tv 60 Minutes CBS September 4, 2016 7:00pm-8:01pm EDT
captioning funded by cbs and ford. we go further, so you can. >> sharyn alfonsi: you've probably been warned to be careful about what you say and do on your phone. do i need to connect this? >> yes. >> alfonsi: okay. but after you see what we found, you won't need to be warned again. >> so, are you connected? >> alfonsi: i am. and more importantly i have all the credit cards associated with that account. >> the president of the united states called me on my cell phone. so if the hackers were listening in, they would know that phone conversation. and that is immensely troubling. >> alfonsi: is everything hackable? >> yes. we live in a world where we can't trust the technology that we use. >> my failure to say something can only be described as cowardice. i was a coward. >> whitaker: that's former
apologizing for sending an innocent man to death row for 30 years. in 2014, glenn ford was finally exonerated and released by the district attorney, who still defends the system. have you no compassion for what mr. ford has been through? >> well, you don't know me at all, do you? but you have no problem asking that question. >> whitaker: no, i am asking because i am seeking an answer. >> i'm not in the compassion business. >> stahl: security is tight at the large hadron collider. you need an iris scan to get inside. >> thank you. you have been identified. >> ...power, cooling... >> stahl: the entire complex is buried deep underground. >> this is the detector right here. >> stahl: it's believed to be the largest and most complex machine mankind has ever created. the things it's searching for sound like they're straight out
oh, no. really? >> i'm steve kroft. >> i'm leslie stahl. >> i'm bill whitaker. >> i'm sharyn alfonsi. >> i'm scott pelley. those stories, tonight on "60 minutes." >> this portion of "60 minutes" is sponsored by the lincoln summer invitation. e, ng the legwork out of stop and go traffic. and even hills. that's the more human side of engineering. hurry in for limited time offers during the final days of the lincoln summer invitation sales event. lease a lincoln mkx for $349 a month or get 0% apr for 60 months and $1,000 dollars summer invitation bonus. covering is caring because covering
and stays on all day, cover with a band-aid brand flexible fabric adhesive bandage. what if one piece of kale could protect you from diabetes? (crunch) what if one sit-up could prevent heart disease? one. wishful thinking, right? but there is one step you can take to help prevent another serious disease, pneumococcal pneumonia. if you are 50 or older, one dose of the prevnar 13? vaccine can help protect you from pneumococcal pneumonia, an illness that can cause coughing, chest pain, ng, and may even put you in the hospital. even if you've already been vaccinated with another pneumonia vaccine, prevnar 13? may help provide additional protection. prevnar 13? is used in adults 18 and older to help prevent infections from 13 strains of the bacteria that cause pneumococcal pneumonia. you should not receive prevnar 13? if you've had a severe allergic reaction to the vaccine or its ingredients. if you have a weakened immune system, you may have a lower response to the vaccine. common side effects were pain, redness or swelling at the injection site, limited arm movement, fatigue,
if you've gone to extremes to escape your nasal allergies... try clarispray. from the makers of claritin. clarispray provides 24-hour, prescription strength relief from sneezing, runny nose, and nasal congestion. return to the world. try clarispray today. >> alfonsi: a lot of modern life is interconnected through the internet of things, a global empire of billions of devices and machines. auto navigation systems, smart tvs, thermostats and home security systems. telephone networks and online banking. almost everything you can imagine is linked to the world wide web, and the emperor of it all is the smartphone.
you've probably been warned to be careful about what you say and do on your phone. but after you see what we found, you won't need to be warned again. we heard we could find some of the world's best hackers in germany, so we headed for berlin. just off a trendy street and through this alley, we rang the factory. >> karsten nohl: hi! i'm karsten. >> alfonsi: that's where we met karsten nohl. >> come on in. >> alfonsi: a german hacker with a doctorate in computer engineering from the university of virginia. you can lead the way. we were invited for a rare look at the inner workings of security research labs. during the day, the lab advises fortune 500 companies on
but at night, this international team of hackers looks for flaws in the devices we use everyday: smartphones, usb sticks and sim cards. they are trying to find vulnerabilities before the bad guys do, so they can warn the public about risks. at computer terminals and work benches equipped with micro lasers, they physically and digitally break into systems and devices. >> nohl: hang up. >> alfonsi: now, nohl's team is probing the security of mobile phone networks. is one phone more secure than another? is an iphone more secure than an android? >> nohl: all phones are the same. >> alfonsi: if you just have somebody's phone number, what could you do? >> nohl: track their whereabouts, know where-- where they go for work, which other people they meet when-- you can spy on whom they call and what they say over the phone.
>> alfonsi: we wanted to see whether nohl's group could actually do what they claimed. so we sent an off-the-shelf iphone from "60 minutes" in new york to representative ted lieu, a congressman from california. he has a computer science degree from stanford and is a member of the house committee that oversees information technology. he agreed to use our phone to talk to his staff knowing they would be hacked. and they were. all we gave nohl was the number of the "60 minutes'" iphone that we lent the congressman. >> alfonsi: hello congressman? it's sharyn alfonsi from "60 minutes." as soon as i called congressman lieu on his phone-- good. how are you doing? nohl and his team were listening and recording both ends of our conversation. i'm calling from berlin. i wonder if i might talk to you about this hacking story we're working on. >> nohl: what hacking story? >> alfonsi: they were able to do it by exploiting a security flaw they discovered in signaling
it is a little-known, but vital global network that connects phone carriers. congressman, thank you so much for helping us. every person with a cell phone needs ss7 to call or text each other. though most of us have never heard of it. nohl says attacks on cell phones are growing as the number of mobile devices explodes. but ss7 is not the way most hackers break into your phone. those hacks are on display in las vegas. >> john hering: three days of non-stop hacking. >> alfonsi: that's where john hering guided us through the unconventional convention where 20,000 hackers get together every year to share secrets and test their skills. >> hering: it's proving what's possible. any system can be broken. it's just about knowing how to break it. >> alfonsi: hering is a hacker himself. he's the thirty-something whiz who co-founded the mobile security company "lookout" when
lookout has developed a free app that scans your mobile phone for malware and alerts the user to an attack. how likely is it that somebody's phone has been hacked? >> hering: in today's world, there's really only two types of companies or two types of people which are those who have been hacked and realize it and those who have been hacked and haven't. >> alfonsi: how much do you think people have been kind of ignoring the security of their cell phones, thinking, "i've got a passcode, i must be fine?" >> hering: i think that most people have not really thought t and that that's really starting to shift. >> alfonsi: and that's what you think? it's like having a laptop now? >> hering: oh absolutely. i mean, your mobile phone is effectively a supercomputer in your pocket. there's more technology in your mobile phone than was in, you know, the space craft that took man to the moon. i mean, it's-- it's really unbelievable. >> alfonsi: is everything hackable? >> hering: yes. >> alfonsi: everything? >> hering: yes. >> alfonsi: if somebody tells you, "you can't do it." >> hering: i don't believe it. >> alfonsi: john hering offered to prove it.
each of them a specialist in cracking mobile devices and figuring out how to protect them. >> adam laurie: would you put your money in a bank that didn't test their locks on their safes? we need to try and break it to make sure that the bad guys can't. >> alfonsi: how easy is it to break the phone right now? >> john oberheide: very easy. >> laurie: as you've seen, pretty trivial. >> alfonsi: do i need to connect to it? okay. it started when we logged onto the hotel wi-fi. at least it looked like the hotel wi-fi. hering had created a ghost version. it's called spoofing. i mean, this looks legitimate. >> hering: it looks very legitimate. so you're connected? >> alfonsi: i am. >> hering: and i have your email. ( laughs ) >> alfonsi: you have access to my email right now-- >> hering: yeah. it's coming through right now. i actually can s-- i know have a ride-sharing application up here, all the information that's being transmitted, including your account i.d., your mobile phone, which i just got the mobile number.
with that account. >> alfonsi: jon oberheide pointed out the greatest weakness in mobile security is human nature. >> jon oberheide: with social engineering, you can't really fix the human element. humans are gullible. they install malicious applications. they give up their passwords every day. and it's really hard to fix that human element. >> alfonsi: john hering warned us he could spy on anyone through their own phone as long as the phone's camera had a clear view. we propped up the a phone on my desk and set up cameras to record a demonstration. first he sent a text message with an attachment to download. >> hering: we're in business. >> alfonsi: then hering called from san francisco. ( desk phone rings ) and proved the hack worked. >> hering: i installed some malware in your device that's broadcasting video of your phone. >> alfonsi: my phone's not even lit up. >> hering: i understand, yeah. >> alfonsi: that's so creepy. >> katie: it's pitch black for us. >> alfonsi: in this case, when i
hering was able to take control of my phone. but congressman lieu didn't have to do anything to get attacked. all karsten nohl's team in berlin needed to get into the congressman's phone was the number. remember ss7, that little-known global phone network we told you about earlier? >> nohl: i've been tracking the congressman. >> alfonsi: there's a flaw in it that allowed nohl to intercept and record the congressman's calls and track his movements in washington and back home. >> nohl: the congressman has been in california,, more specifically the l.a. area. zoom in here a little bit, torrance. >> alfonsi: the ss7 network is the heart of the worldwide mobile phone system. phone companies use ss7 to exchange billing information. billions of calls and text messages travel through its arteries daily. it is also the network that allows phones to roam. are you able to track his
location services and turns that off? >> nohl: yes. the mobile network independent from the little g.p.s. chip in your phone knows where you are. so any choices that a congressman could've made, choosing a phone, choosing a pin number, installing or not installing certain apps, have no influence over what we are showing because this is targeting the mobile network. that of course, is not controlled by any one customer. >> alfonsi: despite him making good choices. you're still able to get to his phone. >> nohl: exactly. >> alfonsi: karsten nohl and his team were legally granted access to ss7 by several international cell phone carriers. in exchange, the carriers wanted nohl to test the network's vulnerability to attack. that's because criminals have proven they can get into ss7. >> nohl: mobile networks are the only place in which this problem can be solved. there is no global policing of ss7. each mobile network has to move
their networks. and that is hard. >> alfonsi: nohl and others told us some u.s. carriers are easier to access through ss7 than others. "60 minutes" contacted the cellular phone trade association to ask about attacks on the ss7 network. they acknowledged there have been reports of security breaches abroad, but assured us that all u.s. cell phone networks were secure. congressman lieu was on a u.s. network using the phone we lent him when he was part of our hacking demonstration from berlin. i just want to play for you something we were able to capture off of your phone. >> hi ted it's marc, how are you? >> representative lieu: i'm good. >> i sent you some revisions on the letter to the n.s.a., regarding the-- the data collection. >> representative lieu: wow. >> alfonsi: what is your reaction to knowing that they were listening to all of your calls? >> representative lieu: i have two.
>> alfonsi: makes you angry, why? >> representative lieu: they could hear any call of pretty much anyone who has a smartphone. it could be stock trades you want someone to execute. it could be calls with a bank. >> alfonsi: karsten nohl's team automatically logged the numbers of every phone that called congressman lieu. which means, there's a lot more damage that could be done than just intercepting that one phone call. a malicous hacker would be able to target and attack every one of the other phones too. so give us an idea, without being too specific, of the types of people that would be in a congressman's phone. >> representative lieu: there are other members of congress, other elected officials. last year, the president of the united states called me on my cell phone. and we discussed some issues. so if the hackers were listening in, they would know that phone conversation. and that's immensely troubling. >> alfonsi: nohl told us the ss7 flaw is a significant risk, mostly to political leaders and
private communications could be of high value to hackers. the ability to intercept cell phone calls through the ss7 network is an open secret among the world's intelligence agencies, including ours, and they don't necessarily want that hole plugged. if you end up hearing from the intelligence agencies that this flaw is extremely valuable to them and to the information that they're able to get from it, what would you say to that? people who knew about this flaw and saying that should be fired. >> alfonsi: should be fired? >> representative lieu: absolutely. >> alfonsi: why? >> representative lieu: you cannot have 300-some million americans and really, right, the global citizenry be at risk of having their phone conversations intercepted with a known flaw, simply because some intelligence agencies might get some data. that is not acceptable. >> hering: i'd say, that the average person is not going to be exposed to the type of attacks we showed you today.
if we don't address security issues, what the state of the world will be? >> alfonsi: which will be what? >> hering: we live in a world where we can't trust the technology that we use. >> alfonsi: since our report first aired in april, security researchers in germany said they've watched ss7 access for sale by criminals grow dramatically. and a week ago, the mobile security experts at lookout revealed a flaw in iphone software that allowed hackers to take over the devices with just one wrong click. apple quickly issued a worldwide fix. >> good evening. 37 oil and gas wastewater wells are shutting down in oklahoma following an earthquake felt in seven states.
>> whitaker: there may be no greater miscarriage of justice than to wrongfullyvi person of murder and sentence him to death. but, as we first reported in october, that's exactly what happened to glenn ford. he spent nearly 30 years on death row in solitary confinement, in louisiana's notorious angola prison, until new evidence revealed he did not commit the murder. ford was one of 150 inmates freed from death row since the u.s. supreme court reinstated
in all those exonerations, you have likely never heard a prosecutor admit his role and apologize for his mistakes in sending an innocent man to death row, but, tonight, a prosecutor's confession. marty stroud, speaks of an injustice he calls so great it destroyed two lives-- glenn ford's and his own. >> marty stroud: i ended up, without anybody else's help, putting a man on death row who i mean, at the end of the day-- the beginning, end, middle, whatever you want to call it-- i did something that was very, very bad. >> whitaker: it was 1983, shreveport, louisiana, and 32- year-old prosecutor marty stroud was assigned his first death penalty case. a local jeweler, isadore rozeman, had been robbed and murdered. quickly, stroud zeroed in on
rozeman and was known to be a petty thief, and he admitted he had pawned some of the stolen jewelry. all that was enough to make him the primary suspect. stroud knew a conviction would boost his career. >> stroud: i was arrogant, narcissistic, caught up in the culture of winning. >> whitaker: win regardless of the facts, the truth? >> stroud: looking back on it, yes. there was a questionbo i should have followed up on that. i didn't do that. >> whitaker: why didn't you? >> stroud: i think my failure to say something can only be described as cowardice. i was a coward. >> whitaker: stroud now admits the cards and the system were stacked against ford from the beginning-- his court-appointed lawyers had never practiced criminal law. what kind of law did they practice? >> stroud: one individual had general civil practice, and another one did succession--
>> whitaker: in a murder trial? >> stroud: here they are in a murder trial in louisiana where a man was on trial for his life. and at the time, i saw nothing wrong with that. in fact, i snickered from time to time, saying that this was going to be... we're going to get though this case pretty quickly. >> whitaker: stroud's case wasn't strong. there was no physical evidence linking ford to the crime. the main witness incriminating ford admitted in court she'd been coerced by police to make up her testimony. but what was more important to marty stroud was the composition of the jury. >> stroud: there were no african americans on the jury. >> whitaker: was that by design? >> stroud: at the time of the case, we excluded african- americans because we... i felt that they would not consider a death penalty where you had a black defendant and a white victim.
final call on the case with respect to jurors. and i was... i was wrong. >> whitaker: caddo parish, louisiana, is predominately white. yet 77% of those given the death penalty here in the last 40 years have been black. >> stroud: so, when glenn ford walks into that courtroom, he's got a count of 0 and 2 against him, and a fast ball's coming right at his head for strike three. >> whitaker: it took the jury less than three hours to find glenn ford guilty. afterwards, stroud and his legal team went out and celebrated sending ford to death row. >> stroud: i had drinks. i slapped people on the back. we sang songs. that was utterly disgusting. you know, it... you see mother justice sometimes and... a statue, and she has a blindfold over her eyes. she was crying that night
that wasn't justice at all. >> whitaker: ford was put in solitary confinement in one of the most infamous lockups in america, angola. the maximum security prison has a well-earned reputation for harsh penalties and harsher conditions. summer temperatures on death row commonly exceed 104 degrees. >> stroud: death row, you have maybe a five- by seven-foot cell. you're in there every day. you get out one hour a day to walk around and you come back in. you do that day after day, year after year, and that's it. he was basically thrown in to a cell and forgotten. >> whitaker: ford would become one of the country's longest serving death row inmates. stroud went on to a successful legal career. but all that changed when one of the initial suspects, a man
the jeweler three decades earlier. robinson is now in prison for another murder. a court review of the new information found there was "credible evidence... glenn ford was neither present at, nor a participant in, the robbery and murder of isadore rozeman." stroud's reaction when he was told ford was innocent? >> stroud: i thought i was going to throw up, nauseous as it. and i felt my face was just turning, like a fever. but then the horror of knowing that yours truly had caused him all this pain... >> whitaker: in 2014, ford was exonerated and released from angola. pictures of his first free moments captured a rainbow in the sky and a smile on his face. what was it like to step outside the walls of that prison? >> glenn ford: like stepping in a brand new world, like breathing fresh air for the first time.
>> whitaker: but that good feeling didn't last. shortly after being released, ford learned he had stage-four lung cancer. doctors told him he had only a few months to live. when we met glenn ford, he was living in new orleans in a home for released prisoners. >> ford: and that hurts. >> whitaker: just to swallow water? >> ford: feel like a flame! >> whitaker: you were on death row for 30 years. >> ford: yes. >> whitaker: did you ever come close to an execution date? >> f because the judge said he was retiring, and he wanted to put a death date on me. >> whitaker: did mr. ford get justice in this case? >> dale cox: i think he has gotten delayed justice. >> whitaker: dale cox was the acting district attorney of caddo parish. he got glenn ford released after receiving the informant's information. as he sees it, the justice system worked and no one, including marty stroud, did anything wrong.
i think he's wrong in that the system did not fail mr. ford. >> whitaker: it did not? >> cox: it did not. in fact... >> whitaker: how can you say that? >> cox: because he's not on death row. and that's how i can say it. >> whitaker: getting out of prison after 30 years is justice? >> cox: well, it's better than dying there and it's better than being executed. >> whitaker: there may have been no more controversial prosecutor in the u.s. than dale cox. parish office put more people on death row per capita than anywhere else in the country. >> cox: i think society should be employing the death penalty more rather than less. >> whitaker: but there have been ten other inmates on death row in louisiana who have been exonerated. clearly, the system is not flawless. are you sure that you've gotten
that... that i've gotten it right. >> whitaker: reasonably confident? >> cox: am i arrogant enough, am i narcissistic enough to say i couldn't make a mistake? of course not. >> whitaker: but until this information came out, the state was convinced that mr. ford was guilty. >> cox: yes. >> whitaker: he could have been killed. >> cox: yes. >> whitaker: and it would've been a mistake. >> cox: yes. >> whitaker: it sounds like you're saying that's just a risk we have to take. >> cox: yes. if i had gotten this information too late, all of us would've been grieved beyond description. we don't want to do this to people who are not guilty of the crime they're charged with. >> whitaker: according to louisiana law, glenn ford was entitled to $330,000, about $11,000 for every year of wrongful imprisonment. but the state is denying him the money. why?
prosecutors said ford knew a robbery of rozeman's jewelry shop was going to take place. but he didn't report it. ford was never charged with that crime, but the state says that's reason enough to deny him. do you believe he should be compensated for the time he spent in prison? >> cox: no, i think we need to follow the law. and the statute does not require that you be charged or convicted or arrested for any of these other crimes. the mr. ford prove he didn't do these other crimes. >> whitaker: so he's guilty until proven innocent, in this case? >> cox: no, because it's not a question of guilt or innocence. it's a question of whether he's entitled to money, taxpayer money. >> whitaker: but you say he has to prove that he's innocent of these other charges, these other crimes for which he's never been charged, for which he's never been tried. >> cox: that's correct. >> whitaker: he has to prove that he's innocent of them in order to get the compensation? >> cox: that's correct.
he was punished for something that he might have done. that doesn't seem fair. >> cox: you want fairness... >> whitaker: isn't the law supposed to provide fairness? >> cox: it is supposed to provide justice. >> whitaker: you don't think he deserves compensation. >> cox: i think that the law must be followed. >> ford: what law is this? i never heard of such law where it says it's okay to do what they did to me without any type of compensation. >> whitaker: there was some compensation. glenn ford was given a $20 gift card the day he left angola prison. >> ford: gave me a card for $20 and said, "wish you luck." >> whitaker: how long did that last you? >> ford: one meal. i had some fried chicken, tea, and the french fries came with it.
>> whitaker: after 30 years in prison? >> ford: right. >> whitaker: 30 years on death row in... in solitary confinement, and the state of louisiana releases mr. ford with a $20 gift card. >> cox: you're trying to portray the state of louisiana as some kind of monster. i got him out of jail as quickly as i could. that's what the obligation of the state is. >> whitaker: and that's the end of the state's obligation? >> cox: as far as i'm concerned. >> whitaker: what about compassion? have you no compassion for what mr. ford has been through? >> cox: well, you don't know me at all, do you? but you have no problem asking that question. >> whitaker: no, i'm... i'm asking because i'm seeking an answer. >> cox: i'm not in the compassion business, none of us as prosecutors or defense lawyers are in the compassion business. i... i think the ministry is in
so to suggest that somehow what has happened to glenn ford is abhorrent, yes, it's unfair. but it's not illegal. and it's not even immoral. it just doesn't fit your perception of fairness. >> whitaker: i would say, in this case, many, many, many people would see this as unfair. >> cox: i agree. i cadi >> whitaker: for his part, marty stroud says glenn ford deserves every penny owed him. he went to see ford to apologize. how do you apologize to someone for taking 30 years of his life from him? >> stroud: well, there's no books you can read to do that. i just went in and apologized. >> whitaker: do you forgive him? >> ford: no. he didn't only take from me, he took from my whole family.
forgive him. >> ford: well, i don't. but i'm still trying to. >> whitaker: do you think you deserve his forgiveness? >> stroud: no. if somebody had done that to me, i don't know if i could forgive them. >> whitaker: you say you destroyed his life. sounds like this incident destroyed your life, too. >> stroud: i've got a hole in me through which the north wind blows. it's... it's a sense of coldness, it's a sense of just disgust. there's just nothing out there that can fill in that hole that says i... it's all right. well, it's not all right. it's not all right. >> ? keep your eyes on the prize hold on ? hold on... >> whitaker: three weeks after we met him, glenn ford died, penniless. his final months, he lived off charity.
>> cox: there was a tragic outcome. and these tragic outcomes happen all the time in life. it's not like the glenn ford case is the only tragedy you'll ever see or i'll ever see in our lifetime. the question is, was there anything illegally done, improperly done that led to this. and... and i can comfortably say, based on the record, no, there was not. >> whitaker: in glenn ford's will, he directs that any state money he might receive go to his ten grandchildren so they can have a better chance than he did. and marty stroud? he has asked the louisiana bar association to discipline him for his role in the ford case. >> stroud: it was a train to injustice and i was the engineer. glenn ford will be a part of me
>> whitaker: in april, a louisiana appeals court agreed with a lower court ruling denying compensation to ford's estate. as for dale cox, he resigned from the caddo parish district attorney's office. ? ? amazing sleep stays with you all day and all night. sleep number beds adjust on both sides for your best sleep ever. don't miss the biggest sale of the year. right now save 50% on the labor day limited edition bed, plus 36-month financing. hurry, ends monday! know better sleep.
>> stahl: the large
hadron collider is one of the wonders of the modern world. it's believed to be the largest and most complex machine mankind has ever created. buried hundreds of feet beneath switzerland and france, the collider smashes subatomic particles together with enormous energy. by studying the collisions, scientists have already made a major discovery, the higgs
they're hoping to learn a lot more because, after two years of repairs and upgrades, the collider is smashing particles at nearly double the power. as we first reported last fall, the things it's searching for now sound like they're straight out of science fiction. security is tight at the large hadron collider. you need an iris scan to get inside. >> thank you. you have been identified. >> stahl: the entire complex is buried deep underground. >> greg rakness: you can see power, cooling... >> stahl: and this is the heart of it. is this where the collision takes place? >> rakness: the protons come down this pipe, down this orange pipe. >> stahl: american physicist greg rakness showed us one of the four detectors where subatomic particles called
nearly the speed of light to simulate conditions that are believed to have existed when the universe began. is there a boom? is there noise? >> rakness: there's no noise, but there's a flash of light and the particles fly off. and you're taking a look into the... basically, a microscopic view of the big bang. >> stahl: this is what the inside of the detector looks like. it's stuffed with magnets, electronics, and sensors. creating a miniature version of the big bang isn't easy. before the particles get here, they travel through a long tunnel that rakness took us down into during a maintenance break. for 17 miles? >> rakness: 17 miles. >> stahl: in a big loop, a big circle? >> rakness: in a big loop, that's right. >> stahl: the loop runs beneath the countryside of switzerland and france, not far from geneva. the tunnel is so vast, workers
the particles zip through these pipes, guided by super-cooled magnets. when the protons are going through the tunnel, it's very cold. how cold does it actually get? >> rakness: it's somewhere on the order of negative-450 degrees fahrenheit. >> stahl: is that colder than outer space? >> rakness: that's colder than outer space. >> stahl: oh, it is. now, i hear that when the collision takes place, that the temperatures spike. they go way high. how high do they go? >> rakness: they can be up to the order of ten thousand times hotter than the center of the sun. >> stahl: no! >> rakness: yeah. >> stahl: so it goes from the coldest ever to the hottest ever. >> rakness: yeah. in ( snaps fingers ) >> stahl: like that? >> rakness: yeah. >> stahl: the data is analyzed by thousands of computers here and around the world. this is what an image of the collisions looks like, with particles flying off in every direction. >> rakness: every time there's a small dot here... >> stahl: yeah? >> rakness: ...that's two protons colliding.
the data from the collisions, scientists were able to find the holy grail of modern physics, a particle known as the higgs boson, or just "the higgs". the higgs gives all the other particles mass. without it, molecules would not exist; trees, rocks, mountains would not exist. we would not exist. >> rakness: there are collisions 40 million times per second. >> stahl: oh, my gosh. the higgs may have been found here, in the collider in conceived in scotland by a person almost as hard to find as the particle itself. peter higgs doesn't have much use for computers, email, or cell phones, and doesn't own a tv. in 1964, he was a junior professor at the university of edinburgh when he came up with his theory. he was 35 at the time, and not taken seriously. >> peter higgs: not many people
theory at the time. they were doing other things, which was why it was left to a few people, a few eccentrics to do it. >> stahl: did you use any machines or any special equipment? >> higgs: a pencil and paper. >> stahl: a pencil and paper? that's all you used? >> higgs: well, that's all you need for... for writing equations. >> stahl: higgs' simple and elegant equation gained credence over the years, but there was no machine powerful enough to put it to the test, until the large hadron collider was built by the european organization for nuclear research, known as cern. finally, the collider really did prove that you were right, and in 2012, i believe, you were there at cern. >> higgs: i was there. i was more or less summoned. i was told in a message, "tell peter if he doesn't come to cern on july the fourth, he will probably regret it." ( laughter ) >> stahl: he went to cern, along with hundreds of other
whether the collider had proved higgs' theory. >> rakness: it was like the olympics of particle physics. when they showed the... the "money" plot. the picture that made it clear that there was a bump which could be the higgs boson, there was a gasp in the audience where everyone went, "ah." and it's true, because it was absolutely clear that had to be something that we hadn't seen before. >> i think we have it. ( laughter ) do you a >> stahl: in the audience, the one-time eccentric teared up. this guaranteed peter higgs a place in history. ( applause ) >> fabiola gianotti: it was... it was... it's hard to tell in words. >> stahl: in january, italian physicist fabiola gianotti became cern's first female director-general. she oversees the souped-up $8 billion collider that 10,000
on, as they search for new breakthroughs that could revolutionize society in ways that are hard to imagine. is it possible that there's-- and i read this in science fiction-- that there's a whole dimension, a dimension that we don't even know about? >> gianotti: absolutely. there are theories... theories in particle physics that predicts the existence of additional dimensions. string theories, for instance, they require seven additional dimensions so, as our high-tech instruments like the large hadron collider, just listen to nature and to what nature wants to tell us. >> stahl: one of their biggest goals is shining a light on dark matter and dark energy, which are among the great remaining mysteries of modern science and reminders of how little we know about the universe. >> gianotti: when we look at the universe, what we see by eye or
of the universe. the rest, 95%, is dark. "dark" meaning, first of all, not visible to our instrument. second, dark also indicates our ignorance. we don't know what's the composition of this part of the universe. >> stahl: if we don't know what dark matter is, how do we even know there is such a thing? >> gianotti: we have some indirect, but very strong experimental evidence of it. for instance, when we look at the gravitational movement of galaxies. these movements, they're observed, cannot be explained with the amount of matter that we see. >> stahl: so, if there's gravity, there must be mass? >> gianotti: exactly. and the mass that we see is not able to explain the movement of the galaxies as we observe it. >> stahl: is dark matter here? right here, beside... all around us? all this stuff we really can't see? >> gianotti: yeah. dark matter is everywhere-- in
>> stahl: scientists are looking for signs of dark matter inside the collider. but they've also placed detectors deep in mineshafts and in space. a short walk from the collider, nobel laureate sam ting and a team of scientists receive data from a $2 billion detector they have placed on the international space station. >> sam ting: the detector is seen here... >> stahl: so we have now a detector that's sitting on our space station to see if you can "see" dark matter? is that what you're hoping to do? >> ting: to see, to detect the trace of dark matter collisions. >> stahl: astronauts help keep an eye on the experiment. this is real time? >> ting: real time, real time. ? ? ? >> stahl: half a century after he first proposed his theory, peter higgs received the 2013 nobel prize in physics, along with belgian physicist francois englert.
on the collider made this day possible... ( applause ) among them, steve nahn, laura jeanty and steve goldfarb, three american physicists who have been working on the collider for years. >> steve goldfarb: it mattered, it mattered. >> stahl: goldfarb told us that he was amazed at how many people went online to watch the meeting at which the discovery was announced. >> goldfarb: you know, one billion people by the end of that week had seen video from that web cast. so a significant portion of our planet was interested enough to watch something which was a very technical seminar. >> stahl: why do you think it's ignited so much public interest? >> laura jeanty: i think, ultimately, what we're doing has a lot of philosophical motivations. we're interested in understanding how things work, and i think everybody connects to that idea. and everybody is interested when science pushes the boundary of our understanding.
collider. what are you going to look for now? >> goldfarb: we have big questions, really big questions. >> stahl: for instance, can they find something smaller than the quark, one of the smallest particles discovered thus far? >> goldfarb: is the quark it? we've thought many, many times... >> stahl: you mean, is there something even smaller than a quark? >> goldfarb: it's very fundamental. >> stahl: at the moment, we think not, but who knows? >> goldfarb: but we still... we look all the time for that. >> jeanty: we looked for black holes and we didn't see them. >> stahl: are you saying there are no black holes? >> jeanty: so we were looking for micro black holes that would've been, for example, evidence that there are extra dimensions, but unfortunately, it doesn't look like we produced that at these energies. >> stahl: but does that mean there are no extra dimensions or that you just didn't find any? >> jeanty: we just didn't find them. they still could be here. >> stahl: if you find a whole different dimension, will it allow us to change time? >> jeanty: i think this is a difficult question because scientists don't like to say that something is impossible...
>> jeanty: ...even if we think it's extremely unlikely. >> nahn: that's right. ( laughter ) you know, if you had asked somebody in 1900, "do you think we could take a device out of our pocket and push a button or two and talk to your spouse halfway across the world?" >> stahl: it's crazy. >> nahn: they would... they would say the same thing. but we can do it today, right? so who's to say, 100 years from now, what we can or cannot do? >> discover the art behind "60 minutes" stories, and the man behind the art at 60minutesovertime.com, sponsored by lyrica. i was energetic. i was active. then the chronic, widespread pain drained my energy. my doctor said moving more helps ease fibromyalgia pain. he also prescribed lyrica. fibromyalgia is thought to be the result of overactive nerves. lyrica is believed to calm these nerves. for some, lyrica can significantly relieve fibromyalgia pain and improve function, so i feel better.
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