgeons operating on tients with ebola. she has no connection to the lawsuit nshaly but s es wear micrwnl fo whh e ewershewas eratinatitg onh shortly afr we record is surgery, dr. wren toldshe got blood on her arms and hands three tis, while wearing three fferent microcool gowns and operating on another patient who soepatitis c. we've been told that as long as okay. wre is intact, you're ually with that case i finished operating at 5:00 in the morning anlooked down my hand. and i realized i had eroded off
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so i had ripped my own skin in >> cooper: it does matter then to you that these gowns are impervious? >> wren: yes. of course it matters. do i really want to have somebody else's infectedodily fluids on my body? no, i do not. >> cooper: interl documents we obtained suggest the company knew for a long time that it had a problem. which we is whynted to ask the c.o.o. chris lowery out this november 2014 powerpoint presentation that identifies a year-and-a-h"g seams passing" the industry st.'ve weold th inovemb of 2014, a timeline was esente and your own people acknowledged at there was a year and a half period in which the sleeve seams didn't pass the test, which demonstrates the gown is imious. ttr owery: it's not. >> cooper: this is the presentation and on the second ge it says-- lowery: yeah. >> cooper: --gap in sleeve seams passing astm 1671.it anho aear a ha
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if if ity, i'vnot seen is presentation, to myrecolleco. and-- and so i don'think that it's appropriate, particully ouof anyontext, to-- to iret >> cooper: do you think stuff like this happens- >> lery: i-- i think-- and anrson, probably from a time persctive,f you don't mind-- >> cooper: you want to stop? >> lowery: yeah, i mean, i think that we probably-- i think we've spent the time that we agreed to. anteam? >> cooper: afturer haartold us it w not required to meet new more- stringent testing criteria dung thagap shown on the timeline. by january 201 the cpany says it had new sealg machinesy in place to improve the quality of its sleeves. but before new machines were up and running, e company sold ousands of microcoolowns to the cdc's stragic national stockpile medical supplies, fousin future outbreaks emgencies.
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heafetyis conducting research ootective equipmen when it commissioned tests of gowns produced in 2014or the stockpilre were some sleeve failures in tut four batches tested. are ral ortate ati s at all? >> avenatti: can't comme ntnat. ey certainly shod be because ability-- this is crinal conduc coopeits mo recent annual report, halrd health saidt had been "served with a oena" that irelated to "a united states departnt of justice investigation." the justice department and food and drug adminiration which regulates medil declined to comment further. e company's said to us bacally, there's no evid that anybody got sick or-- o died direclatetlreto a failure of any gowns. t was egregious wouldn't clear case that you could point to that ys, "look,here was
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ebola or hiv or any other diseas" >> avetti: until now why would any doctor or nurse have any reason to question kimberly- clark's representations regarding the effectiveness of this gown. th sry may, in fact, be the rst timehat physicians and nurses who have contracted disease take atep back and say, "you know, maybe howth's i got it." >> cooper: since our story first aired, one of the people we interviewed-- former marketing ctor bnard v- diezu- of art attk. in mon rs sho at halyard health's corporate offices, asking to see ments gardins microcool gown >> cbs money watch update sponsored by lincoln financial. you're in charge.
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>> stahl: one sector of our economy after the next is being disrupted by new apps and web sites, like bookstes, taxis, hotels. could the banking industry be next on the list? as we first reported in may, thousands of startups are challenging many aspects of banking. the newcomers argue that this important sector is too set in its ways. it's being called the financial technolo-- or fintech-- revolution. we looked at the birth of one fintech company founded by two young fintechies who started not unlike the founders of facebook and microsoft. which one of you dpped out of harvard? >> john collison: that was me. >> stahl: and which one of you dropped out of m.i.t.? >> john collison: by elimination-- >> patrick collison: right, i was the other one. >> stahl: brothers patrick and
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industry they thought needed a shaking up. >> patrickson: collin a wod where people canend a facebo message orort of uplan instagram photo and have it available to anyone anywhere in the wod like that, thinkhe fact that that doesn't work for kind of increaly, hostly,eems unacceptable to people. and so, i think the questionor banks is just can they get there first in providing these services? or will it be somebody new? >> stahl: they want to be the sobody new. john, 26, and patrick, 27, first noticethe problem when t were in high school in dromineer, a dot oa town in ireland. and you were coders? >> john collison: yeah, we had both learned to program owing up, and we had been building iphone apps, we had been building web services. >> stahl: but when they wanted to charge people to buy the apps they hit an unexpected snag: they had to go to the bank and file paperwork just to be able to collect the money. >> patrick collison: like really
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convce them thatou were worth supporting-- >> john collison: and like a mortgage, itould have to be proved. >> patrick collison: right, exactly. and it would take sort of weeks happen.s approval process to and it just seemed sort of like this crazy mismatch. >> shl: so they decito domething about . they created software that allows businesses to cut through all that bureaucracy and instantly accept paymes online from countries across the globe, stripe, in the mission district, the t of san francisco's tech scene, where patrick showed up a money-collection system set using stripe. set me up! pretend i left "60 minesto create an online business. want to sell?llison: what do you >> stahl: i think i'm going to llood. homemade dog food. in five minutes, after a few clicks and a cut and paste of their code, he said my company would be ready to receive payment for homemade dog food online, right then and there.
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>> stahld this iwhat wld take weeks and w and wee and fos and forms and verification and-- >> patrick collin: and going to the banbran and waiting for papeork to be iled back to you and all this stuff. >> stahl: they developed softwa f buttons, letting companies accept ents online fast and in new ways. stripe charges sellers a small percentage for every transaction. does the buyer pay anything? >> patrick collison: the buyer pays nothing. >> stahl: nothing? >> patrick collison: correct. >> stahl: their goal is to make mo easy to send as e. for everyone, anywhere, on any device. >> patrickollison: we want to free businesses from just selling vicredit cards, you know, to people who hold bank accounts, and instead, enable people to purchase online no matter what it is that they use, bank account or no. >> stahl: and of course this needed the smart phone, it needed this move to mobile. >> patrick collison: for sure. >> stahl: stripe is hardly alone in inventing new financial technology or fintech. there's a revolution brewing
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companies trying to make banking faster and cheaper and increasingly mobile. >> john collison: matheny of innovative services in financial technology that have come along in the past ten years are not coming from bas. wcomers are not challenging the the core function of ban: taking deposits. even the startups themselv park theoney they handle a f.d.i.c. insured banks. >> patrick collison: ihink there'll always be a need for so of somewhere to store y money, to have isi and we think, you know, for all their flaws, they have a lot of experience at g s, right? rgetinnearly all the other functions of banking. starps are peeling off one anotr,ypical offering them for less. it's called "uundling the banks." say you need a loan. fintech sites match borrowers and lenders direct the way uber connects passengers with
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need financiallanning? algorithms are replacing human advisers and brokers. apps, like venmo, let people click money to each other similar to texting. and if you want to wire money across borders: >> taavet: i'm sending $500. >> stahl: the c.e.o. of a company called transferwise showed us how his app can send money abroad and convert currencies, say dollars into pounds, without bank tellers and high exchange rates. and a couple of clicks and, boom. >> taavet: clickclick, done. >> stahl: do you thinkt the g batoday see these fintech startups as the barbarians at the te? >> vikram pandit: well, there's certainly a lot of curiosity. >> stahl: what about fear? >> pandit: there can be some fear. >> stahl: vikram pandit, the former c.e.o. of banking giant citigroup, says it's the all too-familiar tale david and goliath. >> pandit: a lot of what you're seeing in fintech is like what you're seeing with uber or airbnb.
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of technology on travel. >> stahl: is that what fintech is doing to banking? >> pandit: it's early days. and you know, banks are thinking about it, and they're trying to understand what all this new technology can mean. >> stahl: it could mean trouble with millennials willing to ditch brand name companies for new apps on their phone. >> max levchin: the banks have not realized how different this generation is. >> stahl: max levchin, who co- founded paypal and was an early investor in stripe, cites a adults would rather go to the dentist than to a bank. >> levchin: they don't really have a problem putting their social security number into a web form, but they have a terrible problem going up to a teller in a bank, and trying to figure out what exactly you're supposed to do. "this is so inefficient. why am i in this stogy, outdated room that is empty and marble- >> stahl: and it's not just about technology. there's also a question of trust. the millennials, their basically
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financial crisis. they're the ones who really don't trust the banks. >> pandit: and we know that many banks seed their o interts more than those of their consumers. >> stahl: you're criticizing a system, basically, that you helped create. >> pandit: well, there's no question the crisis demonstrated that the system didn't work. and when looked at the aftermath of the crisis, what needed to be done. u had to make sure banot back to the basics of banking, and that they had to address the trust issue. >> stahl: but in the meantime fintech started taking root. in the last year and a half, investors have poured over $20 billion into the sector, including this banking insider who's personally invested in a dozen fintech startups. he says that beyond making banking more convenient, tse companies can offer options to lower-income families that can't afford to bank at banks; ten
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don't even have a bank account. you know, i've read that it is more expensive for a poor person to use the banking system as it exists than for a wealthy person. how is that possible? >> pandit: tre bhere ak account fees on your checking accounts. there are commissions, there are exchange rates. it all adds up. >> stahl: and that doesn't happen with the new companies? >> pandit: the new companies, they're transparent and they tell you what the fees are. and they are fraction of some of the fees that are chard by banks. >> john collison: as services move onto the internet, they can provide the services more cheaply. and you know many these banks, they have hundreds of thousands of employees. whereas as we see financial services moving online, they don't have to have a physical presence and pay for that. so you can eliminate hidden fees if your cost structure is lower. >> stahl: and i'm hearing "eliminate jobs." i mean we're talking about hundreds of thousands of jobs in the banking sector. tellers and, you know, financial adsors, you name it.
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general logylwtenort of makesome jobs ls relevant, or perhaps, even obsolete, but i will say that the ea that sort of these people will find nothing else to do seems like it's way too pessimistic on the capabilities of everyone as human beings, right? these-- >> stahl: have you looked at the employment scene right now? >> patrick collison: i think it'll take a while to adst. but when you think about just the creativity of people and what they're capable of and the sort of aspirations and dreams they're not capable of anythin more than sort of performing these automatable clerical tasks, i don't believe that for a second. >> stahl: there are issues with of banking jobs.beyond the ls letting these new companies handle your money could be risky because there are concerns they're inadequately regulated. and there's also the issue of online security. >> patrick collison: people have been trying to steal money for as long as money has existed. and, the best we can-- sort of--
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sort of design security in the most thoughtful and sort of robust way possible. and that's what we set out to do with se. >> stahl: and it's notike the big banks haven't been breached by hackers. so is fiech the next uber? of the financial industry.ce and e weul and rich old guard is fighting back, its lobby already pushing for more regulation to curb the wcers; and scrambling to ap rth fintec som looking at a technology called block-chain that's behind digital currenciesbitc like n. >> patrick collison: i think it's kind of human nature to always wanto see these things as a competitive dynamic, that and one of them is going to have lo. >> john collison: it's not as black and ite. patrick collison: yeah. >> stahldo you think what you have can be brght to a bank like wells fargo or j.p. morgan
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can they integrate this or it's either one othe other? >> patrick collison: i think they can be part of it, they can be part of sort of the infrastructure that powers it. and, again, we work with wells fargo and many other banks day. but i think that they can only be part of it. they can't be sort of the agents driving it forward. >> stahl: he says that over one in four americans online have used stripe in the last year, including on sites like facebook and twitter, and department stores like saks and macy's. the software is embedded on both apple pay and android pay, and it's already helped hundreds of thousands of businesses accept money online. >> patrick collihereso tou go! >> stahl: oh! stiff competition, likpaypal covers of rbes and tour- ar-oldompany is now valued 5 billion. not bad for two brothers who not long ago to theink branch forpprova
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a major tenological sht like thisit's not clear that automacally, the exiing financial players are the ones who are ing toin. >> sta: even tugh they're huge and powful. >>ohn collison: i mean, there were plenty huge retailsbemazos little, you know, upstart from seattle-- you know, in just a few shyears, gobbled-- gobbled up the bs.uses >> stahl: nks are so rich. do you worry that they are going toe and buy you out? >> patck collison: well, luckily weave a say in that. and we want to build a long-term independent company. >> s you want to buy them out. ( ughter ) in the months sie we first broadcast this story, the fintech world suffered a black- eye. lending-club, once the poster- child of online loans, has been tarnished by revelations of improper lending. it's led to the ouster of its c.e.o., a justice department investigation, shares dropping and discussion of more
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>> this cbs sports update is brought to you by the lincoln motor compy. this afternoon in rio, t united statebeat sbia in the mebasketballol medal gin domina. kevirant had 30 point at team u.s.a. wins its third consecutive gold medal and six of last seven in olympic play. overall it was the 46th gold medal for team u.s.a., giving them a commanding lead in the final medical count with 12 more nor sports news and information, go to cbssports.com. this has been steve obermeyer cbssports.com. this has been steve obermeyer reporting. theand you stay put. taking the legwork out of stop and go traffic. and even hills. that's the more human sidef engineering. this is the lincoln summer invitation, hurry in now to your dealer for limited time offers. lease a lincoln x for $349 a month or get 0% apr for 60 months
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>> pelley: this past fall,e you about a shinamed for st. joseph that sank in a terrible storm moran 200 ars ago. half the passengers survived, but the sea closed over more than 200 men, women and children who were locked belothe deck. you would think a disaster like that would be legendary, but the "st.oseph" was a slave ship, and the screams bursting from the hold were thcries of
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today, the silence of those lost ices iunbearable to lonnie bunch. he's the founding director of the smithsonian's national museum of african american history and culture, scheduled to open in september in washington. bunch found that to tell history, the smithsonian would have to make history. and so began a quest for the remains of a shipwreck in a land so unchanged that an 18th century slave would recognize it today as the last shore he called home. mozambiquesland defies the erosion of time. the portuguese colonists who claimed it 500 years ago would still find the cut of the cloth that borrows the wind as familiar as the cut of the stone that framed their city.
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capital of the slave trade because he was determined to launch america's new national museum on the remains of a ship. >> lonnie bunch: i thought it wouldn't be hard, so i called museums around the world and said, "okay, look, you must have some things. you must know where i can get some material." and everybody said, "nope." and they said to me, "well, lonnie, almost every slave ship was at the end of its life, so it's probably at the ocean floor." and then i got scared. then i thought, "well, i'm not going to be able to find this." >> pelley: mozambique island south of the equator. it was one of the points in what was called the "triaular trade"--goods from europe to africa, slaves to the new world, and cotton, gold and tobacco back to the old. in the 1400s, the portuguese were the first europeans to trade in slaves, and they became the largest, followed by the english, french, spanish and dutch. on mozambique island, the
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they called st. sebastian for the christian martyr who was captured, chained, and murdered in rome in the year 288. the irony of that name was the only thing here the portuguese failed to grasp. you know, when you look at the enormous effort that went into building this fort, they were protecting something that was hugely valuable to them. >> bunch: they recognized that the key to their future as nations with economic prosperity was the slave trade. >> pelley: the fort oversaw the trafficking of more than 400,000 slaves. bunch was certain there had to be evideof a ship, and he oniscovered he wasn't the only one looking. >> decio muianga: give me a hand. pelley: he found a group of researchers calling themselves the slave wrecks project, and they were following a promising lead. what do we find down here? >> muiangary i: a veeresting thing.
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the slave wrecks project locate the beginning of t story. >> muianga: this is a tunnel that was used to put slaves inside the island, or put them out of the island, as well. >> pelley: under the old portuguese town, tunnels connected holding ns to the the devout portuese preferred to keep slaves in transit out of sight. how were these slaves captured? >> muianga: some individuals, african individuals, specialize in capturing slaves. so, they'll go and raid villages and they walked, chained, all the way from there to here. and of course, lots of them died on the way. >> pelley: so these were africans... >> muianga: yes. >> pelley: ...capturing africans? >> muianga: yes. yes, it was not only a business for the portuguese-- the europeans in this case-- but also for the some of the local chiefs, as well. >> pelley: those local chiefs came to this auction house to sell captives to european clients. >> bunch: a male in the late
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$1,500, which is probably about, oh, $9,000 to $15,000 toda >> pelley: this was incredibly lucrative. >> bunch: in theears before the civil war, the amounof money invested in slaves was more than the amount of moyinve ed in railads, banks, and businesses combined. thisas the economic engine of europe a the utestates. byhe timu got re.... >> pelley: the enslaved marched from the auction house down th ramp and on to the ships >> bunch: what you probably had was almost an assemblyine. you'd bring people, you'd sell peop. then, you would move them onto e boats and off to the new world. >> pelley: what does black america need to hear, in your estimation, from the echoes off these steps? >> bunch: i think all americans need to recognize that, as tragic and horrible as slavery
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as it cast, the one thing it didn't do was strip people of their humanity. and i wish that all of us were as strong as the people that walked down thossteps and got on those boats. >> steve lubkemann: we're wading out into the tidal flats... >> p if lonnie bunch was to find his slave ship, he would need steve lubkemann, co-founder of the slave wrecks project. he's an anthropologist from george washington univsity who believes that slavery is the greatest story iri archaeology. >> lubkemann: think about the way in which computers nowadays affect all of our lives. it's not just... it doesn't affect just the computing industry. everything is inter-linked and depends on this. and the slave trade, in its time, was truly the equivalent. reached into and influenced and created the modern world. >> pelley: even so, it's not likely much has survived
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we're not talking about a hull that you're going to find down there, and masts, and all of that, that you would imagine in your mind's eye? >> lubkemann: we don't find intact ships. we find parts of ships, you have to go underneath the water, add some difficulty to this, find the pieces, try to put them back together. and put together the story that you can. y: t ple story lubkemann was searching for wasn't discovered underneath the ter. his ship was lost in the dry offici records of cape town, south africa, which reckach ba the 1600s. the slave wrecks project had been diving into these binders for months when they discovered the "st. joseph," known in the ao jose" arriv ato jose." the cargo manifest records 1,500 iron bars for ballast and re than 400 slaves bound r
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this is a cao sketch fro differt, but typical, ship. curator of theis a hrian ofslavn smonian se. >> paul gardullo: bodies and souls laid side by side with no omo atiove, no many people on these voyages died. >> pelley: how long was that journey? >> gardullo: a journey like the one the "sao jose" took would... could ta up toour or me hs. >> pelley: this is slavery on a global industrial scale. throh the 19th c,enryut 1500 through the late 1800s, we're lking out at least 12 million people. >> pelley: off cape town, south africa, the captain of the "sao jose" was caught between a violent storm and a nautical chart spik with warnings-- whittle rock, bellow's rock,
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the "sao jose" crashed, 212 slaves were killed. and because money had been lost, there was an investigation. interviews with survivors have survived. >> lubkemann: this is the crew's account, and right here, we have the captain's account. and he signed his name here, 220 years ago. >> pelley: incredible. >> lubkemann: he said he decided "to save the slaves and the people." the "people" are the crew; the slaves are just cargo. >> pelley: the 200-year-old investigation pinpointed the site. and in 2010, divers, responding to a metal detector, discovered bars of iron. one of those divers is jaco boshoff, an archaeologist with south africa's iziko museum, and lubkemann's partner in founding the slave wrecks project.
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bars we mentioned a moment ago on the "sao jose" manifest, the ballast for the ship. so you actually were excavating the sand on the sea bottom, this stuff was under the sand. >> jaco boshoff: under the sand. >> pelley: so you're in how much water? >> boshoff: about five meters of water. >> pelley: about 15 to 20 feet of water? >> boshoff: that's correct. >> pelley: and then these are two feet und the sd below that. >> boshoff: that's right. >> pelley: turns out shallow water only makes the work harder. surf tosses the divers. and sand, vacuumed away, settles ba but, after more than 300 dives, this is what they've recovered so far. these e nails that pinned sheets of copper over the hull for protection. what looks like a lump of concrete is marine growth on a wooden pulley block, similar to this one used to hoist sails and cao. this x-ray shows the two white spaces where rope was threaded
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the dirs discovered wood that a lab would later trace back to mozambique. and this may be the most revealing artifact of all-- masked by two centuries under the x-rays show a shackle, similar to this, used to bind slaves. >> boshoff: so there's a long bar running through. and shackles had... often were on a long bar, the leg shackles especially. >> pelley: so a long iron bar rouwith a metal ring? >> boshoff: thatt and in this particular ce, leg shackles. >> pelley: leg shackle >>hoff: that's rig. pelley: have you found everything that's down there now? >> boshoff: no, not at all. not even close. we've got a lot more to do. we've only scratched the surface at this stage. >> pelley: how can you be sure that the wreck you found off cape town is, in fact, the "sao jose"? >> lubkemann: there are certain types of artifacts that are found on this wreck that put us within a particular time
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that i think are very important. we have an account that gives enormous specificity, in terms of geographic location, and it tells us the bay in which it was located. finall we find a document in lisbon that says the "sao jose's" manifest when it left lisbon, and the first item on that said, "1,500 bars of iron ballast." u put all of thosefe lines of evidence together, it's almost statistically impossible that it could be anything else. >> pelley: they are the first artifacts known to be preserved from a ship on a voyage of slavery, and they will anchor the slavery exhibit this fall when lonnie bunch opens the national museum of african american history and culture on the mall in washington. >> bunch: the story of slavery is everybody's story. it is the story about how we're all shaped by, regardless of
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we've been in this country. we hope that we can be a factor to both educate america around this subje, but maybe more importantly, help americans finally wrestle with this, talk about it, debate it, because only through that conversation can we ever find the reconciliation, the healing that i think we all want. >> lonnie bunch has some surprising ideas about how to approach a painful past.
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i note the obvious differences in the human family. some of us are serious, some thrive on comedy. i've sailed upon the seven seas and stopped in every land, i've seen the wonders of the world not yet one common man. i know ten thousand women i've not seen any two who really were the same. mirror twins are different although their ftures jibe, and lovers think quite different thoughts while lying side by side. i note the obvious differences between each sort and type, but we are more alike, my friends, than we are unalike.
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captioning funded by cbs and ford. we go further, so you can. captioned by media access group at wgbh access.wgbh.org >> announcer: previously on "big brother" -- with victor in charge, he drew a line in the sand. >> i nominated you corey and paulie. the game is what we're doing. >> uniting himself, and big meech against paulie, nicole and corey. >> that's how you want to play your game but i'm coming after you next buddy. >> after victor won the veto -- paulie knew his goose was as cooked as one of his apple pies. >> can i give you a hug? >> sure. >> at the live eviction, paulie kissed meech.

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