through news reels. the civil war. the presidency focuses on u.s. presidents and first ladies to learn about their politics, pomss and legacies. all this month in prime time and every weekend on american history tv on c-span3. >>> nina allender was a political cartoonist, contributing over 150 cartoon xor supporting the campaign for women's suffrage. next we womvisit the women's equality national monument. >> i am the deputy director and director of strategic initiatives at the belmont hall women's equality national monument. which was formally the belmont house and museum on capitol hill in washington, d.c. this house was the fifth and final headquarters of the national woman's party. the national woman's party was founded by a woman named alice paul in 1913 as the congressional union for woman's suffrage. the congressional union for woman's suffrage became the national woman's party in 1916. this group of women spent seven years actively lobbying the president and congress for a federal suffrage amendment, at which time once they received the amendment in 1920, they wrote and began lobbying for the equal rights amendment. during the period when they were lobbying for suffrage, they br were working all over the country actively garnering support form western women voters and bringing the fight directly to the president's doorstep. they had headquarters on lafayette square where they could walk out their door and be right at the president's doorstep in a matter of minutes. they began picketing the white house. one of the first groups to do so. when the united states entered world war i in 1917, at that time the pickets at the white house were quite peaceful. but they quickly turned ugly when crowds watching these women picket the white house believed their behavior to be unpatriotic. so crowds would throw things at the women, they would converge on them and tear the banners from their hands. and in june of 1917, the women began being arrested on charges of obstructing traffic and they were taken to prison and sentenced to prison sentences anywhere from three days to six months. they were imprisoned at the district prison here in washington, d.c., and out in lorton, virginia at a work house. they weren't treated like political prisoners. they were trited like any other prisoners, often thrown into their cells, oftentimes their hands handcuffed above them. so these women began protesting that treatment and they went on hunger strikes and were force fed. because of their activities, there was a lot of press around what was happening to them which ended up garnering a lot of public sympathy for their cause. in 1919, thanks to not only the work of the national woman's party but also other suffrage organizations that were working for similar goals, the federal amendment was passed by both houses of congress and sent to the states for ratification. in 1920 it was ratified by all 36 states and became law. by 1921 and 1922 the national woman's party believing that suffrage was only the first step in the many-step process to achieve full women's equality began working on the equal rights amendment. alice paul and a woman named crystal eastman wrote the equal rights amendment and presented it to the party in 1923. from that time the national woman's party worked for legal, social and economic equality for women throughout the united states, and later throughout the world. they worked for the equal rights amendment from this house from 1923 up until 1997 when they became a 501c3. today we work to preserve our outstanding collection of women's suffrage and equal rights artifacts and educate the public about this movement and the stories of in community of women who worked for total equality for women. the belmont paul house is actually named after alice paul, our original founder. then alva belmont. belmont was the benefactor and president of the national woman's party for many years, and it's because of her that we have such a large collection of books, scrapbooks, artifacts, and many other objects that allow us to tell this story. now we're upstairs and we're going to talk a little bit about our collection of political cartoons by the national woman's party's official cartooncartoon nina allender. the national woman's party was the only party to boast an official cartoonist. her work appeared on covers of their publication, "the suffragist," for more than ten years. allender grew up in auburn, kansas. born in 1872. her tam actually moved to washington, d.c. around 1900. her mother was one of the first women employees at the department of the interior, and allender studied painting at the corcoran school of art here in d.c. with the intention of becoming an art teacher. she was a painter, she loved to paint, and that was a big part of her identity. but she also worked for the government land office. so she recognized that painting wouldn't pay the bills. she was president of the d.c. branch of the national american woman's suffrage association for many years. when alice paul came to d.c. in 1912 with the intention of lobbying for the federal amendment, allender watched first with interest in this new woman. there is a great story in one of the early biographies of the national woman's party where allender and her mother receive alice paul at their house. and both of them of course were very interested in the suffrage movement and they were eager to hear from this woman who they claimed was about as big as their finger, walking into their house. the story goes that by the time alice paul left they had committed both time and money to the suffrage movement and to the congressional union without realizing what they had actually committed to or how this little woman had managed to convince them to begin lobbying for the federal amendment. and allender, all of a sudden, was an active member of this party, working for the federal suffrage amendment. so i think she always sort of looked around in amazement at alice paul's negotiating and strategic way of convincing people to not only work for the movement, but also to give money. so allender began her career as an official cartoonist -- or as the cartoonist in the national women's party. her first work appeared in 1914. one of the interest things about her early work is that a lot of it focused on poverty, child labor, the exploitation of women, and labor legislation. and so her first work appeared in -- on the cover of "the suffragist" in june of 1914. from then on there was no looking back. she did more than 150 cartoons for the pages of "the suffragist" for more than 30 years. they appeared almost weekly. like most political cartoons today they were commentary onion going political issues. they were the news of the week with great attention to how that news impacted or was influenced by what was happening in the suffrage movement. so here's one of her early works. this is one of my favorite pieces, actually, in the museum. this is called "the inspiration of the suffrage workers." you can see how she's commenting on a lot of different ideas in this piece. she's talking about the importance of the vote as a way of changing the condition of women. you see the woman holding her child and her other little girl is standing -- sitting in the street playing with a cat. and there's trash surrounding her. and this is obviously in an impoverished area. so allender, especially in these early pieces, was commenting on how the vote would change the ability for women to earn their own wages, protect their children, and move up in society in a way that not having the right to vote or any voice in the laws that were being made would allow them to do. now we're going to make our way into the gallery. . in this our collection today we have 170 of allender's original works. one of the only known collections of her works in in the country. as far as i know, no other museum has any other of her paintings or any of other other works, either. so beginning in 1914, as i said, she was doing a lot of work on the condition of women. but as the suffrage movement progressed and as the national woman's party's activism increased, they began a strategy that they called holding the party in power responsible. and at that time that was the democratic party led by president woodrow wilson. so allender's work often pinpointed symbols of the democratic party and, more importantly, the main symbol of the democratic party which was the president. in this piece here, allender -- this is called "fairy godmother wilson." it was published on the cover of "the sufficieragissuffragist" o fairytale "cinderella" to make commentary about the power wilson wielded over the improvement and condition of women and over the laws of the country as well. so president wilson is playing fairy godmother. this woman is cinderella. and in between you see the pumpkin as the constitutional amendment and the mice as the senate and the house. and president wilson is casting a spell to make it possible for her to use the amendment to use her constitutional amendment to vote for the people who represent her. so a lot of commentary about president wilson's power. and just as an aside here in the background and in the mirror you see the proud voting sisters. and this was indicating the fact that women in western states actually many western states at that point had the right to vote at that time. so the national women's party would ultimately start pinpointing those women to help vote as a block and vote the democratic party out of office. the title of this cartoon is lest we forget. and one of the things that is important to note about the national women's party in general and then certainly the way in which allender's work reflected this idea is that the national women's party always paid tribute to the women who were considered mothers of the suffrage movement. and that included in particular susan b. anthony. this cartoon is featuring a line of women paying tribute to susan b. anthony who died before the federal suffrage amendment was passed but who actually introduced the original suffrage amendment in 1875. so you see women and children. you can see women who were college graduates in here. you see this little tag here. it says voter. and that's indicating western women voters who had the right to vote. and then up here you see a lone woman walking up the steps of the capital, up to the capitol and that date 1875 when susan b. anthony first introduced that amendment. so 1875 to 1915. and the intent of this is to demonstrate how far we've come, but how long we still have to go. and this was fairly common for the national women's party. and for allender also to pay tribute to these original suffragists. and all of the work and progress that women have made, but also reminding their members how far they still have to go. and now let's go over to this cartoon.