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tv   PBS News Hour  PBS  October 6, 2011 7:00pm-8:00pm EDT

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captioning sponsored by macneil/lehrer productions >> brown: president obama called the economic situation an emergency and sharply challenged congressional republicans to vote on his jobs bill. good evening, i'm jeffrey brown. >> woodruff: and i'm judy woodruff. on the "newshour" tonight, we'll tell you what the president said at his morning press conference as well as the g.o.p.'s reaction. >> brown: then, we look back on the life and work of steve jobs. the digital visionary being remembered today as one of the world's greatest innovators. >> he had the ability to think out new ways of doing things, not just ways to improve what we
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have, do a better version of something, but do it in a totally different way, that the world would swing towards. >> woodruff: margaret warner explores the gap between those who've served and those who have not, after a decade of war in afghanistan and iraq. >> on my block, i'm the only one with an american flag hanging out front. you know, i remember i got out and talked to other guys my age. they weren't in the military and i was kind of shocked like, "what, you never served in the military?" >> brown: we have another in our "economist film project series." tonight, the challenges of prosecuting war-crimes at the international criminal court. >> woodruff: and we close with the author of a biography of ernest hemingway, who has traced the writer's life story through connections to his beloved boat. >> brown: that's all ahead on tonight's "newshour." major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: ♪ ♪
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moving our economy for 160 years. bnsf, the engine that connects us. >> oil companies make huge profits. >> last year, chevron made a lot of money. >> where does it go? >> every penny and more went into bringing energy to the world. >> the economy is tough right now, everywhere. >> we pumped $21 million into local economies, into small businesses, communities, u ntipeqtemamerials. >> that money could make a big difference to a lot of people. >> and by the bill and melinda gates foundation. dedicated to the idea that all people deserve the chance to live a healthy productive life.
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and with the ongoing support of these institutions and foundations. and... this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. >> woodruff: president obama called a news conference today where he pressed for a vote on his jobs legislation, or for opponents to come up with a better idea. republicans rejected his call, and each side accused the other of putting politics ahead of the nation's interests. the president has been touring the country to boost his jobs plan and turn up the heat on republicans who oppose it. and he brought the same message home to the white house. >> my expectation and hope is that everybody will vote for this jobs bill because it
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reflects those ideas that traditionally have been supported by both democrats and republicans. if it turns out that there are republicans who are opposed to this bill, they need to explain to me, but more importantly to their constituencies and the american people, why they're opposed, and what would they do. >> woodruff: the president issued that challenge over and over during a news conference that ran more than an hour. he warned, "this is not a game" and said republicans who stonewall his efforts could face an angry electorate next year. >> the question then is, will congress do something? if congress does something, then i can't run against a do- nothing congress. if congress does nothing, then it's not a matter of me running against them: i think the american people will run them out of town because they are frustrated, and they know we need to do something big and something bold.
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the american people are living that emergency out every single day. >> reporter: mr. obama insisted he's open to negotiations, but republican leaders charged that, in fact, he's already put campaigning ahead of legislating. house speaker john boehner made the point at a washington forum, suggesting he'd ask this question at the white house news conference. >> mr. president, why have you given up on the country and decided to campaign full time instead of doing what the american people sent us all here to do? and that's to find common ground to deal with the big challenges that face our economy and our country? >> woodruff: the republican leader in the senate mitch mcconnell criticized democrats for proposing a tax on millionaires to pay for the jobs bill-- an idea the president said today he could support. >> so the real goal here for the democrats, as far as i can tell, is entirely political by arguing for a permanent tax hike to pay for a temporary stimulus, they
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essentially admitting they're not interested in creating jobs, because proposing a partisan tax hike 13 months before an election won't create a single job. >> woodruff: back at the news conference, the president also voiced concerns about the world economy and the european debt crisis. >> the biggest headwind the american economy is facing right now is uncertainty about europe, because it is affecting global markets. the slow-down that we're seeing is not just happening here in the united states, it's happening everywhere. and you know, uncertainty around greece and their ability to pay their debts runs on-- in the capital markets on, you know, the debt that many of these southern european countries had been facing, as well as ireland and portugal-- all that's put severe strain on the world
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financial system. >> woodruff: mr. obama also confronted questions about a $500 million-dollar federal loan guarantee to solyndra. the solar panel maker declared bankruptcy last month. >> the overall portfolio has been successful. it has allowed us to help companies, for example, start advanced battery manufacturing here in the united states. it's helped to create jobs. they were going to be some companies that did not work out. solyndra was one of them. but the process by which the decision was made was on the merits. it was straightforward. >> woodruff: the president was likewise pressed on a justice department operation called "fast and furious." it targeted gun-running along the u.s.-mexico border, but it lost track of many of the weapons. >> i have complete confidence in attorney general holder in how he handles his office.
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he's indicated that he was not aware of what was happening in "fast and furious." certainly, i was not, and i think both he and i would have been very unhappy if somebody had suggested that guns were allowed to pass through that could have been prevented by the united states of america. >> woodruff: in the end, though, president obama said americans care mainly about jobs and they increasingly doubt that congress cares. in response, senate democrats said they'll call a vote on the president's bill next week. >> brown: still to come on the "newshour": the life and legacy of steve jobs; sharing in the pain of conflict; investigating war criminals and hemingway on his boat. but first, the other news of the day. here's kwame holman. >> holman: wall street rallied for the third day in a row. stocks gained on reports that plans are in the works to help ailing banks in europe. the dow jones industrial average gained 183 points to close at 11,123.
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the nasdaq rose 46 points to close above 2,506. there were small anti-wall street protests in several cities-- a day after 5,000 people marched in new york. in washington, several hundred people formed a symbolic 99% figure. they said the top 1% of americans controls far more wealth and power than the other 99%. and in los angeles, about 500 people turned out in the downtown financial district. the u.s. senate headed toward a final vote on a bill to punish china for manipulating its currency. the measure had bi-partisan support to impose punitive tariffs on chinese imports. china has warned it would set off a trade war. but democrat senator chuck schumer of new york said it was high time to address the issue. >> the future of america is at stake. and to those who say it'll cause a trade war-- we are in a trade war. we have our clocks cleaned every
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day and we lose jobs every day because of unfair chinese practices. >> holman: some republicans warned the bill could have unintended consequences. orrin hatch of utah said it sends the wrong message. >> we're also telling the world community that the u.s. is turning inward once again, seeking protectionist solutions to global problems, and not really interested in working with other countries to solve our current international economic crisis. >> holman: the bill's future in the house was unclear. the speaker ohio republican john boehner said today it's wrong and dangerous. for his part, president obama stopped short of endorsing the measure. but at his news conference, he did accuse china of gaming the trading system to its advantage. the european union said today it will move to expand sanctions against syria, targeting its largest commercial bank. the move follows this week's failure of a u.n. security council resolution calling for an end to the violence in syria.
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it was vetoed by china and russia. on wednesday, demonstrators in several syrian towns and cities burned russian and chinese flags. there were no reports of any police response. also today the u.n. said the number of people killed in the syrian government crackdown is more than 2,900, since march. the voice of deposed libyan leader moammar qaddafi was heard today in a new audio recording. it was broadcast on a syrian- based television station. in it, qaddafi called for millions of libyans to protest against the national transitional council now running the country. he said, "rise up, go out in the streets. the conditions in libya are unbearable." in afghanistan, hundreds of people protested in downtown kabul, demanding that foreign troops leave the country immediately. they marched through the streets of the capital, carrying signs and shouting "no to occupation!" the rally came a day before the 10th anniversary of the u.s. invasion. the nobel prize in literature
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was awarded today to swedish poet tomas transtromer. he was recognized for rich imagery in works that often explore death, history and nature. the 80-year-old writer has penned more than a dozen collections of poetry and been translated into more than 60 languages. transtromer is the first poet to win the literature prize in 15 years. those are some of the day's major stories. now, back to jeff. >> brown: and we turn to the life and work of a man who helped define a new age of technology. "newshour" correspondent spencer michels begins our remembrance of steve jobs. >> reporter: the mournful sound of bagpipes drifted through silicon valley at apple headquarters in cupertino, california. flags flew at half staff and flowers and a makeshift memorial appeared on a bench, as apple workers around the world mourned the loss of their longtime visionary leader, steve jobs.
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>> ( translated ): i don't personally know him, but i feel like our hero is gone now. i feel heartbroken. >> reporter: indeed, tributes poured in from all around the globe, to the man who left his mark with a variety of landmark innovations. practically as soon as jobs from apple users in san francisco: >> it's an amazing legacy. he has just been a force of nature. it's no longer "do you have a portable music device, or do you have a walkman?' it's "i want an ipad, or an ipod," that's the music device of choice. >> reporter: to world leaders, like australian prime minister julia gillard: >> and the jobs of the future are going to be shaped by innovation, and we hear the news of the loss of an incredible global innovator. i mean, it's not too much to say he literally changed our world. >> reporter: practically as soon as jobs death was announced, people started showing up at apple stores around the country, leaving gifts and messages for steve jobs. just a few blocks away at
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twitter headquarters, the staff obsera esmo microsoft founder and jobs' longtime rival bill gates tweeted his respects. he said, "the world rarely sees someone who made such a profound impact." and the man who co-founded apple with jobs steve wozniak spoke of his long-time friend. >> it's like the world lost a john lennon. i mean, steve was clearly the most outstanding business thinker and almost everybody who's high up in the technology business recognized that somehow he had the ability to think out new ways of doing things, not just ways to improve what we have, do a better version of something, but do it in a totally different way, that the world would swing towards. >> reporter: the story of apple and its wide-ranging impact on technology began with jobs and wozniak, a high-school friend, in a california garage. the pair scored an early hit with the apple two in 1977, the first consumer-grade computer to catch on.
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four years later, jobs began working on the macintosh introduced with a now-legendary commercial during the super bowl in 1984. two days later jobs himself did the unveiling. >> you've just seen some pictures of macintosh. now i'd like to show you macintosh in person. all of the images you are about to see on the large screen will be generated by what's in that bag. >> reporter: but early macintosh sales proved disappointing and by the mid-1980s, apple was in a slump, and jobs was forced out. during that time, he bought a tiny graphics company called
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pixar from "star wars" creator george lucas. it's first film "toy story" was a four year project involving a team of computer scientists, artists and animators and the company became a force in the film industry with a string of major hits. then, a decade after leaving apple, jobs returned in 1996 and the company began a turnaround. jobs' legendary sense for what people would want, led to a creative flood of revolutionary products-- the ipod and itunes. >> today, apple is going to reinvent the phone. >> reporter: as well as the iphone, and more recently, the fastest-selling tech device ever-- the ipad. he also held more than 300 patents, including one for the 1998 imac's unusual design. but there were also criticisms aimed especially at the allegedly low wages and labor practices used by apple suppliers in china.
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in one such incident-- seen on the "newshour" earlier this year -- the company was accused of being slow to respond when chinese workers building iphones were poisoned by toxic chemicals. jobs' own health became an issue as well. he was diagnosed with a rare form of pancreatic cancer seven years ago and had a liver transplant, in 2009. last january, he went back on medical leave from apple, one of several since his cancer diagnosis. by late august, his health was failing and jobs stepped down as c.e.o. he had candidly addressed his mortality, telling stanford graduates in 2005 that the prospect of death was an inspiration to him. >> when i was 17, i read a quote that said, "if you live every day as if it was your last, someday you most certainly will be right." it made an impact on me and
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every day i look in the mirror and ask would i want to do what i am about to do today. and whenever the answer has been no for too many days in a row i knew i had to change something. remembering that i'll be dead soon is the most important thing i've ever encountered to help me make the most important choices in my life. >> reporter: jobs made his last public appearance in june, where he introduced the icloud digital hub and lion operating system. his pioneering ways were roundly there was speculation jobs might appear at apple's launch of the iphone 4 this past tuesday. but he did not and instead, his hand-picked successor, tim cook, took jobs' place. 24 hours later, came apple's announcement that steve jobs had died peacefully at age 56. president obama, who'd received his ipad from steve jobs personally said in a statement: "there may be no greater tribute
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to steve's success than the fact that much of the world learned of his passing on a device he invented whether a mac, an iphone or an ipad." and many used those very devices to join in vigils and online celebrations of steve jobs' innovative genius and the contributions that have shaped much of modern life. >> brown: more now from three prominent voices in the world of technology. vint cerf is recognized as one of the founders of the internet, based on his work as an engineer in the 1970s and later. he now promotes the adoption and use of the internet around the world as the so-called "chief evangelist" for google. steve case is co-founder and former chairman and c.e.o. of a.o.l. he's now an entrepeneur and backs startups in a range of industries and chairman of the case foundation. and xeni jardin is editor of the popular technology and culture website boingboing.net.
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vent cerf i will start with you, as an engineer ho would you describe the impact of steve jobs. >> pretty much incall cable. the guy who thought about science fiction and made the engineers turned science fiction into reality. a wonderful challenge, tough guy to work with but he always got it right. >> brown: he made the engineers do what they -- >> what they didn't think they come and steve said yes, you can. go figure it out. >> brown: steve case, as a manager, tech businessman, what did you see? >> well, i was very impressed with steve as not just a product visionary, but also a great business leader. he pushed the engineers to create greet products and pushed the business partners to do the right thing in creating the best consumer experience, that was true across the line of products whether the ipod or the iphone or more recently the ipad. it wasn't just the ability to see around corners as wayne gretzky used to do and go where the puck is going,
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but also get the whole ecosystem working together in support of that product and support of the consumer needs. >> brown: was he a tough competitor? >> sure, he was a tough competitor. thankfully we were more partners than competitors. we partnered aol and apple partnered early on in aol's early days on something in apple personal edition and in the late 90s worked together on messages, created i chat that merged, ol mass injury with the apple operating system and later in the early part of the decade after aol merged with time warner we brainstormed together about digital music. and that obviously lead to the ipods. but thank fly i was more on the side of working together with him, didn't have to compete with him because he is a pretty tough competitor. >> brown: xeni jarredin, how did jobs manage to imprint his mark on the public to make people not only customers but believers? >> that's really a great mystery. and i think it will remain so for many years.
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it's hard to unravel exactly what made steve jobs so charismatic and so convincing. it was clear that he was a man who had no patience for distracks, for things that were outside of that, that vision that he believed so very, very much in. and that kind of charisma that he emanated, caused so many of us in technology to kind of come along for that ride, very willingly. >> brown: xeni, he used this word "taste" a lot in designing products. a matter of personal taste. often his own taste, i guess. what did he mean by that? >> you know, one of the most beautiful things that i will always remember that he said is this idea that design isn't just how something looks or feels. design is the very product itself. it's like the soul of these products. the idea that elegance, that
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simplicity, that beauty are fundamental qualities that technology should possess, this was something that people were not thinking about in the '70s, in the '80s when apple was first emerging. this was something that was seen as heresy. there was a newshour piece in the late 80s about apple, about steve jobs. and in the beginning of the piece he talks about receiving a letter from a six-year-old boy. ibm, the other big mainframe computer makers of the time, they weren't worried about what a six-year-old boy was thinking. but that six-year-old boy and all of the other regular people, they grew up and those were the people, it always seemed, that jobs was designing for. >> brown: now vent cerf the qualities we hear about driven, passionate, secretive, tough. you were talking about pushing the engineers beyond where they wanted to go. how does one do that? >> well, first of all, you
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have to have a vision that other people can understand. steve's design taste was sleek, simple, intuitive. when the original mouse was developed in 1968 it had three buttons. when steve approached this, it had one button and the idea was you only have to worry about one button, not a whole bunch of them. his whole point was to make things so intuitive, it just works. and that pushed the engineers pretty hard but it gave them a target that they might not have shot at themselves. >> brown: and how about pushing the industry and keeping control over a lot of what he did. >> well, plainly, he had a vertically integrated system. he really believed that you should make the box, put all the complicated stuff inside and don't open it up. it just works. and i think he succeeded better than almost anyone else at achieving that objective. >> brown: steve case, of course, it didn't always, without. not every product worked out. and as we said in our settup he famously was pushed out of the company at a certain point. he came back and turned it around big time.
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now how does one do that. you know the experience of being at the top and having to maintain that position. how hard is that and how does one do it? >> well, i think it's really hard. for a decade he was at apple and focused on pickar and had great success with pixar but his great love was always apple. when he reemerged i i this it was 1997. he called me that week and was pushing to do more things at aol. at that time post of the people in the industry given up on apple, had written it off. and he believed and that passion came through the phone line. and sure enough, suddenly the apple started making some moves and a few years later, and a few more moves and now is the most valuable, most respected, most loved technology company. that is the key part. most people in the technology industry focused on creating useful products, steve focused on products people could really fall in love with. >> brown: staying with you steve case wa, about keeping the control of the products so that once a person was
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part of the apple family or group, you were there, right, you were hooked. >> well, the problem is hooking people, he wanted them to fall in love with apple products and stay with apple products but also a real passionate belief that that was the better way for consumers. simplicity was crit kachl he was not the first to come out with a music player, an ipod. dozens had come out, he obviously wasn't o the first to come out with a smart phone, many came out before the iphone. but he was the first to really make it a mass market mainstream product the whole world could fall in love with. and a lot of that was simple design and making the decisions for consumers. and he always believed that you didn't want to do focus groups or research and ask people what they wanted, you wanted it to create products that they didn't know they wanted yet, and they would fall in love with. that was part of the magic of his design philosophy. but he also had perseverance. when he left apple and then when he came back, he was stuck with these things over the long run. i think what people love about the steve jobs story is not just the track record at apple but that comeback
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story that he came back and built a company even greater. that perseverance is even greater. it is not just passion and people it is also perseverance and nobody is a better role model for that, for all entrepreneurs all over the world than steve jobs. >> brown: xeni, also part of that personal story, of course, that a lot of us have been seeing, you see that speech he gave at standford, for example, where he talks about his life. i didn't know a lot of that countercultural, i guess we will call it, background. dropped out of college. he talked about studying calligraphy of all things. interesting background. >> there are stories you can read about him dropping lsd and venturing off to india to explore what life was like in an ashra mark. he was an adventurer through and through. and i-- all of us with you tonight have been caring about technology for a long time. he was a towering figure.
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i don't think-- there's been no loss that was felt so deeply and so unanimously that i can remember in this industry. and it will be felt for a long time. >> brown: xeni, what about apple now, what happens? >> it will be interesting to see. tim cook, the new apple c.e.o. has one of the hardest jobs in the world, you might say. no matter what the company does, their next steps will be measured against what the company might have done under steve jobs' leadership. it will be a very interesting story to unfold. >> brown: vent cer f1 of the questions is how important is any one man to his own company and to this largest era. >> well, i think you can't underestimate how important steve has been and many others. but you know what, there are a lot of very smart people in the world there are new start-ups that come along unexpectedly. look at yahoo! and google
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and amazon, that is not going to stop. we have a lot of very bright people in the world. all we have to do is make sure they have an opportunity to get started. so even while steve departs, he leaves behind this magnificent legacy, there will be people who fill that hole at apple and elsewhere. >> brown: what is the cal eng for apple and these other companies now? >> first of all, all the products, if not of apple, didn't come out of one man. a lot of other people had to work very hard to make them work. so there are those people still there. so i think that you will see some interesting opportunities for creative people emerging out of that wonderful collection of engineers, and marketing and businesspeople at apple. >> brown: steve case, what do you see as the challenges for apple now? >> well, i think they're on a great trajectory. and steve to his credit built a great team, a great culture and a product road map for the next few years that i think will suit apple well. but in the long run, i think it's important for apple not to obsess about steve. he is the leader, he is the visionary, he set them on this terrific course, this
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almost magical course. but i remember one of steve's great, early on heroes was walt disney. when walt disney passed away for a decade the disney company would always say what would walt do. and that lead them astray because the markets changed. i think what steve would want apple's team to do is build on the legacy, build on the momentum, take apple forward but figure out what the next generation would need and don't just focus on the rearview mirror and don't try to second-guess what tif would do. i think he put them on the right path. that path will continue. but part of that path is bringing in an innovative team and letting them make the decisions in the next wave, and really make sure apple is just as automatic ses-- successful 10 or 20 years from now, that would be his true legacy. >> brown: so the legacy of one man, how much difference one man makes, steve case. >> it's extraordinary. i don't want-- for a minute to underestimate that. apple would not be what it is today without steve. and proof of that was apple struggled when he was gone. and had a tremendous run when he came back. and that's a huge loss and it will be felt for many
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years to come. my only comment was making sure apple recognizes, as steve recognized looking back at the history of disney that it is incredibly important for the whole team there to build on that legacy, build on that vision, and take it to new places and not just focus on steve as one individual. >> brown: all right, steve case, xeni jardine, and vent cerf on the life and work of steve jobs, thank you all very much. >> pleasure to be here. >> thank you >> woodruff: now, after a decade of the united states at war, margaret warner talks with some who have gone to the battlefield and with some who have stayed behind, as a new pew research poll documents the gulf between them. >> so we can calculate-- . >> warner: it's another busy day for 31-year-old college senior sean grove, after five years in the army including 12 months in iraq, he left, to pursue a second
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college degree at the university of maryland. he also works assist the 800 or so veterans on this campus of 35,000. but whether he's there or at home, grove feels disconnected from fellow students who haven't served. >> on my block, you know, i'm the only one with an american flag hanging out front, you know. i remember when i got out and talked to other guys my age, they weren't in the military. and i was kind of shocked, like what, you nerve served in the military? >> warner: chans are they didn't, the ten years of war in afghanistan and iraq triggered by the 9/11 attracts-- attacks have been the longest period of sustained combat in u.s. history. yet fraught with-- fought with an all volunteer force. that's met only about half of 1 percent of americans have been on active duty at any one time in the decade. a mere fraction of the 9% who served at the height of world war ii. to mark tomorrow's 10th anniversary of the start of the afghan war, a new poll from the pew research center explores this recent military civilian gap in
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service. and how it's affected attitudes about war and sacrifice in the post 9/11 era. among both groups pew found great respect for those who fought. 96% of 9/11 era vets feel proud of their service. and 91% of the public, whatever their attitudes on the wars, feel proud of those who served. but 44% of this generation of vets report trouble adjusting to civilian life. far more than after past wars. and more than 70% of vets and nonvets alike agree that the american people don't understand the problems these modern era vets face. to explore those findings we visited two groups of students on the university of maryland campus this week. the veterans at maryland ranged in age, rank and experience. but all said their military service had changed them for the better. first generation american henry carbahalas enlisted in
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the marines a year after 9/11. a communication specialist for eight years, including 22 months in iraq, he's to you back as a freshman studying computer science. >> i'm very proud of it. it made me a better man, a better citizen. i may not have a concrete goal, but at least i know i'm capable to achieve anything i want to achieve. all thanks to the military. >> the military directs you and focuses you. >> warner: west point grad valerie austen retired as an army colonel after 22 years including service as a military intelligence officer? the first gulf war. now pursuing a second college degree in computer science, austen feels civilian students have little awareness of the current wars or the effort that goes into fighting them. >> a lot of the students that are here, they have lived through 9/11 for the last ten years. so they have almost begun to in some ways disassociate with it. it's just something that's
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happening over there. >> warner: these vets didn't want to dwell on their wartime sacrifice. but on returning, they said, a gulf opened up with old friends and new ones. maryland senior chris day joined the army for four years after high school spending two tours in afghanistan. he found it tough adjusting when he moved back and into a freshman dorm. >> you know, i couldn't relate. i was so happy and motivated to be here. and they were just, you know, crying about having to wake up for an 8 a.m. class. and i was like pumped to go to an 8 a.m. class. and glad i wasn't waking up before the sun rose, you know. and o they, students, the perceptions are completely different. and you know, i feel that we're a whole lot more grateful for the small things that, you know, color, like outside there's grass and there's a sun that doesn't have dust over it. >> warner: this doesn't
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surprise maryland professor david segall who directs a research center and there and consulted on the poll. >> the veterans are older than our regular undergraduate students coming right out of high school. they've had life experiences that the other students haven't had. and they certainly feel that the other students tend not to understand what they have been through. and they're absolutely right. >> warner: but it's more than the age difference. these vets say few of their fellow students or professors even ask about what they've been through. >> i will get this randomly where i would just, i guess they call it a thousand yard stare. as for my teach ear-- teachers, fellow peers, you don't really talk about what i have done. i say yes, i was in the service. that's it. they don't really ask any questions. >> veterans coming home aren't-- a, they are not victims it. the experience has been hard. they have come back, they are stronger from it, and they are normal persons trying to live their life. >> warner: masters degree
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student shelly a retired 37-year-old army lieutenant with two tour approximates in iraq thinks post 9/11 vets are having a tough time reentering civilian life because there's such an anomaly in their generation. >> when men came back from world war ii, they all had served, sos there was a commonality. and they had a community of people around them that understood them on a daily basis. and they integrated back into society well. >> warner: she's right says pew center executive vice president paul taylor, one of the polls co-authors. >> they are not as fully integrated in the full society as has been the case with our warriors in past wars. here the post 9/11 veterans stand out. they, 44% say that they have had difficulties readjusting to civilian life. we asked the same question of the older veterans who served in earlier years and 25% said that. >> to talk with nonvet students on the maryland
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campus we went to an undergraduate english class. the students were preparing a reading of euripides play. these undergrad spent their entire teenage years in the shadow of war yet feel scarcely touched by it. senior nick crug is an english major. >> i think, you know, for me, it's inconsequence. for me i have been able to unfortunately take it for granted. take it for granted for what the soldiers have done. i don't think about it my daily life, really just having these questions asked, that is the only time i think about it. that is pretty of the biggest tragedy i think of what going on. >> i asked a senior, an aspiring journalist about how the war has touched her. has this decade of war required any sacrifice from you or your family? >> no, not from my family. and i think that's the worst part. >> warner: like most americans polled, this senior hoping to be a teacher professed great admiration to his fellow students who veterans. >> immense respect, because
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i mean just walking past them, in their uniforms, or you know them to have served, they lissity that respect. >> warner: yet they admitted they don't know many veterans on campus and never cashed the mill father tore-- military for themselves after high school. >> i only ever met people who had served in these wars when i came to college. and they tend to be people from, you know, poorer backgrounds, from different areas, from the south. and yeah, it makes you question, you know, why are these the people who are there, and why not us. and why is that. >> warner: so what can be done to bridge the gap. the pew poll showed both the public and veterans have such confidence in the professional military that they don't want to return to a draft. >> i will serve the country some day by teaching my friends will serve the country by being a great doctor. there's countless ways it to do it. it just depends on how you look at it. >> that could be anything, helping out the community.
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>> i see its alike a pyramid effect. right now it's just us and our families, and then friends. if we do something nationally where everybody gets involved, it will make the pyramid a lot bigger and i think people will then start seeing greater appreciation. >> warner: that appreciation and more understanding from the american people is what the post 9/11 veterans most yearn >> brown: next, another story from our "economist film project" series. tonight's film, titled "prosecutor," follows the work of the chief prosecutor of the international criminal court in the hague. luis moreno-ocampo, a jurist from argentina, has a mandate to investigate war crimes around the world. but he and the court have faced criticism for ineffectiveness. in this excerpt, he opens a case in 2009 against a rebel leader in the democratic republic of congo accused of using child soldiers in his militia.
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barry stevens is the filmmaker and also narrates the film. a warning: this excerpt contains graphic images. >> -- killed millions of people. we say never again. but that's not true. it happened again and again. then in 1998 a new idea. there will be no more impunity for massacre, genocide, crimes against humanity. the international court will step in when the states do nothing, -- >> but how can a prosecutor in one court in the hague bring justice to a violent world? january 20009.
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moreno ocampo has been on the job now for five years. and he has finally ready to start his first trial. the global court's jail is holding just four prisoners. all are african. the man about to go on trial was arrested by the democratic republic of congo. a militia leader named thomas lubanga, he's charged with using child soldiers. >> can we start? >>. >> the prosecutor does a last rehearsal with icc lawyers. >> hundreds of children still suffer the consequence of lubanga's crimes. they cannot forget what they suffer, what they saw what they did.
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>> it-- it really is supposed to be not sort of this evocative emotional kind of thing but you know, just a recitation our evidence will be, it's supposed to be a dry recitation not -- >> no, not really, no, no, not really. don't -- >> i know, i don't want that. >> i remember when i was in argentina doing my trial i would say my mother was wasn't me. i would not convince my mother that -- had to be in jail. and when-- when it stopped my mother was convinced. i have to convince the world that this is awful. >> history is made today as the international criminal court begins its first trial. >> the defendant thomas lubanga arrivals from jail. >> it will be the first time a industrial has focused exclusively on the use of child soldiers. the identity of some of those testifying will be concealed. >> this is being watched all
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over the world closely. some critics say that the prosecuting some people stands in the way of a more peaceful solution. >> it took luis moreno-ocampo five years to get his first case to trial. and that very nearly collapsed before it started. >> the court is working in active war zones. they have to investigate and protect witnesses. you have no police force. >> in his view, the defendant is guilty because he says so. it's not up to him, it's up to the court. >> they cannot not forget what they suffer, what they saw, what they did. your honor, thomas lubanga, he knew that he was breaking the rules that were established to protect those with the least power among us, little children. children have are not
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soldiers. if convicted, thomas lubafga's sentence will send a clear message, the era of impunity is ending. >> do you believe that recruitment of child soldiers has stopped bus luis moreno-ocampo took somebody to court. >> possibly reduced. >> i don't believe it. >> the violence is not simply criminal, traceable to just individuals. but the violence has actually political and social. the violence is being reproduced by issues in unless you address those issues, the violence will not come to an end. >> it has impact in colombia, that is why they have-- soldiers new and that is why in neppal they demobilized-- that is i impact. >> all rise within the first
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witness testifies in the lubanga trial. his identity and voice are blurred for outsiders. but lubanga can see him. the witness says that he was trained as a child soldier. but then the court comes back from a break. and suddenly the witness seems unsure. >> witness, i want you to know that we are only interested in what happened to you, and the truth. so please go ahead and tell us. >> i would like to say what actually happened to myself. not say what some other person telling me to say. >> people in congo are watching live by satellite. many here still support lubanga. >> so this morning you told the court about a time when
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some soldiers came and took you and your friends away. was that story from you true or false? >> that's not true. >> nobody knows why the first witness retracted that he was a child soldier but it's bad news for the prosecution team. and a big story for the media. >> i came here today because it was billed as the first witness, child soldier. i thought there were probably lined up the star witness. the main prosecutor wasn't here. i heard he is in davos which surprises me. as far as i can tell, the first day was pretty
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symbolic. >> in congo, the armed groups haven't gone away. the guns of the u.n. and the congolese government keep a kind of peace. but if people in congo think witnesses are not telling the truth or the court's not fair to both sides, violence could erupt again. the lubanga trial starts to go better for the prosecution. many young witnesses testify that they were child soldiers for thomas lubanga. >> we were taken forcefully. if you tried to refuse, you could be shot. >> the lubanga trial continues. the second congo trial is
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under way. and a third trial is starting. most of those indicted by the court are still free. and it seems unlikely that the prosecutor can ever really challenge the most powerful countries. but nobody likes to see people getting away with terrible crimes. the court exists because that desire for justice doesn't stop at the border. and if we want a less violent world, really, what alternative is there to the rule of law. >> brown: in august two and a half >> brown: in august, two and a half years after lubanga's trial began, lawyers delivered closing arguments. judges are now deliberating the verdict. "prosereto pr"mieres on documentary channel on this coming sunday, october 9.
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and you can learn about the "economist film project" or submit your own film at film.economist.com. >> woodruff: finally tonight, the story of the boat that took ernest hemingway out to sea and helped him weather the storms of fame and ruin. it's told by the author of a new biography on the famous writer. . >> a man who lead his own insides get eaten out by the p diseases of fame had dreed new books on this boat. he taught his sons to real in something that feels like mobbee dick on this boat. he accidental-- accidentally shot himself in both legs on this boat. i'm paul hendrickson and i'm the author of "hemmingway's boat" subtitled "everohing he loved in life and lost", 1934 to 1961.
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i was after some kind of efv case or interpretation of the man. but there have been a dozen biographies of hemingway. and really a heck of a lot more scholarly studies, critical studies. i wanted to do something different and one way or another i came on this metaphor that my anchor-- that might anchor the story. hemmingway's 38 foot motorized fishing vessel which he owned for 27 years, which were the last 27 years. and he lovingly possessed her, road her, fished her through three wives, the nobel prize and all his ruin. if you said hemmingway, the
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association to people who have read him somewhat might be these very simple decollar difficult kinds of sentences, and sentence rhythms. he invented a new kind of american speech. but hemmingway by the '30s, by especially the mid '30s is beginning to experiment with the longer proceeds line. these sentences are growing much, much longer. and they're full of subordinate clauses. he got out of those dampened enclosures of europe where he had just made his fame. he got out of what you might call the four square protestant oak park winters whre he had grown-up. and where does he end up in bohemia key west where he can wear his rag ety beltless shorts.
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you read his letters and the way -- read through the letters, can't wait to get on the boat. she did help keep him sane. she did help provide a release. she represented this little encapsulated existence, wherefor a long weekend or for just an afternoon, getting away from the pressures of the writing desk. and in these post muse years of hemingway i think we have begun j btsey examining the work itself, to have a deeper, fully understanding of what a tortured human being he was. this is why he continues to fascinate us. because he's like a beautiful cole identify scopic art object-- call identify scopic art object. you turn it one little tilt and a whole new angle of light comes in
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>> woodruff: that was author paul hendrickson on his new book, "hemingway's boat." >> brown: again, the major developments of the day: president obama called the economic situation an emergency, and he sharply challenged congressional republicans to vote on his jobs bill. apple founder steve jobs was remembered as a digital visionary and one of the world's great innovators. he died wednesday at 56. and wall street rallied again. the dow industrials gained more than 180 points. and to kwame holman for what's on the "newshour" online. kwame? >> holman: you can watch all of president obama's news conference on the rundown blog. and there's much more on steve jobs, including a 1985 "newshour" report from elizabeth brackett on the then-tumultous times for apple and a roundup of notable looks back on jobs and his legacy plus jeff talks to the senior editor at "poetry" magazine about swedish poet tomas transtromer, who won the nobel prize for literature today all that and more is on our web site, newshour.pbs.org. jeff? >> brown: and that's the "newshour" for tonight. i'm jeffrey brown.
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>> woodruff: and i'm judy woodruff. we'll see you online and again here tomorrow evening. when we'll talk with g.o.p. presidential candidate mitt romney and mark shields and david brooks. thank you and good night. major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: and by the alfred p. sloan foundation. supporting science, technology, and improved economic performance and financial literacy in the 21st century. and with the ongoing support of these institutions and foundations. and... this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you.
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