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tv   PBS News Hour  PBS  January 8, 2015 6:00pm-7:01pm EST

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captioning sponsored by macneil/lehrer productions >> ifill: the search intensifies to find and capture two gunmen responsible for the worst terrorist attack in france in decades. good evening, i'm gwen ifill. >> woodruff: and i'm judy woodruff. also ahead this thursday, a look at what's behind the alienation and radicalization of some muslim youth in european countries. >> ifill: plus, ava duvernay, the golden-globe nominated director of "selma," on her effort to bring the civil rights movement to the screen. >> this is art. this is a movie. this is a film. i'm not a historian, i'm not a documentarian, i am an artist who explored history and what i found-- the questions that i
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have, the ideas that i have about history, i've put into this project that i've made. >> woodruff: and, economists suggest more self-restraint as a child leads to better economic outcomes later in life. how some schools are teaching character to increase the odds of success. >> woodruff: those are some of the stories we're covering on tonight's pbs newshour. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by:
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while we might wire your street, also your friends and neighbors. i.d.e.w., the power professionals in your neighborhood. >> lincoln financial-- committed to helping you take charge of your life and become you're own chief life officer. >> supported by the john d. and catherine t. macarthur foundation. committed to building a more just, verdant and peaceful world. more information at macfound.org >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions and... >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. >> ifill: the people of france spent the day on edge, mourning the victims of a mass shooting in paris, and tracking the manhunt for two attackers. u.s. officials said they were on
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a no-fly list for terror suspects, and french police questioned at least 90 people, detained nine, and expanded their sweep outside the capital. hari sreenivasan begins our coverage. >> sreenivasan: squads of police with helmets and shields followed armored vehicles into an area northeast of paris by this afternoon. they shifted their search after two men resembling the suspects robbed this gas station in villers cotterets, a little over 40 miles from the french capital. in short order, helicopters began to buzz the region, security forces entered nearby woodland villages and carried out house-to-house searches, on reports the gunmen might have holed up there. in paris, french prime minister manuel valls sought to calm public fears. >> ( translated ): we want to tell the french people all that we are very mobilized. we want to salute the fact that the french gathered and were united yesterday and today, and will be this weekend without a doubt, and we want to tell our will to fight to defend our liberties, our democracy and our
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tolerance. >> sreenivasan: the objects of the manhunt are brothers in their thirties. the younger, cherif kouachi, had been sentenced to 18 months in prison in 2008 for trying to join a militant islamist group fighting in iraq. less is known of the older brother, said kouachi, but the prime minister said both had been known to intelligence services before yesterday. >> as soon as we knew the identities, the safe havens were under surveillance. nine persons are currently in custody. >> reporter: a third suspect, 18-year old mourad hamyd, turned himself into police last night after learning his name was linked to the attacks. friends said he'd been in school at the time of the shootings. on this national day of mourning, the bells of notre dame tolled, and french president francois hollande led a moment of silence for the 12 people killed at "charlie
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hebdo." the satirical weekly had a history of lampooning islam and other religions, in commentary and cartoons. today, people laid flowers and lit candles at the publication's offices, and decried the killings. >> ( translated ): it's a shame that because of humor, that we condemn humor and that we've gone so far to kill people for cartoons, for ideas. it's sad, it's a bit devastating that today in paris we've got to this point, for ideas and for humor. >> sreenivasan: all across the city, police presence was heavy this day, but tensions spiked with the fatal shooting of a policewoman in a southern suburb of paris. it remained unclear if the incident had any connection to yesterday's killings. elsewhere, in shows of solidarity, some european newspapers re-published some of "charlie hebdo's" cartoons. and in protests around the world and online, people everywhere joined in declarations saying, "je suis charlie," or "i am charlie." this evening in paris, in a dramatic display, the eiffel tower went black in a further demonstration of national sorrow. i'm hari sreenivasan in new york for the pbs newshour. >> ifill: a short time ago i
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spoke to mark austin of independent television news from paris. mark austin, thank you so much for joining us. i know it's late there. what can you tell us tonight about the latest in the scope and success if any of this manhunt? >> no great success yet but it's on a massive scale. i mean hundreds of special forces hundreds of armed police conducting a hunt about 50 or 60 miles northeast of paris in northern france in a heavily wooded area of about several thousand acres. so they have a massive job but it's thought there the two brothers are hiding out and it's thought the police and special forces are tonight closing in, or at least that's the hope of many people here in france. of course with darkness the initiative could pass to the special forces with their infrared equipment and it's believed they may be closing in
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tonight. >> ifill: can you give us signs of how people are reacting to this? we know the suspects are on the loose. we know a third suspect has turned himself in but said he wasn't involved. are people still on edge? >> people are very much on edge here in paris. there was a feeling yesterday this is a specifically targeted attack on this magazine behind me here, but today we've had more attacks. these two brothers are still on the loose, and i think there is a great sense of fear here and the real hope that these two men are caught. it's also very somber here, i have to tell you. i mean, we have been here all day just by this shrine here and hundreds thousands of people have come here during the day just to lay flowers light candles. it's been a very moving experience. but a great sadness but also it is still very much a country on edge tonight. >> is there much tension in particular in the muslim
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community? >> it's interesting. i talk about people coming to this shrine today. there was a visit by a number of muslim leaders today who laid their own flowers and said their own prayers because they believe that this was an attack that was not in their name and not in islam's name. i spent time today in the muslim quarter here and that is a belief shared by thousands of muslims here. we spoke to a number of people, young students who say this is not in their name and they want nothing to do with it and they want unity and togetherness. there are some 6 million muslims in france and they have to get on. i think there's a real sense here the fabric of this country is being tested like seldom before, and there are calls tonight for unity and togetherness. >> ifill: mark austin, we can only hope that that actually holds. from independent television news, thank you very much. >> ifill: we'll talk more about
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radicalization of, and attitudes toward muslims in france, after the news summary. >> woodruff: here in the u.s., stock markets soared for a second day on hopes for an upbeat jobs report tomorrow, and possible economic stimulus action in europe. the buying binge more than made up losses from earlier in the week. in all, the dow jones industrial average gained 323 points to close at 17,908; the nasdaq rose 85 points to close at 4,736; and the s&p 500 added 36 to finish at 2,062. >> ifill: record-breaking cold hardened a deep freeze that stretched to day from the midwest to new england. wind chills dipped below zero again, prompting schools to push back classes or cancel them for a second day in a row. but commuters had little choice but to brave the elements, as the cold caused breakdowns in public transportation. >> hopefully summer comes sooner, like real soon, you know? i can't take this anymore, man.
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do you see my eyes are running, my nose is running, is it comfortable? i don't think so. i'm originally from the caribbean. so i'm freezing. i don't know what i'm going to do to change this. ( laughs ) but it's very cold, and i got to go to work so that's why i'm out here. >> ifill: and there is another so-called alberta clipper coming behind this one. minnesota and the dakotas could face wind gusts of up to 50- miles-an-hour. >> woodruff: overseas, frigid temperatures also gripped the middle east again, prompting appeals to help syrian refugees. blizzards, rain and high winds have buffeted camps in jordan and lebanon, where hundreds of thousands have fled the fighting in syria. today, activists warned conditions are catastrophic. but the storm silenced the guns inside syria, with no reported deaths for the first time in three years. >> ifill: there was no let-up in the violence across iraq, where 23 people died in suicide
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attacks. the first bomber rammed his car into a checkpoint south of baghdad, killing three police officers and four civilians. a second attacker targeted police and shiite militiamen in samarra, killing eight more people. later, a bombing in baghdad claimed another eight lives. >> woodruff: egypt's army is making new moves to curb the influx of guns and militants across its border with gaza. today, the military said today it's doubling a buffer zone. the decision means more than 1200 homes will have to be destroyed in one of egypt's poorest districts. >> ifill: rough seas blocked efforts today to recover the black box recorders from the air-asia plane that crashed off indonesia. shaky underwater video showed divers examining the tail section after it was located yesterday. the recorders are believed to be in that wreckage. crews may try raising it to the surface tomorrow. >> woodruff: the u.s. government
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has fined the honda motor company a record $70 million for failing to report complaints of deaths and injuries. the national highway traffic safety administration imposed the penalty today. honda has acknowledged that it never reported more than 1,700 complaints on safety issues going back to 2003. it also withheld warranty claims. >> ifill: back in this country, one of the senate's leading liberals california democrat barbara boxer announced today she will not seek re-election in 2016. the four-term senator issued her statement in an online video, answering questions posed by her grandson. >> i am never going to retire. the work is too important. but i will not be running for the senate in 2016. i'm going to continue working on the issues i love. i'll have more time to help other people through my pack for change community. i have to make sure the senate seat stays progressive that is so critical, and i want to help
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our democratic candidate for president make history. >> ifill: boxer was elected to the house in 1982, and to the senate, ten years later. she's been a staunch advocate of abortion rights and environmental protection. she is 74-years-old, but says age was not a factor in her decision. >> woodruff: and, police in colorado springs, colorado, appealed today for tips on a bombing this week near an office of the n.a.a.c.p. the civil rights organization joined in the appeal. the bombing caused only minor damage and no injuries. the f.b.i. is investigating, but says it's too soon to tell whether the n.a.a.c.p. was the target. >> woodruff: still to come on the newshour. what's driving the rise of anti- muslim sentiment in france. why are more westernized muslims turning towards radical interpretations of islam. the director of the film "selma" on her take of a pivotal time in the civil rights movement. teaching self-restraint to even the most out-of-control students. and the thin line walked by
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political and cultural cartoonists and satirists. >> ifill: we return now to france, yesterday's attacks, among other things, put a spotlight on the growing tensions between the country's muslim and immigrant community and a large portion of french society. newshour's megan thompson got a firsthand account of that divide on a recent reporting trip to the southern the city of marseilles. >> this city of more than 850,000 is france's second largest and one of it's most diverse. about 500 miles southeast of paris and on the med trainson, marseilles is home to tens of thousands of immigrants throughout europe and more recently from north africa. by some estimates, the city is now 30 to 40% muslim one of the
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highest concentrations of muslims anywhere in this overwhelmingly catholic country. even before yesterday's attack and two other recent attacks by muslim men, tensions between muslims and non-muslims had been raising in marseilles. >> this is complicated with the arrival of the foreigners who changed everything in the town of marseilles. >> this photographer lived in marseilles his entire life and felt things change over the years. >> before, everyone knew each other. even the first immigrants in marseilles, the italians spanish, all that. it all worked fine perhaps because it was the same religion. what came after is more complicated, less integrated. >> reporter: he said that has given rise to uneasiness. difficult encounters are already occurring. >> the old marseilles are annoyed to have people who come and bother them in their hometown because we have our
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ways and the new arrivals feel not well accepted and you feel their hatred increasing. you can see it in the buses. there are fights, and that didn't happen before. >> reporter: we asked if he believed new imgrants are to blame? >> i'm absolutely convinced the main problems come from this. >> reporter: there are a lot of verbal insults. the stares, people in the streets looking at me. natalie was born in france, the daughter of an algerian immigrant. she converted to islam in her early tweents and is married to an imam. the mother of seven says once or twice a month she is ridiculed because she wears a scarf. she says she's been excluded from her children's field trips and in 2012 nearly had a confrontation in a store. >> a woman tore into me really insulted me. she said you've rejected our origin because she knew i'm french because i told her. she insulted me with all these
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names. she almost hit me. >> reporter: she said she reported the incident to police but nothing happened. according to one survey taken last spring, about a quarter of the french population had an unfavorable view of muslims which is actually much lower than other european countries. during our visit to marseilles last month, many muslims we spoke to told us about what they say is widespread job discrimination, unfair media portrayals of all muslims as terrorists and a pattern of mos tile remarks. >> it doesn't bother me. i ignore them. but when you have your kids with you and someone insults you it's degrading. frankly, when it happens on the street, it's hard to justify it to the kids. they don't understand. my son, he says when i'm big, i am going to fight these people if they talk to you that way. i say you can't respond to aggression with aggression. >> reporter: why do you think people treat you this way?
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>> i really -- i think it's fear of the other and also a lack of understanding of our religion. also i think that muslims don't make enough effort to reach out and explain the fundamentals of our religion, that there is a lot of respect for others. >> reporter: we also heard stories about a right wing politician from marseilles whose actions offended some members of the muslim community. he once interrupted a muslim wedding because the bride was wearing a veil covering her face a violation of french law. he explained it to us this way. >> we have an identity and we also have laws. so french law forbids anyone to be entirely veiled. so i have only applied the law. there is no islam phobic, racist of extremist motivation on my end. >> reporter: last september javier was elected to the french senate, the first time in history when anyone from the far right front party has been elected to the body.
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the national front gained ground in france as worries of economy and security have grown. >> so i am saying to the french muslims who want to live their islam that they have the right to do so, of course. our country, secularism, allows them to live their islam. >> reporter: but javier also insists despite france's separation of church and state, the nation's long christian traditions must be respected. >> i would like to remind people that france is a christian country, an identity, a culture. so i'm telling the french muslims that don't forget that here it is french soil and france as is done around the world, we also have to respect religions, rituals, customs and codes. so there is islam and islamism which is growing. >> reporter: he is critical of national leaders like the french president for not fully appreciating the threat he says some french muslims present. just yesterday following the mass shooting, the leader of the
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national front party says time is up for denial and hypocrisy. the absolute rejection of islamic fundamentalism must be proclaimed loudly and clearly. >> massive immigration is causing islamization. we can see there are some extremist elements at the heart. they are very active. the french authorities are frozen because they fear being labeled islamaphobic. >> reporter: officials estimate 1,000 muslims left to join jihad. >> we need to take measures to match the danger. >> reporter: there's still another aspect to all offthis. many believe relations between christians and muslims are further strained because many muslims are poor and during difficult times that leads to resentment about providing for them. the national unemployment rate in france is now about 10%. >> the economic situation is
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exreerl serious. we welcome immigrants who have nothing and many have no skills. they become the state's ponsability. we will have to house them, provide healthcare assist them at all levels. >> reporter: so what does the future hold for relations between muslims and christians in marseilles? there seems to be little optimism. >> i think that we'll need a few generations to get used to it. me i won't be here. but my kids, i think they will be experiencing some tough moments. >> it's getting worse and worse and, frankly, i don't think it's going to get better. >> reporter: for the "newshour", i'm megan thompson reporting from marseilles, france. >> woodruff: "the news york times" has just reported that one of the brothers being hunted for the paris attack received training at an al qaeda training camp in yemen, according to a senior american official.
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the brothers, who were born and raised in france had a secular muslim upbringing before their apparent radicalization. there have, of course, been other attacks on the continent and thousands of european muslim extremists have traveled to iraq and syria to fight. to find out more about what's leading to the radicalization of many of these young men, i spoke earlier to peter neumann director of the international center for the study of radicalization at king's college. peter neumann, thank you for talking with us. first of all, what do you think is most important for us to know about this attack about these two brothers in terms of understanding what went into this, what was behind it? >> i think the two brothers are interesting because they have a lock history of extremism. at least one has been active in jihadist circles for over ten years, so these were not inexperienced people. these were not people who were
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the typical lone wolves who were radicalized over the internet. these were experienced operators. the second important thing is the change of modus operandi that we are witnessing. really, over the past ten or 15 years, we have been lucky because the jihadists have been trying to emulate 9/11 complicated, big attacks. now they are trying to do less complicated attacks which they realize can inflict as much horror and terror and polarization on society but which are much more difficult to detect. i would expect to see more things like that to happen in 2015. >> woodruff: why would you say so many young muslims in europe are becoming radicalized? >> i think the cause is ultimately a conflict of identity. it is about second or third-generation desendents of muslim immigrants no longer feeling that home in their parents or grandparents'
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culture, at the same time not being fully accepted into european societies, often having experiences of discrimination. they do not feel they belong in france even though they were born in france, went to school in france, have french passports. i think that it is in this regard that we have a lot to learn from the united states of america which is much more welcoming and much more embracing immigrants wherever they come from and whoever they are. in europe, we still have a sense that, you know, if you don't look european, if your names are not european, you're not part of us, and that causes that conflict of identity that makes a lot of people open to the simple messages from radicalizers and recruiters. >> woodruff: we also are aware that there's a growing backlash in parts of europe including france against the muslim population. is there an understanding of how that may be making the radicalization of these young
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people worse? >> absolutely. and i think it's a really dangerous moment for a lot of western european countries. you have a difficult economic situation in countries like france, but also other countries. you have a strengthening far right fringe. in france, for example,eth not even a fringe. it is now the largest party in france, the front national. and these people are trying to politically exploit this tragedy to gain strength, and you can almost foresee a situation in which both extremes are almost drawing strength from each other and polerrizing society -- polarizing society to the extent some european countries could be ungovernable. >> woodruff: what should security forces be doing to head off more more attacks like this one? >> i think it's very important
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to, first of all stop people from traveling to syria. in a lot of european countries that's still difficult for legal reasons. you should be able to take away passports from people who want to go to syria. it is also important that european countries become better at exchanging information. a lot of the retrainees are not returning directly to their home countries, they're returning to other companies. it's better everyone knows about each other's retrainees. most importantly it's about prevention. it is about trying to prevent more people from becoming radicalized in the first place. a lot of countries do not have strategies in place, they do not know what they are doing and this is absolutely urgent now. >> woodruff: so much more to work on this n this area. peter neumann with king's college in london. we thank you. >> thank you. >> ifill: an emotional and
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controversial period of american history has led to an emotional and controversial reception for an acclaimed new movie. we go behind the scenes. >> give us the vote! we're not asking, we're demanding!! >> give us the vote! >> ifill: two years after "lincoln," and one year after "twelve years a slave," hollywood is tackling history again, this time in "selma," the story of the seminal alabama civil rights protests that led to the passage of the 1965 voting rights act. it is the first feature film ever to focus on martin luther king jr. and the less well-known activists who forced the nation's hand 50 years ago. in limited release, it has won four golden globe nominations, standing ovations and rave reviews. in new york and in selma itself, community leaders have raised hundreds of thousands of dollars to allow middle school students
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to see the film for free. if you believe all are created equal, come to selma. join us. join our march against injustice and inhumanity. >> ifill: but "selma" has also sparked controversy, particularly for its portrayal of president lyndon johnson's sometimes prickly relationship with king, who is treated here as more tactician than theologian. >> we need your help. >> dr. king, this thing is just going to have to wait. >> it can't wait. >> ifill: former johnson aide joseph califano said no one should see the film. and the head of the l.b.j. presidential library said the portrayal "flies in the face of history." mark updegrove appeared on cbs news' "face the nation." >> you don't quite see how productive that partnership was and how it came to bear on our getting voting rights in this country. >> ifill: the bulk of the film, however, brings to life the force and brutality of the resistance to the movement, as
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well as the heroism of activists like now-congressman john lewis, who was severely injured on bloody sunday, the first of the three marches across selma's edmund pettis bridge. the film opens nationwide tomorrow in advance of this weekend's golden globe awards. i sat down with duvernay yesterday in new york. ava, thank you for joining us. >> thank you for having me. >> ifill: the first time my heart was in my throat. the second time i was locking at its with historical scrutiny because questions have been raised about the choices you made. what have been the response to all of that? >> the response is this is art, a movie. i'm not a historian. i explore the ideas i have about history and put it into this project i made. i understand people wanting to see history through their own gaze, through their own lens and this is the way that i see it.
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this is the way that i interpret it. and so, you know, i could get into a debate about the minutia of history and interpretation but i'm not a custodian of anyone's legacy. i'm not a librarian. i'm not trying to maintain an image of anyone. not of king or johnson or any of the people we chronicle in the film. we try to invite people into the spirit of the movement. that was my intention and what we've done. i like people to see it for themselves. >> ifill: there had never been a feature film done by martin luther king of which he was the central figure. why is that and do you think that any of the backlash you've experienced in the last week or two is related to that? >> yeah. i mean i think part of the reason why you've had companies and artists hesitant to dive in, a bunch of reasons and property
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issues, issues with the speeches and the estate. ideas about black protagonists not being at the top of the studios to make. but all the different camps and conconstituencies around this issue have made it challenging for filmmakers to foal like they could be free in telling the story as they saw it. and that's strangled the story for longer than it should have. 50 years since the events we chronicled and never a major motion picture with king at the center. >> ifill: you made a point about the stories toll and not told. one to have the surprising things i've heard is people who saw the title was selma and oprah was affiliated with the project thought this was a movie about a woman named selma played by oprah.
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i am surprised by that. >> that is the time that we're in. some of the questions that i've heard, some of the statements that i've heard as we've taken the film across the country jaw dropping at what people don't know, you know. selma does not resonate with people in the way that it should as being a cornerstone for democracy in terms of what it's done for voting rights and equality. some don't even know what that is is. we open the film with the scene of four little girls, the birmingham bombing. this is a quintessential pivotal point of departure for everything that happened in the movement. yet i have people walking up and saying, did that really happen? i mean someone said to me, dr. king wasn't really 39 when he died, was he? >> ifill: you have been nominated for golden globe, best director, first african woman ever david oyelowo the best
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actor. why didn't you call this king since he was the central figure. >> selma is not king only. i felt adamant that it be broaden to include the community of people who came together to make this so. it's not a monolith. there were all kinds of ideas to achieve the goal. that's what we talk about in the film. a bunch of different organizations people, personalities, how to get there and keep their eye on the prize but they did and came together around the voice that amplified the message. that was the beauty of king. he was a leader of people so you have to show the people to understand the greatness of the leadership and to not do that is missing a great opportunity. so it's important to deconstruct our heros whether king or l.b.j. and distill their relationship down to key scenes. it wasn't always smooth. these were two great minds who often were in a chess match. to say this was a skip in the
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park and they were holding hands the whole way is to really be disingenuous about what was happening at that point. you know, we're in a time in history where everything was on fire, and everything was being questioned and that's what's we're doing on film. >> ifill: did you leave the impression johnson was more complicit in the things like the f.b.i. tracking of king than he was? >> complicit? i have questions about it and those questions i've put into the film. there's never a scene where we say very clearly that johnson wanted the tape or commanded that something be done but it does leave room for the grey areas, as i see them. so all of my questions, all of my ideas, all of my thoughts about this time in history are in this interpretation of selma. it is one vision of it. it's not the only. it's not the absolute correct one, it's one and it's valid. one of the op-eds that was
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written had the words "this film should be ruled out for the christmas season and awards season." that was the last line of joseph califano's op-ed. i think that is disturbing. it's against the very ideals of what johnson's legacy that we're talking about stood for, if we're talking about equality, if we're talking about voice, then let this voice be heard. the johnson character gets the applause in most screenings at the end of the film when he gives the speech. audiences go on an emotional journey with him. they're seeing a beginning, middle, end, an an arc in the character that's positive. i invite people to see the movie and check it out.
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>> ifill: thank you very much. one of the challenges ava faced is she was not given rights to let the actors use the actual speeches of dr. king but channeled the words anyway. you can watch more of my conversation with her about that on our web site. >> woodruff: whether you're five, fifteen or 50-years-old, one of the hardest things to deal with in life can be exercising will power and making a sacrifice in the short-term in order to achieve something of greater value later. it is one of those commonly accepted life lessons, but now it turns out there are more organized efforts to teach it to children. our economics correspondent paul solman, has the story. part of his ongoing reporting "making sense" of financial news. >> clap once. clap twice. put up your right hand. put up your left hand.
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put up your right hand. >> reporter: this is the kipp infinity middle school in new york city's harlem, where, in addition to the three "r's," these predominantly poor fifth graders study character to maximize success in later life: qualities like grit and gratitude. optimism and curiosity. zest and social intelligence. and one skill above all. >> what is this talking about don't eat the marshmallow? brithany in the back. >> self control. >> ok, so we're talking about self control. >> reporter: in fact, they've been talking about self control since the first day of school, when teacher leyla bravo-willey gave all of her students the marshmallow test. >> they come in, they have a marshmallow in front of them and they're looking around like: what? what is this? >> reporter: this is among the
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most famous experiments in the history of psychology with implications for economics. >> in which a group of four- year-olds were given one marshmallow and told that if they could wait to eat the marshmallow after being left alone with it for a while, then they would be given an extra marshmallow to eat. most eat the marshmallow as soon as they are left alone with it. but some other children are able to resist temptation. >> reporter: about one in every three is able to hold off. and youtube is replete with videos of kids struggling to not eat the marshmallows. so what's the big deal about self control? >> the big deal about self control is if you have it, you are able to actually pay attention to the teacher and to learn. >> reporter: psychologist walter mischel devised the marshmallow test 50 years ago, running it on hundreds of preschoolers at stanford university. 12 years later, he found significant differences between those who had wolfed down the marshmallow. they were now found to be more easily frustrated, indecisive, disorganized. and those who, as tots, had been
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able to control themselves. they were now more confident, self-reliant and, get this, scored about 200 points higher on the s.a.t. the powerful economic message is that if you do exhibit self- control at an early age, says mischel. >> you've got a much better chance of taking the future into account and likely to have better economic outcomes. but the idea that your child is doomed if she chooses not to wait for her marshmallow is really just a serious misinterpretation. >> reporter: because the real message of his work is that self control can be taught, says mischel, to even the most out- of-control among us. >> me get this feeling when me see the cookie on the plate me want to grab it, want to eat it oh me no can wait. >> reporter: cookie monster's proverbial problems have been made quite graphic in recent years by imaging studies of what mischel calls the brain's hot and cold systems. >> the hot system is the limbic system in the brain and it is reflexive, immediate, emotional.
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so in order to slow that hot system you have to activate the cool system, the prefrontal cortex. the problem is that the hot system goes up when stress goes up and when people are living under conditions of toxic poverty, those are conditions that create huge stress levels and they make the hot system keep getting hot. >> reporter: so, the earlier self control is taught, the better. which is why mischel teamed up with sesame street workshop... >> me want it. but me wait. >> reporter: on a series of videos starring their guru of gluttony, to teach tots how to delay gratification. >> me can talk to self, me can stand up straight, me can take deep breath, me can self regulate! me wait. >> reporter: but it's never too late to self-regulate, mischel thinks. and so in the past few years, his ideas have inspired schools like kipp, a nationwide chain of
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public charter schools, serving low-income students, pushing high academic achievement. >> this time we're going to try to make a goal that's very far away. right? we're going to try to make a goal around your report card. >> reporter: of course, older kids have self-control issues beyond cookies and marshmallows. >> you are going to come up with everything that could possibly go wrong. >> joshua? >> talking to my partner. >> but you have to meet your goal. what are you going to do? >> i'm gonna pretend like they're invisible and i can't see them. >> use your imagination, i love it! brendaly, can you share what your if-then plan is? >> that my family will be very distracting and i won't be able to read that much and it will affect my grade. >> so if your family is super distracting what are you going to do? >> i will go to my room and close the door and put some headphones on, and then start reading. >> give her three snaps. >> reporter: both brendaly and joshua, it turns out, ate their marshmallows the first day of school.
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but both have come a long way since. >> for self control, i just pretend it's a rock, like a poisonous rock and just... >> reporter: a poisonous rock! >> yes. >> reporter: what does a poisonous rock look like? >> it's like a white rock with mold all over it. >> when i come to kipp i realized if i wait i get a bigger treat. >> reporter: and his self control strategy also works on another problem: his temper. are you easily annoyed? >> yes. >> reporter: did you learn here how to control your annoyance? >> yes. i would just take a deep breath and just let it go. >> reporter: did you actually take a deep breath? >> yeah, but sometimes when i'm like really mad i take two deep breaths. ( laughter ) >> reporter: have you ever gotten so mad you needed to take three? >> yes. >> reporter: yes? what's the most deep breaths you ever taken? >> i've taken five deep breaths. >> when kids get to be ten, eleven, twelve years old, their temptations begin to be some of
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their own feelings. for example, the feeling of anger, the rising of one's own temper, the readiness to hurt someone else because they have teased you or provoked you or made you feel bad. >> reporter: and so that's why the kipp schools are teaching kids as early as possible. >> exactly. the relationship between good behavior, good consequences, bad behavior, bad consequences. >> reporter: most kipp students are chosen by lottery regardless of prior academic record. almost all meet federal poverty guidelines. and yet 82% go on to college, and nearly half complete a four- year degree, five times the rate of the average low income student. what's happening to the kids you grew up with who never went to a kipp school? >> they're not in school, they probably have their own kids at this point.
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they're living a very hard life. >> reporter: even among successful kipp alumni, george ramirez stands out. born and raised in the south bronx, a mediocre student pre- kipp, ramirez is now a senior at yale, majoring in history and physics. >> i think one thing that i learned at kipp really well is that a lot of your effort doesn't reap any success until way later in the future. there's another marshmallow if you wait just a little bit longer. >> reporter: kipp isn't the only path out of poverty, of course. teacher leyla bravo-willey also grew up poor, long before kipp began, yet she graduated from harvard. but she teaches self-control these days, sharing her own adult economic struggles with her students. >> you know that miss bravo has some issues with shopping. i like to shop and i'm trying to save money.
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so if, for instance, i come across a store i like a lot, then i will pretend that store has bed bugs, yeah then i don't go in. >> reporter: now, do you really visualize bed bugs in a store that attracts you or that's just playing for the kids? >> no, actually, i really actually do. whatever your marshmallow test is there are always strategies that can help you. and we want to arm our kids with all the tools possible to be successful in life. >> reporter: tools that even the most recalcitrant can apparently learn. >> but me wait! >> reporter: paul solman in new york, and reasonably self- controlled, for the pbs newshour. >> ifill: we close tonight with other fundamental questions being asked in the wake of the paris attacks about the cartoons themselves.
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where could or even should be drawn when it comes to freedom of expression? jeffrey brown takes it from there. >> brown: one response to the mass killing in paris yesterday: at vigils around the world, pens were held high to show solidarity with the slain cartoonists and journalists who used them in their political satire. >> our hearts go out to the staff of "charlie hebdo." >> brown: one of this country's leading satirists, jon stewart was visibly upset on his "daily show" program last night, said people who provoke debate through satire must keep doing it. >> i know very few people go into comedy as an act of courage. mainly because it should have to be an act of courage and they were killed for their cartoons this type of civilization clarifies that reality.
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our job is not to make sense of this because there's no sense to be made of it. >> brown: the cartoons in the magazines are highly controversial and provocative. many news organizations, including the newshour, have decided not to show these images. they come out of a long history of cartoon satire, especially vibrant in europe, including the likes of french artist honore daumier in the 19th century. ten years ago, a danish newspaper published cartoons of muhammad that sparked a wave of protests across the muslim world in which at least 50 people died. today, social media brimmed with debate on the value of such satire, and condemnation of the killings, with one way of honoring the slain cartoonists: through the creation and publication of new cartoons. >> brown: one voice raised today was that of ted rall, who wrote an essay in "the los angeles times," where he's an editorial cartoonist. he joins us from new york. and here with me is another prominent political cartoonist tom toles of "the washington post." ted rall, you had a personal connection to the people at "charlie hebdo." how did they see their work?
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what they were doing? >> well, they were very hard-hitting, aggressive group of cartoonists. i had the pleasure of meeting them at an annual cartoon convention in france, the biggest con fab of cartoonist and fans that takes place every year. they sought me out. we went out for drinks and dinner and it was very clear they were a very happy bunch of cartoonists. these were guys who weren't just trying to push the envelope they were encouraged by their editor to be as aggressive as possible. it's a being difference between the way things are done in the united states where often editors are trying to rein in the cartoonists. there they were encouraged to stretch and be as aggressive as possible. >> brown: tom toles, i want to put up a cartoon you did in response and was published in today's paper. tell us about as we look at
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that, what is the value of this kind of work as you see it? >> well, the attack was shocking and outrageous. it was a direct bloody, mered rouse attack on -- murderous attack on free speech, of cartoonists, in general, and you want to push back on that and say something that reinforces the idea of freedom of expression. the i imagery i chose was an automatic weapon and a pen, to put the two side by side to give people a chance to think about it in the context of the historic idea that the pen is mightier than the sword. but in the short term, the pen isn't always mightier. i mean, cartoonists were murdered and their work was assaulted and on that day it was a real challenge. >> brown: ted rall, if people
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say, okay, maybe you have the right to do this, you have the right to insult or provoke, but why do it? why deliberately do it, especially if it goes to some core beliefs of people? >> well, it's not the job of a cartoonist to be concerned about offending people or not offending people. speaking for myself and i think many of my peers the intention is to not make people angry or make them rebel or -- make them furious about an attack on hair religious faith or political beliefs, but the idea is to tell things as they are and call the shots as you see them. honesty is what's important and i think the job of editors is to rein in a cartoonist when he or she thinks they may have gone too far. but the cartoonist needs to not self-censor or withhold their punches. we need to express ourselves freely. freedom of expression doesn't
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mean anything if we don't explore the limits of it from time to time. >> brown: tom toles, where do you draw the lines? do you draw personal lines in this country to do satires of figures or ethnic gropes? >> i think about these subjects very seriously. i do have personal lines that i think, for reasons of larger concerns that i don't go past. but i just want to emphasize that, on a day like today, that's a discussion for another time because what is at stake now is not what i decide to do, it's the right of any cartoonist to exercise the full extent of freedom of expression. whether i decide to draw the line where he does, today it doesn't matter. today we defend the idea of freedom of expression. that's what was attacked and that's the key issue to that.
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yes, there are all kinds of discussions you can have about what's the smartest thing. i certainly agree with ted the goal is honesty. that's the core thing but the context we're working in has to have a perimeter of freedom of expression that is a very broad perimeter. >> brown: ted, i want to show a cartoon you did in response and goes to a point you were making a little earlier that this kind of political expression is largely lost or much less in this country. >> yes. when i started doing this in the early 1990s professionally, there were hundreds of full-time staff editorial cartoonists throughout the united states. these days there's barely 30, if even that many. today the staff federal cartoonists in fort lauderdale who is laid off today. nice timing, guys. this has been a blood bath,
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really, in our profession. there's not a single magazine in the united states that employs a single cartoonist full time on staff. there's only one web site in the united states that employs a single political cartoonist on staff. the profession has pretty much almost ceased to exist in the united states. you know more people were killed in paris, more cartoonists were killed in paris yesterday than work in the states of california new york and texas combined. so no doubt the threat of violence as we saw in paris yesterday is very real and horrifying, but there's also an existential threat to the profession just from budget cuts and the transformation of media in the digital age. >> brown: all right, ted rall and tom toles, thank you both very much. >> thank you.
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>> ifill: again, the major developments of the day, french police intensified the manhunt for the gunmen who killed 12 people at a paris publication that satirized islam. it was widely reported that one trained briefly with al quaida in yemen. president obama visited the french embassy in washington this evening to offer his condolences. and the u.s. olympic committee chose boston as its candidate to bid for the 2024 sum or links. >> woodruff: on the newshour online right now, from satellite dishes made from lunch trays, to a boat made from a '51 chevy, cubans make do with what's available. so we take a look at how a generation of d.i.y. engineers in cuba has sprung from decades of isolation. you can find that, plus a photo gallery, on our home page. all that and more is on our web site, pbs.org/newshour. >> ifill: and that's the newshour for tonight. on friday, we'll feature a special investigative report from the scripps washington bureau, on what happens after convicted sexual offenders are discharged from the armed services. i'm gwen ifill. >> woodruff: and i'm judy woodruff.
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we'll see you on-line and again here tomorrow evening with mark shields and david brooks, for all of us here at the pbs newshour, thank you and good night. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: ♪ ♪ ♪ moving our economy for 160 years. bnsf, the engine that connects us. >> lincoln financial-- committed to helping you take charge of your life and become you're own chief life officer.
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>> and with the ongoing support of these institutions and... >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. captioning sponsored by macneil/lehrer productions captioned by media access group at wgbh access.wgbh.org
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report" with tyler mathisen and sue herera. back in the black. stocks rally more than 1% pushing major averages into positive territory for 2015 as investors turn their attention now to tomorrow's employment performance. what a year it has been for general motors ceo mary bara. has gm changed for the better? republican house take first whack at affordable care act by changing definition of the workweek. all that and more tonight on "nightly business report" for thursd january 8th. >> good evening, everyone. i'm sue herera. the best day for stocks in three weeks. the major averages gained back all of the

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