options as to what we do and that it is a case-by-case basis. there is no single one-size-fits-all answer, but more broadly than just cyber. >> correct. would you agree? do you see a variety of options out they're? and wouldn't it be more beneficial as a country to be able to have a policy that is a public policy on what those options could be and the consequences that would be felt when we are attacked? >> absolutely. and andabsolutely. and that is what i say about a broad policy we will respond in a time,a time, place, and manner of our own choosing. there is an asymmetry. they are all authoritarian states. they attack surfaces that they have are far smaller than what we have. we value that, but we are more vulnerable than our adversaries. we may sometimes have to respond proportionately but a different way than aa simple cyber response. it might be sanctions, criminal indictment, other reactions. we believe very strongly that this is something, and interagency process that is established where they are taken care of on a case-by-case basis. >> is the administration have a definition of what constitutes a cyber attack? >> any type of malicious activity which causes other damage or theft of information or ip,all of those are under either cyber malicious cyber activities, it might be espionage, in each case there is no defined redlined for what would constitute -- >> what would be the difference between a cyber attack in cyber vandals? >> well,well, you would have to make a case-by-case determination. of course important consideration in terms of reaction would be attribution. again, it would be a case-by-case. and cyber vandalism, is that stealing information? >> the attack by north korea on sony was described by the president as cyber vandalism ii was wondering on how you distinguished that definition from the cyber attack. >> it did not affect a national security entity, but it certainly did cause damage to a company, and in that case, and this is an important illustration of when we could attribute very cleanly and there was uniform agreement across the intelligence community to attribute that attack to the north koreans, and we did sanction them. >> thank you. thank you, mr. chairman. >> thank you, mr. chairman. before i start on beginning to focus on cyber policy, we are all concerned about the allegations of leadership distorting the assessment of intelligence officers related to the fight, and i understand there is an ongoing investigation and i'm going to wait for the results of that investigation, but as a member of this committee and the intelligence committee i want to,i want to, in the strongest terms possible impress upon you the importance for all of us to receive absolutely objective and unbiased assessments and look forward to the results of the investigation and expect that you will hold accountable anyone who has failed in their duty in the intelligence community them matter how high up the chain that may go. >> well, senator, you brought up an important consideration here, which is a great concern to me. i am a son of an army intelligence officer,, and i have served in various intelligence capacities for 52 years ranging from my 1st tour in southeast asia to my service now has the longest tenured dni, and it is a almost sacred writ in intelligence and the intelligence profession never to politicize intelligence. i do not engage in it, never have,it, never have, and do not condone and when identified. having said that, and i completely agree with you, in spite of all of the media hyperbole my think it is best we'll await the outcome of the department of defense ig investigation to determine whether and to what extent there was any politicization of intelligence. i will also say that the intelligence assessments come to the national level only to the defense intelligence agency. and to the extent evaluator and filter for what flows into the national intelligence arena. >> thank you, director. turning to you, admiral rogers, your responsibilities include strengthening cyber defense and cyber deterrence posture, and iposture, and i want to return to a line of questioning several of my colleagues that have begun this morning. as you know, the breach of opm computers resulted in an enormous loss of sensitive personal information. thus far to my knowledge the us has not responded command plan to put it in the words of deputy secretary word, we have not impose the cost which raises questions about whether we truly have developed the mechanisms for proportionate response to cyber attacks against the united states government even after the april 15 publication. we know that the foreign agent have been caught trying to steal us personnel files in a less digital age they would kick them out of the country if they were a diplomat or throw them in jail if they were not. that would be considered aa proportionate response, but in the case of the opm breach the us government seems on proportionate. i wanti want to ask you three questions and let you take them as you may. what constitutes an act of war in cyberspace? has the united states decided on a portion of response in the case of the opm cyber espionage case, and what types of information gathering by nationstates, governments are legitimate, and what types are not? >> well, first, i am the operational commander command all three of the questions to just asked a much broader than that. >> in terms of the three things we define, the bottom line is clearly we are working our way through that. the parameters we want to use to define an act of war, my going in position is to build on the framework we have developed over time which is a good departure, a broad framework. the 2nd question was about -- my note to myself. >> proportional response. >> again, what are the parameters? is it the intent, is it scaled? is it you can do espionage at some level, but if you trip some magic threshold, 20 million records, 10 million records, some skill components of this. we are clearly still trying to work our way through that issue command there is no one-size-fits-all answer. i think there is recognition which is what has driven this broad discussion. could youcould you repeat again the types of information? >> my time has expired. >> go ahead. >> we would like to see more transparency. the although the other side knowing what that turned was was absolutely critical for it to be effective. what types of information is considered legitimate unacceptable. >> i agree that that is an important part. a sense of consequence. >> the contrast with the cold war is a good one to think about in that i think the concern that people are raising is, should there be redlines? that is really what this get down student. it was freewheeling as far as us collecting intelligence against the soviet union. it was very difficult for both -- well, more so for us. and, of course, underlying the backdrop was the nuclear deterrent which restrained behavior even though it got rough at times as the example that apple watch or cited in aa maritime context, but they were ground rules that govern did we arewe are sort of in the wild west to cyber whether or no limits that we have agreed on, no redlines and collecting information, which is what the breach represented. >> i would likei would like to thank you for your forthright and candid assessment and also the lesson that all of us are getting is that we have to have some policy decisions command you have been helpful in flushing out for us. >> i would like to return to an exchange is russia and violation of their obligations? >> we believe a system they have been development would violate the treaty. >> and you said just now, i thought ii thought i heard you say that it is not deployed are not yet operationally capable. is that correct? >> that is my understanding. it is in development,command we have indicated our concern with the russians. if they did deploy it to verify the imf. >> i would now like to move to the cyber mission force. the air force association conference major general at wilson stated dod cyber mission force was halfway through its buildout. how difficult is it to establish the difficult infrastructure to create the capability we need to defendant the term cyber threats? >> i would like to start and turn it over to apple rogers. we are building 2100 33 total teams, 68 are focused on our number one mission, defensive networks. thirteen national mission teams of your building to defend our nation's critical infrastructure and 27 combat mission teams aligned with the combatant commanders and assist them in their planning. toto support those we have 25 support teams which can be called upon. we are building to 6200 military personnel, civilians, and, civilians, and some specialized contractors and another 2,000 and measures. about 8400. we expect to read 72018 provided that there is not another government shutdown. the last time we had a government shutdown and sequestration paper is behind by six months. as of right now we are on track, and i turn it over to have more rogers to explain how well we are doing. >> and if i could 1st let me go back to one particular portion. inportion. in terms of impact of the government shutdown or sequestration, the last time we went through this we assessed we probably lost six months worth of progress to shut down the school system, went to all stop, and the layover affect cost us six months of time. if we go to a sequestration level, that puts us further behind in an environment in which we of all uniformly come to a conclusion where we do not need to be command you cannot do that in your shutting down your efforts, cutting money to go specifically. the question you asked, i would tell you the generation of teams in terms of manpower and capability. exceeding my expectations. the bigger challenge has been yes, the teens and more some of the enabling capabilities. and. the tools, if you will come of a platform that we operate from a training environment that we take for granted in every other mission set, the idea we would take a brigade combat team and put it out in the national training center and put it through the spectrum of scenarios that are likely to encounter and deployment. we don't have that capability right now. we have got to create that. everything we do is predicated on knowledge and insight. those are the areas where the challenges are greater than just the manpower. >> how important is it would take advantage of the an -- existing infrastructure? >> that is what we are doing right now, but one of our experiences, one of our insights we gain practical experience we need to create infrastructure that is slightly separate from the infrastructure we use that nsa, unified platform, supported in funding an important part. experience has taught us this. >> my time is up for questioning. there is 11,50011,500 square foot facility there. a half million dollars invested in it. it is a request by support, harnessing resources we invested in the capability that they are ready to support an additional to the education facility jim. i was reviewing the directions that we are putting out our people to shutting out and for allowing people. what better time for a cyber attack when much expertise might be furloughed? >> that is a very important comment, and thank you for saying it. here are some of us who feel it is urgent that we inform the american people that the threats to our national security of another government shutdown, i believe it was in arkansas for officer who said there is no education in the 2nd kick of a mule. i thank you for your comment. senator mccaskill. >> dir., earlier this year i introduced a bill that would give intelligence committee contractors whistleblower protection as long as those complaints were made within the chain or to the inspector general of the jail. disclosures would not be protected. as you probably know, i know the secretary knows that we have already put into law in recent years whistleblower protections for the contractors at the department of defense. to my knowledge and certainly correct me if i am wrong,i am wrong, i am not aware of classified or sensitive information that has made its way to a damaging place as a result of these protections. the 2014 intel authorization gave these protections to the government employees within intelligence. one of the challenges we have is this divide between the contractors and government employees and frankly whistleblower protections, i cannot think of a good policya good policy recently would give them to employees and not contractors. i ami am hopeful that you would indicate that you believe this is an important principle and we should forward. >> absolutely. we have published internal to the intelligence community that includes whistleblower protections for our contractors. that was the source of the problem. and so our challenge, the additional burden we have, of course, is trying to prevent exposure of classified information outside channels. that is why whistleblowers must be protected so that they are induced motivated to go within the channels knowing that they will be protected. this is a program managed by the intelligence community inspector general who is independent as a senate confirmed official. >> thank you, and i am pleased to see that you would be supportive of that. i assume that you would be supportive of giving whistleblower protection to intelligence committee contractors. >> absolutely. >> and ii say this as the head of an intelligence agency. >> thank you. >> i want to follow up with your comment about a shutdown. could you tell us what impact another government shutdown would have on your progress of getting a cyber mission forcefully operational? excuse me, admiral rogers, i think that and political isolation shutdown appeals to a certain swap of americans command i understand why because sometimes it just feels good to save us to shut it down because obviously government is never going to win popularity contests. on the other hand, there is a difference between being responsible and being irresponsible in terms of recognizing -- i love it when some of my friends with play the constitution in my face and failed to read the part in which we have been divided set of checks and balances. we have to figure out how to get along. could you talk about the impact would be to this important mission if we went down the rabbit hole of deciding the best thing to do is to shut down government? >> we used our experience last time. training and education is a core component of our ability. shut it all down. the 2nd thing i was struck for, travel associated with training, had to shut all of that down. could not send people to generate insight are gain knowledge, shutdown technical development efforts because of the closure and put that all on hold. we were forced to focus our effort on the continued day-to-day defense, which is critical. the other concern i have, i have watch this play out in the last ten days. i have been in command 18 months the biggest thing i get, the seven to us once in 2013. why should i stay here working for the government? i could make more money in the cyber arena. in addition to the threat increase my other concern is if we do this again you meant ofthe amount of our workforce this is twice in the course of two years, and the family, mortgages come to take care of myself as much as a the mission and believe in defending the nation. i have to go work in the commercial sector. that would be terrible for us. people never forget. men and women power this enterprise. >> at the risk of sounding like a smart aleck, maybe we need to open some of those schools so some of my colleagues can do some math and realized that the votes are not there. a function that does not help anyone. >> thank you, mr. chairman. i want to echo the comments that should be enough said. all of the other things i have ai have a problem with have to be 2nd to the priority. i thank you for your work and your comment. admiral rogers, we have had briefings since you have taken command command one briefing i am remindedi am reminded of is the trend that you see in terms of the gap between what is to be an american advantage overall narrowing, particularly with nations like china and russia. can you tell me reeling in the context of maybe another six months reset on training but more importantly based upon current funding streams and plan, are we going to be able to wife had? >> right now the most likely scenario is staying slightly ahead. trying to overcome a different approach. it is not a criticism. it led toit led to a different prioritization, different level of effort and investment strategy. clearly we are going to have to change that at a time when budgets are going down and threats not just in cyber more broadly are proliferating. i do not envy the choices that need to be made. in the near-term the most likely scenario is how can we focus on the best investments that maximize the defensive capability of continuing to help us retain the advantage we do right now. >> thank you. this question may be for secretary worked. the announcement about the agreement with china that we are not going to basically attack each other, in the face of the compelling evidence we have, why is this agreement positive if with the smoking gun information we have right now, we have a prettya pretty strong base of evidence to say that they are guilty. if they deny it, why does this agreement mean anything? >> we made it clear through a wide variety of efforts that this would be something foremost in the discussions. we have made it is clear as possible at every level from the president on down. we believe that this is a good 1st step as a confidence building measure where china can either demonstrate that they are serious about establishing norms and going after cyber crimes, but the proof will be in the pudding. i agree with the director in demo. it will be up to the chinese demonstrate that they are serious. >> with the manipulation of commercial data falling within the definition of theft under this agreement? >> specifically one part of it is the theft of intellectual property for commercial advantage in chinese state enterprise, and we have agreed at least have made a tentativea tentative agreement that we will not do those type of activities. china has done them in the past. it will be up to them to prove that they will not do it in the future. >> the committee has gone on a while, but the senator made some important points. at what point we will be have clear definitions about wine activities in cyberspace being asked of war or terrorism and have appropriate responses the baby through cyber, sanctions, orcyber, sanctions, or other? when will be received that clarity? >> i don't believe he will ever have a definitive one-size-fits-all definition everyevery single attack will be have to handled on a case-by-case basis command you will have to judge the damage that was caused, who made the attack, was it a nonstate actor. we would havewe would have to go after that person in terms of criminal activity. i don't believe you will have a specific definition this is if this happens we will trigger this response. each one we willeach one we will be handled on a case-by-case basis and the partial. >> thank you. the only concern i have is when you are not establishing some level of known deterrent. i understand the complexities of it. i worked in the field, but i think that without that clarity you are more likely to have more things to look at and figure out how to do a situation response. >> thank you, mr. chairman and gentlemen for your testimony. i was looking for the transcript of the joint press conference, the pres. of china i think publicly stated that they do not engage in these kind of cyber activities. was that an accurate statement, if that was what he said? >> it is pretty remarkable if you are in a press conference with the head of state. seems to be pretty blatantly false. >> well, it is. apart from the statements, at least for our part b-uppercase-letter what happens now, will there be a change in behavior? and as i said earlier, hope springs eternal but i am personally someone of a skeptic. it will be our responsibility to look for the presence or absence of their intellectual property and other information. >> we were aware of the negotiations, at least normal intelligence would not be a voice or shape of a policy agreement like this. it -- our responsibility is report they do. who participated in the build up visit in terms of policy development, but in terms of what went on to the leaders of the nation's were not directly consulted. >> and i was aware of the ongoing process. same thing. >> you did not see the terms of the agreement, did you? let's assume that past is prologue. intellectual property, country trying to get the chinese to stop stealing us intellectual property for decades really and it has not really worked out very well. let's assume that this agreement, that there is some additional cyber theft what would you recommend the actions of the united states should be, particularly in light of this agreement? >> i would not be able to answer that. i would have to no the degree of activity. >> let's say another opm kind of activity. >> the department of defense would recommend a vigorous response. >> and what would you -- i mean, give me a sense of what the the? >> it could be any, maybe all of the above. it will depend upon the severity of the activity. but i no that this is -- i no that this is a big.of contention the committee. it is -- we are serious about cost and position, and our statement is if you participate in this activity we will seek some type of measure which imposes cost upon you. we justwe just do not think it is a proportional cyber attack. it might be something entirely different. >> let me ask kind of a related question. i no you have been discussing this, so i am sorry if i am going over areas already discussed, but help us think through the issue of rules of engagement. we have rules of engagement and so many other spheres of the military, how do we think through these issues which of theare the fundamental aspects of what we do in response to cyber attacks? admiral? >> if you look at the defensive side, i am comfortable that we have got a good for broad recognition >> do we? i mean, come between us and other nations? >> if you define it between us and other nations, i apologize. if you want to expand it to a broader set of nations it is probably fair to say no. >> i will agree. i think that when it comes to offenses -- if you are thinking about cyber warfare we probably did not have defined rules of engagement. i agree withagree with what director clapper said earlier, this is the wild west. a lot of activity going on. so sorting through each of the different attacks and trying to attribute what happened and who it came from and who is responsible all demand specific responses on these attacks, but i agree totally with the committee that we need to strengthen our deterrence posture, have the best way is to continue to work through these things and make sure everyone knows that there will be some type of cost. >> thank you. thank you, mr. ch. >> the committee would also like to know when they will be a policy that would fit into these attacks and would then be much more easily responded to if we had a policy, as mandated by there 2014 defense authorization bill? i think the witnesses for a helpful hearing. i no that they are busy command the committee appreciates your appearance are today. thank you. >> coming up, president obama speaks at a un meeting la cybersecurity. at a u.n. meeting on defeating isis in syria, president obama said success is only possible if syrian president, bashar al-assad, is removed from power. other participants including the british prime minister and leaders from iraq, canada and the netherlands. >> is the mike on? okay. good morning, ladies and gentlemen, heads of state, and government, last year here at the united nations i called on the world to unite against the fighting of violent extremism and challenges the assemblies to gather a year later to discuss. i want to thank world leaders for answering the call. we are joined from leaders from over a hundred nations, some 120 civil society groups from around the world and partners from the private sector. i believe we have here today is the emergence of a group united for destroying isil. we have crippled have al-qaeda core in afghanistan and pakistan's tribal regions. we are harvesting military intelligence, economic development, and the strength of our communities. now, i have repeatedly said that our approach will take time. this is not an easy task. we have isil taking root in areas that already are suffering from failed governance in some cases. in some cases, civil war or secretarian strife. and as a consequence, the vacuum that exist in many of these areas, isil has been able to dig in. they have shown themselves to be resilient. and they are very effective through social media and have been able to attract adherence. not just from the areas in which they operate but in many of our own countries. there are going to be successes and there are going to be setbacks. this does not make it a conventional battle. this is a long-term campaign. not only against this particular network, but against its beliefs. with the few minutes i have i want to provide a brief overview of where we stand currently. our coalition has grown to 60 nations. together we welcome three new countries to the coalition. nearly two dozen nations are in some way contributing to the military campaign and we salute and our grateful for all the service members from our respected nations who are performing with skill and determination. in iraq, isil continues to hold mosul, fallujah, and ramadi, but iraqi officials have eliminated thousands and isil has lost nearly a third of the populated areas in iraq it had controlled. 18 countries are now helping to train and support iraqi forces including sunni volunteers who want to push isil out of their communities. and i want to note the enormous sacrifices being made by iraqi forces and the iraqi people in the fight every day. in syria, which has been a topic of significant discussion during the course of this general assembly, we have seen support from turkey that has allowed us to intensify our air campaign there. isil has been pushed back from large sections of northeastern syria including the key city leaked there putting new pressure on the stronghold. and isil has been cut off from almost the entire region bordering turkey which is a critical step toward stemming the flow of foreign terrorist fighters. following the special security council meeting i chaired last year, more than 20 countries changed or disrupted the flow of foreign terrorist fighters. we share more information. and we are strengthening border patrols. we prevented would be fighters from returning to the batt battlefield and threatening our country. this is a difficult challenge and we will focus on how to do more together. the united states and our partners are taking new steps to crack down on the finance that isil uses to pay fighters, fund operations and launch attacks. our military and intelligence efforts are not going to succeed alone. they have to be matched by political and economic progress to address the conditions that isil has exploited in order to take root. they are taking important steps to build a more inclusive and countability government and our nations need to help the prime minister in these efforts. in syria, as i said yesterday, defeating isis requires, i believe, a new leader and a government that unites the syrian people in the fight against terrorist groups. this is going to be a complex process. as i said before, we are prepared to work with all countries, including russia and iran, to find a political mechanism in which it is possible to begin a transition process. as isil's tentacles reach into other regions, the united states is increasing our counterterrorism operations and boosting support to nigeria as they push back against boka harem and providing better support for counterterrorism. ultimately, however, it is not going to be enough to defeat isil in the battlefield. we have to prevent it from radicalizing and recruiting others to violence in the first place and this means defeating their ideas and ideaerize defeated not guns but better ideas. building on summits, we are moving ahead and stepping up our effort to discredit the propaganda. isis is a band of terrorist that kills innocent muslims, men, women and children. working to lift up the voice of muslim clerics and those who stand up to isil and their warped interpretations. poverty does not cause terrorism but as we have seen in the middle east and north africa when people, especially young people, are hopeless and feel humilated that can fuel resentiment that terrorist exploit which is why creating opportunity and dignity, particularly for youth, is part of countering violent extremism. we recognize we also have to address the political grievances that isis exploits. when human rights are denied and there is no need to redirect the emotions without violence it leads to terrorism. so the real path to lasting stability and progress is not less democracy. i believe it is more democracy in terms of free speech, freedom of religion, rule of law, strong civil societies, all of that has to play a part in countering violent extremism. finally we recognize our best partners in protecting vulnerable people from falling victim to the behavior is the community. mothers, fathers, neighbors, clerics who love and care for the young people. no one should be profiled or targeted because of their faith. but isis is targeting muslim communities around the world. especially individuals who may be disillusioned and we have to continue to build true partnerships with muslim communities based on trust and cooperation so they can help protect their loved ones from becoming radicalized. this can't be the work of government. it is up to all of us. we have to commit ourselves to build diverse and tolerant and inclusive societies that reject anti-muslim bigotry that creates the division, fear and rese resentment upon which bigots prey on. funds and training and technology is being invested to support programs that push back on violent extremism and cities are joining together to build resilient communities. researchers are partnering to share best practices in knowing what works and what we can do better. and as we saw yesterday, young people from around the world are participating in their own summit. these young people, many of them muslim, are coming together to use their talent and technology to push back on isil's propaganda especially online and protect their brothers and sisters from recruitment. these young people are an inspiration and give us hope and i would ask everyone to join me in thanking all of the young people who are here today. [applause] >> so to conclude, we face a grave challenge. this is very hard work. we have individuals here who are on the front lines. and this is not going to be turned around overnight because this is not just a military campaign. there are changes taking place in the middle east. even if we were to wipe out the con leaders we would still have these forces at work. but i am optimistic. in iraq and syria isis is surrounded by countries committed to its destruction. we have seen that isil can be defeated on the battlefield where there is sound organization and a government and military that is coordinated with this coalition and our diplomatic efforts. we are seeing a glove movement to counter the movement needed. isil will eventually loose because it has nothing to offer but suffering and death. when you look at the reports of those who are laboring under their control it is a stark and brutal life that does not appeal to people over the long term. so we will ultimately prevail because we are guided by a better vision, a commitment to the security and dignity of every human being. but it will require diligence, focus, and sustained effort by all of us. and i am grateful that all of you who are already participating are committed to this work. with that, i want to give the floor to our secretary journal. [applause] >> thank you, president obama for your strong leadership and very inspiring envision statement. i would like to thank you for the successful white house meeting on countering violent extremism in february in washington, d.c. since then, this process has sparked a series of conversations around the world to address the violence and its roots. the groups pose a direct threat to international security, mostly target women and girls and undermine universal values of peace, justice and human dignity. that threat is growing. our most recent data shows a 17% increase in foreign terrorist fighters from over a hundred countries to regions within the countries. addressing this challenge goes to the heart of the mission of the united nations and requires a unified response. we know violent extremism flourishes when human rights are violated and too many people, especially the young people, with their hopes and dreams, lack prospect and meaning in their lives. we know the crucial incredents for success. good governance, open rule of law, quality education, and decent jobs. four respectful human rights. these measures are crucial. yet we know no longer have such efforts by playing into the hands of those we are seeking to defeat or by further alienating marginalized groups. the resolution 2178 provides to tools for addressing the discourage of violent extremism including the flow of thousands of foreign terrorist fighters. with development goal, acorn, the voice of people and critical include a quote of peace, justice and strong institutions. we must go beyond the counter violent extremism. on the bases of an emerging national consensus, i intent to present a plan of action to prevent violent extremism to the general assembly. i hope each member state will coordinate to share your experience and your vision of how we can work together to combat and fight these extremism and we most welcome your suggestions. this plan, which is firmly based on the u.n. global counter terrorism strategy will provide specific recommendations to member states on individual and collective actions to systematically address the troubles of violent extremism at every level. it will put forward recommendations on how the u.n. can support member states to prevent violence extremism covering the world. let me briefly highlight five things to achieve for success. first, governments can't do it alone. we need to engage all of society. women leaders, leaders in the arts, music, and sports. second, we need to make a special effort to reach young people where they share ideas and community. social media is essential. we need to offer a counter weight to the silent songs that promise adventure and that promises meaning and creates more misery. third, we must work harder to get accountability institutions. i continue to urge leaders to listen very careful three the grievances and aspirations of their people and address them. fourth and fundamentally we must be guided by the moral compass of our common values. respect for international and human rights is not negotiable. without it we are lost. and finally let us not be ruled by fear or by those who try to exploit it. we have a major challenge ahead of us. one that we cannot address overnight but we can forge inclusion, insuring lives of dignity and pursuing to inspire the united nation's charter and declaration of human rights. thank you very much. [applause] >> next i would like to give the floor to mr. haider al-abadi, the prime minister of iraq. >> dear presidents and people, peace may be upon you and it has been over one year since i have controlled iraq and what it has cost us is tragedies and atrocities for civilians and belongin belongings. during this day the has been a universal alliance and there are a lot of friends with us and we are thankful to whoever stood with us against this unified enemy which is not only a threat to us but for the whole world. today it has been one year since i have over this government that was the product of a free elections. this development that we have established last year, we need to get the profits during this year, and during this coming month, and we can do it by unifying our forces to null our stance and our approach we need to first remember where we have been during last year before forming this government and what we inherited from a country that is living a crisis in which crisis was occupying more than 30% of the region and our forces were in a very dangerous position. there was all of this around the world with threats and isis was occupying iraq. there was an internal afro fron and a lot of secretarian wars and the government was weak. at that point we had the crisis that was financial and bu burrocracy and we had a lot of unemployed people. we have worked hard to reunify our country against the -- rebuilding our forces, and regaining our connection with the world and the building in the tribal communities as well and the leaders closing on cities under the stress of isis. the tribes' sons are fighting by the government military forces and we are escaping the roots of corruption and the associations after we have recused a lot of officials in different governments and we also give -- we provided more than 80,000 personal who are fighting. we also have canceled what is more than 50,000 of what is called the allusive soldiers who were just receiving salaries without really doing any work. this was where we got our budget rid of the burden. we also are getting rid of honor post and reducing the iraq dependence on oil income. during this we are trying to iraq's dependence on oil income and during this, we are trying to get the benefits from the reduction of the oil. we are trying to unify all the government and the community and our government is seeking forming local fighters who are fighting together against terrorism and because isis is threatening the whole area we are working on reinforcing our connection, our relationship including iran and saudi arabia and all of the regions of the area generally. we are also make ingrid forms in the area and on the diplomatic front and we are winning. during the last year we have freed zumar and beijing and so dear and to create and host sasha and a lot of other regions in frame to create we involve the security forces of the iraqi and tribal forces and the community forces also. tens of thousands of iraqi people are now back in tikrit. about 80% who fled before they came back after a lot of assistance who provided aid to iraq directly or indirectly. despite the retributions were low compared to the fears of them. where isis was committing different kinds from tribes against the others. there has been retributions and revenge cases but this has been limited. that's why we consider it to be victory but we still need the aid of the civil international community. despite what's going on we have 3 million iraqi who have been out of their places and with a budget of iraq compared to what it has been we cannot finance all these battles that we are seeking to win. we need your help and the help of the international community and the financing and equipment of our soldiers. we need your support in order to also take care of the people who lost their loved ones and the children. we need your help to derive where they radicals and terrorists are stemming from and their ideologies who are coming from all places of the world. they are coming from north america and islamic and arabic countries too. we need to work with our neighboring countries to stop the terrorist fighters who are killing civilians in iraq and saudi arabia and go back to their countries where they come back from after they have taken terrorist actions. we want to stop the terrorists from financing to international networks that are being used now to finance those terrorists who don't are demanding to suspend it under the light of the resolution of the council. we want you to help us stop them from enslaving women and men and stealing the artifacts because those people who have -- who parts have been filled with hatred, we need to adopt the treatment of the reasons for those problems islamic and political. we have started doing that up until now operating this basic reason that causes people to be directed towards radicalization and violence and terrorism. we have provided different kinds of sacrifices and our people are still sacrificing for this purpose. we need not to lose focus and not to lose time and forcing our forces against isis and do not forget that time is a big element. together we have stopped the march of the terrorists. together we will gain victory that is not only the victory of the iraqi's but it is a victory for all the representing countries and every country that has contributed in fighting terrorism. thank you for all we have done and thank you for all that we are going to do. thank you. [applause] >> thank you prime minister a body for your statement and the work you are doing under challenging circumstances. to address this issue. i want to next give the floor to his excellency mr. mohamadou bukhari the president of the federal republic of nigeria. >> your excellency's, ladies and gentlemen i thank president obama for organizing this important meeting. the time is appropriate and the subject matter warrants focus. the threats posed by isil in the middle east and violent extremism elsewhere is a danger to many states. isil is a serious threat to security and should be treated as such. they have no regard to lives and property. they operate outside of the law and must be seen for what they are and dealt with appropriately. given the ranks with the legal framework instituted by the united nations would stem the tie. but this has not yet happened. mr. -- the violence and terrorism by isil and other groups enticed and emboi embold groups in isis. boka harem is pledging allegiance to isis since march of 2015. we believe that they are an indication of the weakened operational capacity of the group, but the recruit suggests it strategic move to entertain fighters. whatever the reason for the declaration of allegiance is boka harem terrorist wants to be drawn into the center stage of global terrorism. this moment led not only to a strategy but also to changes in recruitment, and propaganda. mass executions and public beheadings became notorious after the declaration of religion. we also note that sub-saharan africa has received radicalization and in citement. boka harem -- boko haram does not reflect muslim behavior. muslim religious is based on peace. isil is making an effort to expand into some communities into sahara region and isil's operations have led to the terrorism and violence extremism that leads to two sides of the same coin. the effort of the united nation and the international community to contend with isil. we needed to do more. we need to take military action, combine with effective border security, intelligence coalition, and share it and take action. these alone may not suffice. but they can turn the tide and drive the forces of recruitment, movement, and it is set to operation of foreign terrorist fighters and their associated radical extremist. in order to put in place components of an approach to counter isil and eventually defeat we must address the source. we must find a way to prevent people from coming to terror in the first place and turning to violent extremism. they are lured in from lack of family and their expectations here are pushed. while addressing how to deal with this, we should let the military be tangable but it be crucial. good governance which calls for accountability, and transparency and rule of law, should kick stat the minutes of terrorism and the violent extremism. the international community will be required to work together to deter and disrupt elicit finances from nations who have a weak structure to other parts of the world where such friend are identified that it should be sensitive to recover. mr. chairman, you have self observed and i quote that groups like al-qaeda explode with anger and injustice and corruption leaves them no chance of improving their lives. a number of states need to address grievances with forces that will insure world peace, transformation, jobs, and equal opportunity, and expanded access to social responsibilities. we in africa, dedicate ourselves to the mandate of the african union mechanisms and other good governance that we adopted in our region to encourage conforming and corporate governance. mr. chairman, the secretary of the united nation noted in 2015 we are facing quote the greatest test of the human family facing in the 20th century. end quote. all hand must be on deck in the quest for our lasting ending of boko haram, isil, and the likes. i thank you. [applause] >> thank you for that statement. i give the floor to her excellence the prime minister of the kingdom of norway. >> ladies and gentlemen, thank you for this opportunity to speak about violent extremism. it is one of the greatest security challenges of our time. it brings death to people, destructure and insecurity to societies and regions and it is on the rise worldwide. our goal is clear. this must be defeated and we must work together to combat extremism and combat the roots. each and every one of us can make a difference mobilizing civil societies, women, faith leaders, local communities, and governments. we need an effort to prevent and counter violent extremism. last year, our national action plan was launched against radicalizations and civil society organizations and nine different government departments. the work against radicalization has to transede. poverty and lack of opportunities are often said to be the root causes of violent extremism. this is a grave oversimplificati oversimplification. you must recognize that the risk of people being drawn to violence groups increases in areas where there are few other opportunities. this is particular for young people. let me be very clear. there can be no excuses for violence extremist actions. the action are unacceptable and the perpetrator must be held accountable also. in july of 2011, norway experienced a terrorist attack on a government building and a youth camp was attacked later that day. many young women and men lost their lives. what we saw in the aftermath was engagement of commitment from our youth across all political dividing lines. we know there are groups out there who are willing to cynically exploit vulnerable people particularly young people. young people must be involved in governance and development of our society if we want them prevent them from being recruit today violence extremists. this was expressed at the youth against violence extremism group. this was highlighted once again in the global youth summit in new york yesterday. and an independent network was launched and we hope this grows into a global network and hope you will find it as a useful partner to develop your own plans to stop violent extremism. 2178 was adopted which calls for women to be part of the help of counter violent extremism. the power of women is understood and terrorist want them on their side but they attack women's rights and silence women. these voices must be heard. therefore i welcome and support the new alliance of women's organization against the violent extremists. i would like to underline when women raise their voices like this they are not just heard by the extremist, they are often also attacked by more traditional forces in our societies. they will lead the backing if they should do the work against the extremism. and new forms of violence emerge and new knowledge is needed. we share our information and need more research to shed new life to the local drivers of extremist. this is the local level where violence and extremism can be most easily understood. so the communities have a key role. the strong city network will enable cities across the world to pull resources and best practices. we must also strengthen international corporation. norway has launched the new development aid program to prevent and counter violent extremism and welcome to secretary general's initiative to draw up a plan. norway is contributing to all five lines of efforts set out for the global counter mission. stem the flow of resources and terrorist working to counter isis propaganda and stabilize areas in iraq. we are providing humanitarian assistances -- assistance as well. let me quote: what happens in a small corner of the world affects all of us so let's start working together. thank you. [applause] >> thank you very much for that excellent statement. we are now moving to a critical part of our agenda and that is to hear from a broader group of coalition members in discussing how we can make further progress against isil. it is a large and growing global coalition. it is as united around the common mission. heavy -- we will hear about military support on the ground, to denying terrorist access to global systems, and working to counter isil's message of hate. as we indicated before this is a long-term campaign and requires the kind of cooperation and effort from all of us that will be challenging but i am confidant we are up to the task. i want to begin by giving the floor to his majesty, king abdullah, king of jordan. your majesty. >>> thank you, president obama for your continued leadership and commitment on this issue which is possibly the greatest collective threat of our time. last year i spoke here of the need for the coalition of the determined and this has indeed transpired. this resulted in degrading assets and capabilities over the past year. we succeeded in interupting access to resources. as a result, the momentum has been weakened. however, our coalition still faces significant challenges and as mr. president you said yesterday, if we cannot work together more effectively we will all suffer the consequences. we know the road ahead is long but we can navigate it by continue to work collectively and constantly adapting our strategy and updating coordination among coalition members. while this coalition is focused on fighting dash in iraq and syria, a more hollistic approach plans to radicate the threat. we must tackle the flow of foreign fighters and dash's supply chain across borders more effectively. empowering local communities and condu conducting the war in a way that alleviates their suffering is vital. this is our struggle. muslim nations have to lead this fight to protect and show the true nature of our religion. again, and as you pointed out mr. president, while the battles may be fought on the ground and by the population that is most effective, this war can only be won on the plane of ideas. the battleground in cyber space needs to be addressed. dash is targeting and luring potential medias worldwide through social media and it is still able to fund new recruit travel to syria and iraq. dash, boka haram, and various terrorist groups we are looking at are offshoots of the same threat in libya, yemen, mauli, other areas in africa and asia. none of us are safe until we have a pathway to address this interconnected reality. this is not a single country's problem. it is not a local or regional problem. it is our collective program. jordan has begun a collaborative effort to reach out to countries in africa to help coordinate stakeholders and build a partnership to address our threats. we are certain there is no alternative to a comprehensive approach and close coordination among all stakeholders that camrese the threat of their terrorist threats across the region. we hope this aligns security efforts under a unified strategy. finally, we cannot tackle this threat in a vacuum. the world that allows the pakistan and iran commitment is not sanctioned. winning hearts and minds remains a big challenge as this will also require in the longer and medium term dealing with governance, poverty, youth, job creation and education. it is only by stabilizing the entire regime, giving people hope instead of fear and destruction, that will truly address these and other challenges including the outpouring of refuges many who are fleeing from terror and seeking a decent life far from their homes. thank you, mr. president. [applause] >> thank you, your majesty. i now give the floor to david cameron. >> mr. president, i agree with a lot that has been said. you are right. this is a long-term campaign, you are right. you are right, isis has lost territory. we will play our part militarily and have carried out 300 strikes in iraq and trained over a 1,000 iraqi troops and we will play a role helping with the ied part of what is happening in iraq and play our part politically supporting the prime minister with the work he is doing. britain has spent $1.6 billion on supporting syrians in the refuge camps in lebanon and jordan and we will continue to do that. we will support the transition in syria that you spoke about that we need to see badly. we will play our role also in the propaganda war we need to win because frankly we need to call out isil were the mass executions, for the rapes, for the killing of innocent sunni arabs while selling oil at the same time. we need to win this propaganda war more effectively. we will establish the coalition communication cell in the united kingdom which gives $15 million to start with and i think it needs to be an important part to win, as people said, the battle of hearts and minds of muslims around the world. i want to make one point in my remarks. it is this. i think what we are saying about countering violent extremism. i don't think it is enough. i think we need to focus on the extremism that lies behind the violent extremism as well. i say this because the boy who straps a bomb to his chest and blows up an iraqi town, the guy that stand in the desert with a knife having just beheaded a british hostage or whoever, they don't get there from a standing start. they have an extremist view and mindset before they make that decision to be an extremist terrorist. maybe it starts with being told christians and muslims can't live together. maybe it moves on to being told the muslims everywhere are under attack. sometimes it is being told the terrible attack that took place in the city on 9/11 was somehow a jewish conspiracy. and then it goes on to being told that violence is sometimes justified. that a suicide bomb, if it happens in israel, maybe that is not so bad, and you get an extremist mindset that moves on to the belief that taking part in violent jihad or joining isil or any of the other franchises, al-shabaab or others, is justified. my point is we have to stop this process at the start not at the end. of course we have to win militarily. we have to have the political solution. we need the propaganda. but we need to challenge the extremist world view at the very start. what does that mean? in western countries we have to root out the extremist preachers poisoning the minds of young muslims in our country and build integrated societies so young people feel they truly belong and make sure we don't allow the incubation of an extremist world view before it justifies violence. get out it out of the schools and universities and prison. i believe in freedom of speech but freedom of hate is not the same thing. the king of jordan talked about the special responsibility among muslim countries and muslim leaders. barack obama, you said every country has extremist but we have to be frank this is the biggest threat today and it is coming from the middle east. these people claim to act in the name of the islamic religion. they don't. i can say they don't over and over again. you can say they don't. but there is nothing more powerful than what, for instance, the king of jordan has just said. when muslim leaders and muslim countries reclaim their religion and explain why what these people are saying is not islam. it is a perversion of islam. we have to do that and take away the building blocks of extremist that takes people to an extremist terrorist view. that is as important as the military, political and diplomatic steps we will take in part of this vital campaign. [applause] >> thank you, david. i want to give his floor to the prime minister of the kingdom of the netherland, mark rutte. >> i stood in front of thousands in amsterdam the day after the charlie hebdo attacks. people around the world were deeply affected by these events. it was an evening i will never forget. there we stood, united from all corners of the earth, young and old and people of every religious background and your message to terrorist was loud and clear. we are different, yet we are one. we are the majority and we will not let you defeat us. hands off our freedom were my words that night and i can still feel the emotion of that moment. violent extremism are not other people's problem. countries like iraq and syria being destabilized spreads insecurity and fuels tensions in our own communities and that is why the netherlands will remain actively involved in the fight of combating international terrorism. we cannot take our own freedom for granted. we stand shoulder to shoulder with other countries in the region and beyond in the coalition. ... if we can do young impression of people the prospect of a good future they will be less drawn to extremist groups. the idea is that intervening early and immediate social environment is the best way to stop young people from being tempted to go off to fight a war, any kind of positive than moderate influence can help. our approach is possible where necessary. our international efforts include working with partners in the global terrorism forum. the forum is the primary platform where we can share information to prevent terrorism. a few days ago the netherlands became cochair of the forum affirming our long-term commitment to to collaborate with the u.n. and other organizations. over the past year that has been a big focus on how to prevent potential foreign terrorist fighters from traveling abroad and have to deal with those who combat. violent extremism and terrorist groups like die -- al qaeda boko haram are constantly evolving. this is not a static threat and will not simply disappear. the international community cannot afford to sit back. we must be vigilant and persistent. we must continue to make it clear that we are not fighting for religion. we are fighting terrorists whose barbarism knows no bounds. that is why it is good where meeting here today. in the netherlands makes commitments to the task ahead. freedom is our explanation, result is our weapon and together we will succeed in pushing back the terrorist threat. thank you. [applause] >> next i would like to ask prime minister for his statement. >> excellencies, distinguished colleagues i had my words and thanks to president obama for the meeting of public opinion. my country has been dealing with terrorism since the early 70s and knows only too well that terrorism is -- and the course of this has been targeted by three terrorist organizations with different extremist ideologies mainly daish. in late july that killed 32 citizens and personnel on the border. this was immediately followed by pkk almost in a simultaneous manner with daish and more innocent civilians. pkk con, and it attacks played an impact on terrorist threats in the region. terrorist ideology excluding religion is no different from terrorism makes waiting race and ethnicity. there is no difference between those and other terrorist organizations. our friends and partners all of us must be vigilant. one terrorist fighting the other our partners and friends to support in its fight against all types of terrorism. no child is born to be a terrorist. the process of radicalization and crossing the not so very thin line up supporting fighters are complex matter. as governments or responsibility to protect against violence include the protection of others due to globalization and the impact of social media on the transformation to criminal -- terrorist ideology are vital and repercussions are global but dep contact specific measures. just drawn network that city -- it requires long-term and indiscriminate qualities involving all of government and all of society, patients inside court nations consistency and extremism should be be -- we must pay utmost attention to ensure violent extremism is not related to any sectarian group. terrorists fighters have been conjured bidding to the debate on countering violent extremism. unprecedented threats emanating from war and terrorists fighters in the past few years has only confirmed what we feel. some of these young men and women who have joined daish from the heart of europe are from countries with prominently uneducated yet they end up in the ranks of this vicious terrorist group together with petty criminals are sociopaths. our work in the anti-daish group global counterterrorism forum should be focusing on four factors -- pull factors as well as push factors. mr. president my government has introduced against foreign terrorists as 2011 we have now recorded down 20,000 names from over 100 countries. moreover thanks to the air force risk analysis groups more than 1000 suspicious -- were united in turkey at airports. as such we have prevented a considerable number of foreign terrorists fighters from reaching conflict zones. only in 2015 we have deported more than 1000 foreign nationalists with suspicious presence in conflict zones in syria and iraq. dear colleagues i want to speak aloud. to tackle this problem when he toured together. without sharing of intelligence and adoption measures to address young people in countries we will fail in this quest. our efforts to dismantle networks propaganda and finance a terrorist group should continue. on the other hand let us not deceive ourselves. why the foreign fighters have made themselves more visible as part of the problem. there is no terrorist group including daish or other status solely formed by foreign fighters. we cannot ignore the impact of mismanage crisis masses placements and intolerance discrimination racism xenophobia and islamaphobia aspect year's that prepare the ground for violent extremism. serious a case in point. value at two address the root cause of the murder regime created by daish has turned into a factor for foreign terrorists. mr. president and your colleagues as the intelligence community the best narrative we have in our disposal against violent extremism abuses their ability to deliver peace stability welfare and justice. we need to ensure that our needs meet our commitments and our actions do not fall far from our -- thank you. [applause] >> thank you ahmed. next i would like to ask his excellency prime minister renzi for his statement. >> thank you mr. president. thank you for your leadership in this meeting. this is the largest coalition against terrorism the world has ever seen, bringing together regions around the world so i think it's a great responsibility. italy has assured its resolute support against daish particularly colleagues initiative of training iraqi police forces i think is important because it's the signal of friendship for citizens, for women and children in the emily's of the iraqi people. italy with the united states of america and saudi arabia is finance group and it's very important underlying initiatives and this set there comes a new financial year. the initiative for restrictive measures for terran -- foreign terrorist fighters this is very important and we are asking coalition partners to focus on external donations in order to prevent terrorist nonprofit organization in europe. the number of large networks of recruiting foreign terrorists fighters in recent months. this is important for me. just for brief remarks. i'm really surprised because a lot of attacks are against it indonesia against a school and pass for a cell culture is our identity. italy is leading efforts with unesco to -- this part, this field of discussion. second, religious and we thank middle east today i use this expression today is not today was incredible and the need culture for every religion. we must defend particurly in ose we must defend the land in which a lot of religion was born in the past. third, syria and not only africa asks for priorities in the libyan situation but also the situation in africa particularly different extremist and my personal consideration your consideration mr. president and i agree totally with you. social networking is the place of freedom. it's an incredible opportunity and the people a ride and i very much appreciate the words of barack obama yesterday about it. obviously number one worry the further risks of social media. the social network as a way of recruiting particularly in our country in europe. self trained jihadists decide if he makes some intervention with this approach. it's very interesting your initiative as the united states and the united nations because their risk for politician this is my point of view is to end the season of social networking this is a system of dominos of newspaper and social media to reduce our vision to all the last news of the last press agency. i think your initiative today is particularly important to have an approach not only focus on the last news of the last question and old news but we have a better strategy and division and i think this is crucial because the largest coalition around the world must to win. i wish to offer president obama and initiative on counterterrorism. we are absolutely sure we will defeat daish. [applause] >> thank you. i think you have heard from a cross-section of the coalition and the unity of vision but also the various capacities and elements that are going to be involved in us being successful in this process. at this stage by a vast my vice president, vice president biden accompanied by my attorney general loretta lynch and secretary of homeland security jeh johnson to chair the remainder of the isil discussion as well as the foreign fighter encountering violent extremism sessions. i asked them to be a today because along with those seated next to me they are the leaders to disrupt terrorist fighters encounter extremism. they worked with many of you on a whole range of these issues. they lead different parts of our government but work closely together to demonstrate how well we as leaders must work across bureaucratic and international boundaries to fight the entire lifecycle of terrorism from radicalization and i thought david cameron's point was excellent that we are focused on violent extremism but violent extremism is merging out of an extremist world that has to be counteracted all the way through conflict zones and bringing about the good governance and political settlements that are required so we don't have incubators for expressions of violent extremism to the work that has to be done militarily to counter activities that are going on right now in places like iraq. so i want to very much thank all of the leaders and participants here today including those non-governmental organizations that are participating. i'm not going to turn the chair over to vice president biden for the remainder of the summit. thank you very much for your participation. [applause] >> russians current leaders are not simply the rulers of the nation they literally the countries enemies. >> i appeared to sacrifice the african continent for some free-market ideology. >> then you will come back and you are rattled and shaken up. >> it seems to be hard for somebody else that it's time to change. >> the 21st century will belong to china but most centers have belonged to china. >> blaming barack obama for the state of the world is in right now is like blaming a caribbean island for hurricane. >> the lesson of her career has been a few arrests third world dysfunctional country that has managed to acquire a nuclear weapon view. >> if you want to engage in humanitarian intervention do it with your own sons and daughters, not with mine. >> welcome to the munk debate on canada's foreign policy. [speaking french] is my privilege to have the opportunity to host tonight's historic proceedings. the first-ever federal election debate devoted exclusively to foreign-policy issues. [speaking french] first a national television audience. this debate in french and english nationwide on cpac and ch ch television and in france on sirius xm and c-span also a warm hello to our on line audience. monk debates.com and on the web sites of our official media partners facebook canada and -- and finally hello to you, over 3000 members of the munk debates who fill the hall to capacity. >> translator: . [speaking french] >> let's get our debate under underway. ladies and gentlemen is my pleasure to welcome mr. mulcair leader of the new democratic party of canada. [applause] >> manning asked up as mr. stephen harper the leader of the -- party cabinet. [applause] >> welcome mr. harper for the conservative party of canada. and finally let me welcome mr. justin trudeau leader of the liberal party of canada. [applause] >> gentlemen we are led to finally have the preview here on stage. we have all agreed to the rules of this debate in advance and want to quote is a friendly reminder we will respect each other's right to speak in order to make points uninterrupted. so let's get started. right now the world is witnessing the largest humanitarian crisis since the second world war. as the conflict in syria and northern iraq rages on. mr. mulcair you have pledged as prime minister to pull canada's military forces out of the international coalition fighting isis. a question for you is if the threat the islamic state represents doesn't justify a military response when budha and ndp government to use military force? >> you have 90 seconds to respond. canada would remain a member of us but only 12 involved in the combat mission. >> translator: permits important to remember that here this evening we are in the same room where we had jack latham and i will continue jack's work and i will take the same koback y. values of solidarity sustainable economic development we wants to protect the world. we don't want a canada that goes to war. it's a candidate that respects values. >> this election is about change and there is no area that needs for change then foreign affairs. the prime minister has to -- we have to make sure that we have a place on the world stage that we missed our spot on the security council. we are the only country with a kyoto protocol. i will defend the canadian values on the world stage.