tv Consider This Al Jazeera September 12, 2014 1:00am-2:01am EDT
you have seen tonight, log on to our website, aljazeera.com/america tonight. and join the conversation with us on twitter, or at our facebook page, good night, we will see you again. 13 years after 9/11 news that the islamic state terrorist group may have tripled in size in three months. the son of a hamas founder who switched sides to spy on the group for a decade joins us with the israeli intelligent agent who risked everything to keep him alive. i'm antonio mora, welcome to "consider this". those scorize and more straight ahead. .
>> it's now been 13 years... >>..since the worst terrorist attack on american soil. >> we can't erase everything in the world. >> president obama is seeking support at home and abroad to dismantle and destroy the islamic state group. >> what the president proposed can destroy i.s.i.s. >> an f-16 is not a strategy. >> 17 new monuments. >> it shows stonehenge is not alone and never was. >> oscar pistorius not guilty of premeditated murder. >> the state clearly has not proved beyond a reasonably doubt... >>..that he planned and plotted the murder ahead of time. >> to collaborate with israel is the most shameful thing. >> we needed to make him betray his own people. >> my father was the top hamas leader in the west bank. he had no clue what i was going
we begin with concerns over america's security on a day we remember the 3,000 victims of the 9/11 attacks. today president obama announced a stepped up campaign to destroy the islamic state group, the terrorists with more than 31,000 fighters, more than the 10,000 it was believed to have a few months ago. in saudi arabia secretary of state john kerry announced he put together a coalition of 10 arab states to fight i.s. turkey, with borders with syria and iraq, where they seized large amounts of territory, refused to fight the terrorists. turkey will not allow them to use bases as sites. they ramped up on the anniversary for the possibility of new threats. >> in new york we are focussed on the issue of terrorism the the concern about i.s.i.s. is doing.
relatives and friends of 9/11 victims gathered at memorials in new york and pennsylvania to read the names of loved ones lost on this day. in washington, to hear the president praise the country for its resilresilience. >> richard edward bosscow, and my brother and best friend, sal junior. >> my mother. [ bell tolls ] >> 13 years after a small and hateful minds conspired to break us, america stands tall and america stands proud. guided by the values that stronger. for more on the state of our homeland security on the 13th
anniversary, i'm joined by thomas kain, former governor, and co-share of the bipartisan commission. it's a pleasure to see you, thank you for coming in. >> thank you for having me. >> how far have we come to secure america since the 9/11 attacks. you guys came out with a 10th anniversary report and you said that the world as more dangerous in recent years. 43% more terrorist attacks, stay the state department, than the year before. polls show the american people think we are less safe now. so why do we not hear that from the white house? today? >> first of all, i think we are safer. not as safe as we should be, but we are safer, and a number of recommendations have been implemented, that's a reason. the fbi and the c.i.a. talk to each other and share in fact. if they shared information before 9/11, perhaps there wouldn't be an inch, because
there's information that could have caught a couple of hijackers. a number of things have been reformed, but it's a new threat now. it's changed, it's not the same threat. it's not people plotting in afghanistan for three years to do a major attack in the united states. it's lone wolf terrorists, which is something new, here and abroad. it's worried about things like i.s.i.s., where if it's successful, people are able to train for 2-3 years and create another major attack. it's the fact that it's diversified and al qaeda moved into a number of different countries, is not centered in afghanistan or pakistan. there's cyber security, which is something we didn't worry about 10 years ago. now it's a major threat. >> it's a new threat. >> i want to address most of them, if not all of them in the next few minutes, when you released the 10th anniversary
report, you are concerned that complacency is setting in, with a waning sense of combatting terrorists. that may have changed. let's listen to something that president obama had to say last night. >> we continue to face a terrorist threat. we can't erase every trace of evil from the world, and small groups of killers have the capacity to do great harm. that was of the case before 9/11 and is true today. >> again, that's a point you made. do you think that the rise of this islamic state terrorist group has woken us up again? >> to some extent. though i don't worry about a threat from them to the homeland. maybe in a couple of years, but i worry more al qaeda threats now, who may have been plotting already. but it's different and it's changed, and we said in our 9/11
report that if iraq became a failed state, it went to the top of the list. we said in that report that we must never again give any group a place that is safe, and a time to plot another attack, the severity of 9/11. >> that was a key lesson highlighted in the report. >> that's right. >> that no terror sanctuaries should be allowed to exist, given the territory that the group is controlling. don't we have that effect? >> it took three our four years to plot 9/11, by the time you trained the hijackers, raised the weaponry. it will take that long for a major attack. doesn't mean lone wolf attacks will not happen. i think if we degrade i.s.i.s., and can allow people to plot. we are better off. the reason we worry about american people not focussing on terrorism as much as they used
to, they were the ones that discover the attack. i don't think an fbi or c.i.a. ate, it will be someone like you or i that will see something and report it. if you remember on times square, when there was a bomber, more policeman put foot in times square than any other site in the world, but it wasn't a policeman, it was a street it. >> in a way, isn't that alarming given the attention you paid in the report to intelligence agencies not talking to each other. by the time we started hearing about the islamic state, they had really already established substantially. ut told the hill that it seems to me if we had warning, it wasn't made public.
these guys had taken obvious a large chunk of syria. they took over fallujah in the heart of iraq in january. again, how did this happen. one of two things - it was an intelligence failure, and it's hard to believe we could miss something that large. or there were reports internally, and people in the disagrees didn't act on those reports, because they didn't take them seriously. i don't have access. i don't know which it was. >> that brings up the infamous junior farce itty comment that president obama made about the islamic state terrorists in january. that raises that issue, whether we took them seriously or not. >> unless i see classified documents, i couldn't say, i'm reluctant to pay intelligence agencies. i report the men and women that work there. >> they do tremendous work.
the question is are we handicapping them. that is another thing we wrote about, the need to streamline the political process of oversight. there's about 100 committees and subcommittees on capitol hill with a level of oversight over the department of homeland security, it's incredible to believe any agency could work. >> if you had 94 bosses, trying to tell you what to do, who do you listen to. that's the homeland security department. two republicans, two democrats ran that department. every one said to me the most important thing you can do to get the american people safer now, as far as homeland security goes is to reform congressional oversight. they spend so much of their time preparing testimony, giving
testimony to all this huge range of committees, but they are not spending time that they should be spending worried about the safety. >> we can bring the blame to the white house and put blame on congress. they have, among the many committees and subcommittees, ones that get reports, and they must have gotten the reports about the growth of the islamic state terrorists. they didn't act either. >> no, and you have got to have oversight that's functional because in other committees, in terms of agriculture and other education, you can go as a reporter, listen to the testimony, make up your own mind and report to the people about what is going on. intelligence is secret, you can't do that. the only oversight is congress. if they are not doing the oversight properly, there's no other step. that was a problem before 9/11, and in whomland security it's
a -- homeland security, it's a problem now. >> you brought up cyber security and wrote a piece with your coe chair, hamilton, in the "wall street journal," and it came out on thursday. it's called "we are at war in the digital world", and you wrote: we have heard about china, and how they tried to penetrate all sorts of american companies and the defense apparatus, we heard of former national security agency heads say that the transfer of wealth that occurred because of industrial and government secrets taken away, it's the greatest transfer of wealth in history. this is all over the world. the most striking thing you said in the article is we cannot
afford to have a digital 9/11 that wakes us up. >> one of the heads of the intelligence agencies said to me a couple of months ago, he said in cyber it's like a day before 9/11, we are not prepared tore doing anything. huge i am not sure of private sector ingenuity are stolen, defense departments taken, and it's done quietly, and the people don't like to admit they are gone. information. >> exactly, yet no bill has been passed in congress. the administration has not got its act together. the n.s.a. has a lot of expertise, but we need to get the n.s.a. and private sector together to come up with a strategy to stop this. >> got to say, you ge depressed. >> i do that with people. >> i do want to end with a question, the 28 famous pages that were blanked, redacted from
the 9/11 report. why have we yet to see this? we have heard from both sides of the aisle that there's really nothing in there that should be classified, there's no national security secrets that will be released and it raises questions about security theories, and what we believe is in there is the saudi expect to 9/11, and the financing involved with the terrorists. why aren't we seeing thx. >> i've read them, of course, and, one, they are out of date. the things in the report correct the 28 pages. there's no reason the american people should see them. we have a vent for oversecuring things, classifying things that nef should be classified -- never should be classified. the overview with president, vice president is classified. they should be open to the american people. including the 28 pages. some are wrong, because it was a
hurried rushed report that has been corrected. release them, point out where they are wrong, let the american people see them, otherwise you are right, there's a distrust in the government and that's not help first of all. >> governor mccain, it's been a pleasure to see you. a key finding of the 9/11 commission was that officials and intelligence agencies suffered from a failure of mag nation -- imagine in my submission, unable to grasp the threat posed. joining us now is christopher dicky, the foreign editor o "the daily beast", who wrote a recent piece. you wrote before 9/11 we couldn't imagine guys with box cutters could kill 3,000 americans. you say too that we failed to see that this group that had,
you know, controlled parts of syria would overrun iraq in a short period of time. >> we were working on the assumption that basically this group that was originally called al qaeda had been destroyed or neutralized, compressed, was defeated. that's what the surge did in 2007, 2008. >> we killed za cow which. >> we were in a situation where we said we have run, we have triumphed over the group and write them off. then they go to syria, and regroup. and take advantage of the group. but it's a few months since president obama called them the junior varsity. we didn't imagine, not on the basis of intelligence or some that indicated it, was ta this group could -- was that this group could move down and take over the second busiest city in iraq. >> we spent billions, if not
trillions, fighting terrorists. better? >> there's a bunch of reasons. we tend to dismiss the people as crazy, or we thing that they are thinking just like us, and operate like us that may be a bigger problem. they are a little like start-ups against a big corporation, eastman-kodak - quick to move and reorientate and see where opportunities lie, and don't have a lot of infrastructure, at least not until recently. if you look at the department of homeland security, 220,000 employees, 22 agents that. >> and congressional... >> exactly. all that makes for an ossified bureaucracy that is slow to move. that's just homend security.
what about the defense department and the c.i.a., they cannot cope with the fast-moving imaginative groups. >> you mentioned the junior varsity comment, and we go back to jan when president obama said that. at that point controlling big parts of syria and oil fields and has revenues, it came down through iraq, to the heart of iraq and took fallujah. at what point is it a crisis of imagination? when does it become denial. none so blind as one that does not see. >> there's a lot of that. if the american political point of view there's the question of what can you do about it. the americans now the nouri al-maliki government was a disaster, but didn't know how to get rid of it. we were in a situation where obama didn't want to lock himself into a situation saying this is the biggest threat we have seen for a long time, and not be able to do anything about
it. one thing that is disingenuous is talk about what could have been done and should have been tonne si. months -- should have been tonne six months ago. do you think the american people would have been ready six months ago? >> i don't think so. >> after words about it being the biggest threat. and you write about the flipside of this, whether there's excessive alarmism, and you quote former general john allen, the head of forces in afghanistan saying in this could be world war iii, and you talk about terrorism expert saying this is shock and awe in reverse. do you think we are being alarmist about these guys? >> we are not being alarmist if we think there's a possibility that they will, in the future, try to carry out terrorist acts in europe and in the united states. we are not being alarmist if we look at the terrorist acts and
say they don't have to be 9/11 to have huge shock waves in american society. >> as you know a coalition is a big part of what the president is saying, that we will not put our own troops there, we need governments from that area being involved. you said that turkey is the key. if turkey is the key, the coalition has gone up in smoke, because it will not allow u.s. forces to stage attacks on bases in turkey. >> there's a problem. one thing you have to realise is the sunni world is divided. this is not sunni versus shia, radicals versus the united states. qatar versus saudi arabia, and turkey verses the emirates, and egypt siding with the saudis, when we talk about pulling together a coalition against i.s.i.s., how long does it last. >> 10 of them are saying they'll talk to each other.
the problem is a big border with syria. and a second-largest army is a crucial thing. >> it's a border with i.s.i.s. you can stand some of your own reports itself. >> that's the question, whether i.s.i.s. has gone back and forth. before you go, something else you address in "the daily beast", the issue of the legality of the action. what do you think? >> if you read the september 2001 authorisation of ummf. >> specifically about al qaeda. >> it's more specific than that. >> it talks about people involved with the attacks on 9/11. it's hard to make the case that that authorisation extends to i.s. >> what do you think they'll do? will congress vote, will politics get in the way. >> politics is in the way, but president obama will be wise to go congress. at this moment, maybe tomorrow,
not next week, if he moves right. he may get the momentum. >> thank you, it's always great for your perspective. >> now for more stories from around the world. >> we begin in the golan heights on the border between israel and syria where an al qaeda affiliate released 45 u.n. peace keepers from fiji. the al-nusra front kidnapped the peacekeepers two weeks ago, demanded ransom in the form of aid, release of prisoners and the removal of the group from a black list. none of the demands were met, but after consulting with religious leaders it decided to release the prisoners. >> nest the ongoing -- next to the ongoing struggle in the ukraine. a new round of sanctions for russian.
there'll be a prohibition of supplies loans for five russian banks, preez freezing assets of 24 russian connected to vladimir putin. details will be announce the friday. president obama said they'll target russia's financial energy and defense sectors. the sanctions could be rolled back if putin holds to the current ceasefire agreement with ukraine. it will respond with sanctions of its open, says vladimir putin. we end in south africa, where oscar pistorius was cleared of two murder charges in the shooting of his girlfriend reeva steenkamp, a model. oscar pistorius fired four shots through a closed bathroom door killing reeva steenkamp. he claims he thought she was an intruder. the defense called the evidence sir cum stan shall.
oscar pistorius was sobbing, but he still could face manslaughter training. could president obama's pledge of no boots on the ground hold up. we talk to those that governed iraq after saddam hussein fell. the son of a founder of hamas that turned his back on extremism and spied for israel. he joins us, with the israeli intelligence agent who risked everything to save him. harmeli aregawi is tracking the top story on the web. what is trending. >> we look at the reaction on 9/11, including an insiders detailed account. while you are watching, let us know what you think:
>> they brutally murder innocent people, including two americans who they beheaded for the world to see in recent weeks. their barr bar itty nose no stopped. >> and while house speaker john boehner says president obama made a compelling action against the terrorists, many republicans want aggressive action. >> i support the president's plan to train and equip security forces. i remain concerned that they could take years to implement at a time when i.s.i.s.'s momentum and gains must be halted and reversed immediately. we stand ready to work with the president, to put in place a plan that would destroy and defeat i.s.i.l. >> we are joined from our studio in washington d.c. by ambassador paul bremer.
former ambassador to iraq, and chairman for the bipartisan commission of terrorism. good to have you back on the show. you heard the speaker talking about syria, the syria government reacted saying u.s. air strikes would be an act of aggression unless approved by the damascus government. of course, this is this those strikes against i.s. if we destroy the terrorists, al-assad. >> first, let's take a step back. i think the president deserves credit for taking a tough decision. to me, the question is did he take the tough decision because the floor was falling out from under him on his week foreign policy and support. did he take it for political reasons, or did he take it because he believes and is truly committed to destroying objective.
>> i don't think we know the answer to that yet. part of it will be answered by this question of how he implements it. >> i don't - obviously there'll be danger for using - for going across with air strikes into syrian territory, it's an example - a textbook example that delaying hard decisions leaves you with harder decisions later. three years ago, many of us called for the president to take out asaad's air force, so that there were a lot more of them. he didn't do that. now there is an air force there. i think he's capable of handling that, but it will be dangerous for the pilots. >> the president made a leap of faith, he's talking about arming the syrian opposition, after
announced would be a fantasy. here we have an image showing how little difference a year makes. last year the headline was "obwr states case for serious strike", this year it "obama ready to target militants in syria." what has led to the rise of the islamic state terrorists. >> there's three time checks. three years ago when he should have at the start, after saying bashar al-assad must go, that's remains his policy, he should have taken out the air force. a year ago, after the syrians were shown to use weapons, and eight months ago intelligence people were telling him the growth of i.s.i.l., the terrorists, were significant.
three opportunities were missed, and harder today to deal with the syrian problem, and what is the syrian-iraqi problem of a year ago, three years ago. >> you were there at the time when an iraqi government was starting to be created in the aftermath of saddam hussein. that iraqi government was sectarian, purging sunnis from the iraqi military forces. how important will it be now if the new unity government that is almost put together, you know, how important will it be for that government to get sunnis to support whatever action we take? >> approximately be important. there are good signs. there are signs six of the major tribes in anbar province, in the west have been working alongside reconstituted iraqi army units,
and supported by mostly iraqi air force attacks, in anbar. the governor of anbar, whose, of course, from a major sunni tribe wrote in "the washington post" a week ago that we have a common interest in ridding the world of this cancer, of the i.s.i.s. so it is important to get them. it isn't a 2 foot put, but i think the new government, once in place, and assuming it can sort out the last few administer earial posts - i think we'll find an opening to work with the sunni trips. these - secretary of state john kerry is right, i.s. are marauders, extreme muslims. they don't have appeal in iraq. maybe 1% of the iraqi people support them, if that. >> but
marauders with a lot of arms and territory. the question is will the coalition of forces be able to fight in iraq and syria against - without american troops being there. as you know, the president repeated there'll be no american troops on the ground, that this is a counter terrorism action like seep in yemen -- seen in yemen and somalia. this is what senator mccain had doing. >> they are in a combat situation. to say they are not is untrue. >> when i heard former governor and head of homeland security, tom ridge, say that american troops will not wear sneakers, they are wearing boots, are they going to be out in the field with the iraqi troops, will they be in combat. >> i hope so. i think it was a mistake to say that. it's never good to signal to the enemy what your limits are, and it boxes the president in.
because sooner or later we'll have combat forces there, special operators, forward air controllers for the air strikes and trainers, intelligence personal, and the intelligence people can be civilians. i think sooner or later we'll have combat forces on the ground in iraq. >> thank you ambassador. good to have you back, and thank you tore yore insight on -- for your insight on this. 13 years ago, social media is nowhere near what it is today. harmeli aregawi with more. >> president obama's secretary gave us a glimpse of what it might be like if social media was around. around 9am the president was getting ready to talk about what they thought was an accident. after the second tower, it looked more like a terrorist attack, tweeting:
he recounts almost the day's ending: . >> for more, check out the timeline on twitter. it was a cool concept and got a lot of attention. >> interesting. i suspect no one would have had day. ahead - the son of a founding member of hamas who satisfied, and the israeli intelligence agent that put his life on the line. >> later - a subterranean stone hen g, hundreds of discoveries >> a new episode of the ground breaking series, edge of eighteen >> just because your pregnant don't mean your life's ended. >> intense pressure... >> i don't know if this whole dance thing will work out. >> tough realities... >> we chicago ch-iraq, because we have more killings... >> life changing moments...
>> a crisis on the border >> they're vulnerable these are refugees. >> migrant kids flooding into the us. >> we're gonna go and see who's has just been deported. >> why are so many children fleeing? >> your children will be part of my group... >> fault lines, al jazeera america's hard hitting... >> there blocking the door... >> ground breaking... >> truth seeking... >> we have to get out of here... award winning investigative documentary series... no refuge: children at the border only on al jazeera america the recent fighting in gaza killed 2100 palestinians, and more than 70 israelis.
israel and hamas are abiding by a ceasefire, but uneasy alliances on both sides constantly threatened the peace. at age 17, the son of a founder of hamas was on his wilife of extremism. after being arrested me did the unthinkable - becoming a spy for the israeli security agency, providing information on hamas for a decade. his story was the subject of his book "son of hamas" and a documentary "the green prince", a story of an unusual alliance. >> movie reel: my father was the top hamas leader in the west bank. he had no clue what i was doing. >> it was like court ght the son of the israeli prime minister. >> deep in my heart i was terrified. >> a good source needs to be with you.
>> you are a target and can be killed any time. >> i felt responsible. as a source and a human being. >> i was on my own. >> he was real. >> i thought people are dying because of this lie. >> we are joined by the man who turned against hamas, and by his handler, from the intelligence agency. the film, the green prince is playing in select cities and will open in more cities over the coming weeks. it's good to have you both was. >> thank you. . >> quite a story you both have, yours is amazing. you are already under surveillance by the israelis, once you became a teenager. and the israelis put you in a gaol. what was your reaction, and when
did you finally say "i do have to work with them?" >> when i witnessed the brutality of the hamas movement in prison, i raised the question of the movement. >> you were in an israeli prison, but a section was controlled by hamas. >> yes. inside the israeli prison, hamas controlled their own prisoners, and another rival faction, fatah, controlled their own members. so hamas, basically, was investigating their own members who give information to israel, and thought to have killed israel. >> now i ask is the movement that my father is risking his life to found, and we, as a family, suffered a lot for the sake of that organization, and this is where i question the nature of hamas, leading to me
not working for israel, working with israel to stop madness. >> and you say in the movie. that this is the worst thing, worse than raping your mother for a hamas member. >> it's shameful. that is based on shame and honour, not like in the west. everything is based on wrong and write. i knew it was a simple thing, it was the rights thing, in my opinion, to save a human life. how could you go wrong by saving a human life. that was my compass, my conscience. >> how did you feel when you talked to him. you were his handler from day one, did you see the moral compass he had. >> yes, i saw the moral compass. it was a process that evolved
over the years. and we learned each other, you saw how the agency is treating him and others, and we saw how he treats them, and what information he brings. he was not the only one walking and having this kind of moral compass, knowing that he stopped killings. >> he may have been the important spy you had, and bringing you tremendously important information. >> the most important, understanding that they gave israel, that they told hamas is something they hadn't imagined. >> you went to incredible lengths to make sure perez was not discovered. it's difficult to believe he was unable to do so. house. >> people think in the west bank
that israel is using people. we do a lot, and put a lot of effort in keeping the safety of the people that work with us. what you mention, we try to arrest, the israeli army did not know that he was working was. they knew they would arrest a big terrorist. getting him, they targeted his house. >> at the same time he was hiding in a different place, and we kept him safe. cover. >> and when i said this was unusual, that was no understatement. your father is a founder of hamas. your dad was a general in the israeli army. connection. >> not
immediately. later when we evaluated and understood what happened, we think about all the circumstances that brought us together, because even for us it's amazing. i came from where my father was in charge. west bank, doing the first intea fadda, and he fought hamas, and the guy that founded hamas is the father. but our friendship esolved circumstances. >> i want to get to the apparent part of the friendship in a minute. i do want to ask you - you talked about the shame of collaborating with israel. you, i am sure, sou the pictures of -- saw the pictures of hamas operatives killing people in the streets of gaza. did you think as you saw that, that could have been me? >> i did not think this way. i felt sorry for the people who
were killed, because it reminded me of what was happening in the present. back in 1996, during my imprisonment, this is what hamas was doing to people to intimidate everyone. i think that they still use the same strategy to intimidate an entire society, that anyone that goes against the will of the most will be executed. the execution took place outside of a mosque in a public. children witnessed that, women witnessed that. that is their strategy, does not freedom. >> your bravery is incredible. you have been disarmed by your dad and must live under some level of threat. he comes to the united states, and because of his connection to hamas, they don't want to give him asylum. at this point you decide, "i don't care, i'm coming to the
united states and speaking out in his favour." >> we don't leave a soldier behind, a soldier of humanity, a soldiers fighting to stop the killing. i couldn't let him meet his destiny out meeting him. i didn't have a choice. i needed to do it. it was something my heart told me to do. this is why i came to the united states to testify for him. >> you guys called each other brothers, it's a pleasure to see you. one can only hope more palestinians and israelis can future. >> the green prince is open in select cities and will open in more cities in the coming weeks. coming up, the mysteries of stonehenge, a major discovery may make us change the way we look at one of the world's greatest wonder.
>> an astonishing america tonight investigative report >> why are you wearing gloves? >> ocd... taking over this woman's life... >> i don't wanna touch anything... >> now a controversial surgery can literally reprogram her mind >> we can modify emotional circuitry >> is this a miracle cure? or an ethical nightmare? >> there's a lot of mystery right now... >> rewiring the brain an america tonight investigative report only on al jazeera america
today's data dive gets sick. a study confirms your office can be a hot bed of germs - that they are spread quickly through your hands, not sneezes. researches place samples of a non-harmful virus on commonly touched items like door knobs and table tops. within a few hours, the virus spread to 40-60% of other surfaces, from light switches to phones. office break rooms are a major hot spot. if someone is contagious grabs the door on the microwave or the refrigerator, can spread to others that touch the surfaces. for example, the person that makes the first cup at the communal coffee pot, speaks up 30-40% of the substances on the surface. norro viruses are spread this
way, and are a cause of acute gastero viruses. leading to 21 illnesses. 800 deaths. researchers say you can cut the risk of getting sick by 99% by using wipes. >> weekday mornings on al jazeera america >> start your day with in depth coverage from across the country and around the world. >> the future looks uncertain... >> real news keeping you up to date. >> an informed look on the night's events, a smarter start to your day. mornings on al jazeera america
let the journalists live. you might thing the most exciting news about stonehenge in the 20th century was president obama's visit to the site last week. a 4-year study by the university of birmingham found hundreds of features, including 17 unknown monuments buried beneath the foursquare miles, rewriting the book of what we thought we knew about the famous prehistoric monument. joining us now, author of several archeology books,
professor of antropology from santa barba. great to have you with us. this was a big high tech endeavour, researchers used all sorts of instruments, ground penetrating behaviour, scanners. they discovered 17 new monuments, dozens of burial pits, and 100 foot long wooden building that is believed to have been used for burial rituals. how is this so completely stonehenge? >> archeology has changed radically in the last 20 years. for a lodge, long time people looked at stonehenge and excavated there as a stone circle, a series of circles. research goes back to the 17th century, but with this remote sensing technology looking under the grouped, we realised that
stonehenge was part of an enormous sacred landscape. this is the exciting thing. we are looking at the country, at the sites around it, and the exciting. >> again, as you said, people have been studying stonehenge for centuries, and projects in the 17th sent jury, 1620, and with all the digging around the area, why had none of these features been found? >> very simply because we couldn't do it. we are now in an amazing period in archeology. where, for example, there's the town of a burial of an archer near stonehenge, studying the bones we know he came from europe. 10 years ago we couldn't do it. 10 years ago we couldn't look under the ground. people did their best.
>> what does this tell you about the people that built the monument. the prevailing theory was people visited for sacred purposes, now place. >> it's a landscape. you have to think of stonehenge and the landscape in the context of something like westminster abbey, as places that were sacred for hundreds of years and changed and modified. the way you have to think about the landscape is small numbers of farmers lived there, and occasionally larger numbers of people came to celebrate rituals, and the landscape changed over many, many, centuries to accommodate changing beliefs. >> we'll talk about the rituals. the timber building is believed to have been the site of bizarre burial rituals. how do we know that is what was going on there?
>> they are making an informed guess at this point. what they'll now do. they located the timbers, studied the dimensions, and they will excavate it in the next few years. it looks like other building elsewhere, which are large timber structures standing by themselves. what would happen is you would die, and the people believed you'd become an ancess tore. what they did was expose your body in the charnal house, let the bones be exposed and the flesh decompose and then they'd gather them up and bury them in the soil. in a way, as a dead person, you returned to the soil and ball a revered ancestor. they were big here. >> a now find nearby was a line of 60 stone
pillars, making a superhen j. any clues as to how the ancient builders built the monument. it's interesting. there's a lot of research on to stonehenge, which is massive. and the other side, which is brilliantly dug by michael, a british archeologists, they have stones now, and the question comes forward again. basically these people, farmers - there was nothing they didn't know about using leavers and weights to move things. no hydraulics. they use leavers, weights, slopes and slide. >> even for the enormous stones, it's incredible. is there a chance we'll get to see what is understand ground any time soon. >> that is a difficult question. what they have done, and it's amazing how fast they have done it.
they exposed in electronic terms a landscape. to dig a site would take weeks, months, and enormous sums of money. you are looking at a long term explanation of the landscape and burial grounds. this will cost a lot of money and take time. i guarantee you in 50 years our understanding of stonehenge will be gimpt, much more refined than it is today. this is an exciting generations. >> it will be fascinating. thank you for guiding us through these first steps of that exploration. pleasure to have you with us. coming up friday - is the u.s. campaign on the islamic state what the i.s. wants. the take that says this is a big goal of osama bin laden's from years ago. also - a fresh take on one of
america's treasured family, the roosevelt roosevel roosevelts, and the conversation continues on facebook, google+ ♪ the islamic state group rakes in millions of dollars from a black market oil racket, i'll tell you how america could put the squeeze on it. also america is getting ready to drop the hammer on russia's hunt for oil. i'll tell you how some american companies could feel the impact. plus the great middle class migration, i'm going to tell you what has millions of american families on the move. "real money." ♪