tv Innovate Africa 2014 Ep 6 Al Jazeera March 4, 2018 1:32am-2:01am +03
ability for friday's attacks on an army headquarters and french embassy in neighboring kenya fast eight people were killed in the attacks which the country's prime minister has described revolting security forces killed eight of the attackers. at least seventy nine people have died in the latest into ethnic violence in the democratic republic of congo dozens of people were killed in the village of mazar i on friday evening and more attacks have been reported in street in there by villages on saturday more than two hundred thousand people have fled the area in recent months to escape the violence bahrain says it's arrested one hundred sixty members of what it calls a terrorist network set up and funded by iran's revolutionary guard which is broadcast on bahraini t.v. allegedly show weapons ammunition and explosives to be used in attacks on the government and security forces are trained sonny led government regularly accuses
iran of supporting groups inside the shia majority country which iran. i'm french police are confronting environmentalist's who are protesting plans to store nuclear waste in a small town in the east of the country the protesters are angry about proposals to bury the waste. say with us innovate africa's next. we understand the differences and the similarities of cultures across the world. so no matter where you call home al-jazeera will bring in the news and current opinions that matter to. al-jazeera. this is innovate africa a series highlighting innovation and creativity across a continent that is on the rise. today on innovate africa african scientists using satellite technology to map the future. for south is i'm
a chronic no one who has information about two countries the question is how the african physicist invents the world's first digital laser so what we want to do is come up with that mystic tools for aids hiv but that effort to make space. and a new technology to bring low cost internet to the remotest parts of the continent . across africa science and technology are playing digital roles in our development in today's program we meet african scientists who off august striking the continent's future i visited the south african national space agency to find out how looking into the stars is helping improve life in africa.
africa has become an increasingly complex network of i.c.t. systems space science and satellite technology is no bunkering new frontier. devices navigation systems radio and television signals internet connectivity and even designs the management. facilitated by thousands of satellites orbiting the. space science is now a critical pursuit for african countries. with an increasing dependence on space based technology. with the mobile explosion across africa space will be providing solutions to the continent's growing i.c.t. needs. and south africa is leading the african space race.
the south african department of science and technology has said space science as one of the family grand challenges for the country in the a ten year innovation plan. in order to facilitate this center the south african national space agency has been formed dr jane hall which is the managing director of the science earth observation unit quite excited about this whole experience i'm personally a fan of space from the days of star trek and all of that but there's some people who would say why are we spending money on space technology when we have bigger problems in africa. today the biggest challenge about space when people still think about space technology is very expensive. and wars and they say these are more urgent but actually not the course best accord is meant for both countries at the experiencing disasters that we experience. the one
who has information actually a quarter of the future. centers earth observation unit collect and assimilate data transmitted from satellites. here the satellite imagery is interpreted and used to support policymakers human settlement issues agricultural development and disaster management and to food i was told you are the right leader to see when it comes to exactly how we apply the satellite imagery so what exactly is going on here we're looking at a satellite image here but five so it gives. what is. painting on the earth has surfaced from space and we are able to acquire information over a larger area compared to what you will know molly see when you walking down the street or when you're driving and then we can do and so our news is mostly
government departments so what we do we analyze the images and converted into information that they can use for example if we're looking at human settlement we can more need to be. there it who each hour of been is growing on this particular image all these settlements that way they in two thousand and six and over here this image was taken in twenty three there's been a massive development that. was developed between two thousand and six and twentieth if it's not money tied or managed it can have a negative impact on the infrastructure like demand of services can be higher than this but also it can also have negative impact on the environment on the other parts of our for good that we're monitoring in the same way the images the choir here it's center we we don't just. from the creator coming
down to south africa so that the information we share with the countries. images of africa transmitted from satellites can also help to assist zones on the continent we don't access to electricity it's easy to spot areas without lights from the sky. apart from human settlement and resource analysis satellite imagery has several critical applications for africa pollution particularly in bodies of water can be quickly identified using different wavelengths. have one so the minute that we have different color it shows that there is a program pollutants and the overgrowth of organic matter can seriously affect the safety of africa's valuable water sources by spotting these contaminants quickly
alerts can be sent out and the pollutants contained or removed if we acquire this image today and then we have another image maybe end of demand we can see ways they are moving then they can also see where they need to concentrate on large scale disaster management is also one of the key complications of satellite imagery in africa. areas prone to flooding stand to benefit hugely from space science. this is an image of mozambique this is chokri village that was taken before the flood and after the flood with the satellite imagery we were able to see the areas where fictive by flood all the purple. that was during the flood and that agricultural. area subsistence farming it's all flooded so that cooler also affect our food security with such
information we are able to model in terms of. going to be affected by flags if we have similary so in so doing then we will be able to plan better than local authorities who will be able to place people approve development in areas which are safe would you say that africa's future in the stars space provides as with cup abilities. to be yesterday and planned for tomorrow. it isn't only africa's weather conditions that can be tracked by satellites is also host to the only space weather regional warning center on the continent. here the scientists monitor the sun its activity and its impact on space weather space weather is the term for the conditions
experienced between the earth and sun. the sun so we monitor the different wavelengths. of the sun in different colors you want to see the print of the sun if. it is not quite. get some. sort of. particles. it came out that some of our technology is so little flares can have devastating effects on the continents communication systems electricity supply and even satellites themselves by predicting. scientists can send out early warnings to deactivate certain grids and systems until the flare has passed. maybe regions which we're interested in looking at on the sun in the spread of the sun which only has that x. explosion hoping and they spread it all over the call it to the region if we see
any change in all these missions then we know that it's good to have an effect although if. so how much of the information that we get it is given to other african countries well recognize that space is found on soul and especially astonishing you are saying yet one more reason why it's important to spend money on space technology because it is important for countries to be or otherwise you are just been fishing what are the countries for example when you have information about areas for our culture which crops to plant where and when quantrill food prices and that information is critical to space this hour is i think around the fact that.
although africa has gone digital with mobile devices and internet connectivity wiring the continent to a global i.c.t. net twenty getting connectivity to remote african areas is still a challenge. rough terrain and lack of interest. often means that the installation of telecom cabling is expensive and in many cases impossible. l'afrique of ben would do the new poor slobby top circuit pressure in africa aren't that ill for. if you brought dick down lead. scientist dr victor may have found a way to bypass conventional connectivity with his patron to the transmission system. which is was it is
a sphere. this. communication system the paramedic fair. in. the p w c system receives a satellite data signal and is then able to disseminate the signal via p w c transmitters over great distances making telecoms cabling unnecessary. most importantly the peter b. c. connection can be provided at a fraction of current cost of systems offering similar satellite connectivity. while satellite broadband connections are available in africa they are far too expensive for most people in countries like senegal. thank you for the has the most expensive broadband access in the world with monthly data packages costing about three times more than on any of the continent. victor has been working on his
innovation in paris where he has been given permission to test the system and it's working well. through. he has brought together a group of african scientists who have funded the research and development themselves they are determined to offer the service to africans at either low or no cost not group when considered you know. good laugh you know. they did it in the boer war l'afrique see dimiss. yeah but the problem got every new. freak do. this you need because the world. victor and his team realized that providing a data connection was not enough as many of the people who stand to benefit most don't have access to computers even electricity. their rollout strategy is to focus
on a school. kid. knows of a dog that tablet so the tablet would be powered by the solar power panels that you have installed into the backpack that every child would have recess an extension of the p w c innovation is a solar powered educational kit called. bringing hardware software data connection and solar power together in about the valid point you need to try. them see. as was a number of people the world may be dispositive because he saw on the look what i love about what you've been able to develop here is that you you were thinking all the time about who you're creating it for. the p w c system has been hailed as revolutionary and victor has had several lucrative offers from both america and europe to buy his page into technology but he has refused to
sell so we've. all moved to look at you know company over. a company who is constantly look man. in the material is it bad let me just tell you this when you would be. standing his ground has meant that victor has been backing to secure noncommercial funding for the peta project for several years. used to paying top dollar some african institutions have been skeptical of its functionality and of question if something so cheap could actually do the job. today could be the day victor convinces them all. after months of negotiations with the senegalese government he finally has permission to pilot the system at schools into cars. dignitaries from across senegal have gathered at this elementary school where victor will demonstrate the re t.
system here for the first time. it was you could it would be so far the other three says well it really is it does sound like you can get and see what everybody was. after initial introductions to the package it's time to demonstrate the functionality of the tate in an actual costume. victor has a lot riding on things at this pilot school going well. or your dream. or book is what is up when we did see some sensi. dark. gray your the. guy you leave.
a lab and pretoria where two physicists are using light to make dramatic advances in the world of science. the ability to harness light and use it in the form of the laser beam has been successfully explored by scientists and technologists. lasers they used in everything from simple barcode scanners to industrial manufacturing and medicine bloodless surgery detection of the legions in the atmosphere protection of cross against heat seeking missiles and even safeguarding structures from lightning strike i just some of the laser applications scientists are exploring. but at the council for science and industrial research here in. toria south africa researches are taking laser science to the next level.
here in this laboratory dr sunderland novel a laser physicist has created the world's first digital laser a brand new invention with the power to compete he changed the field of laser science. so you can think of it as a laser beam that changes all the time to movie kind of plays out because all the time we changing the programs inside lizard generate differently with a conventional laser there's no way to modulators or change the shape of the laser beam itself it can only be projected in one form if multiple shapes are required in order to complete a series of tusks the user must either use many laces each of a different shape or attempt to shape the beam using expensive specialized optical elements every time want to change the shape by a new laser so we can think of this as a way nodded at a huge generator naser that can actually generate different beams and real time to work. with sandal as discovery of the digital laser operators will now be able to
use software and a digital interface to control and change the shape of laser beams this will drastically improve functionality and performance across many industries without the expense of multiple lasers or extra optics so now it makes a whole lives up changing shapes to be very versatile. the digital laser has the potential to revolutionize telecommunications data transmission could be sped up dramatically using the programmable laser to replace conventional optical signal transmission you can never detect on the other end if you're sending this at a shape of his appeal you could present a specific letter most people want to actually take it from is it in their lives. in mind sendhil is laser is now being used to assist in the field of bio photonics the science of using light to manipulate and understand the in the workings of cells and tissues in living organisms. so all of them like that i particularly
fascinated by because then we want to make it makes of self colleague and friend dr patients is currently experimenting with this digital laser in the hopes of streamlining the process of cell sorting. cell sorting is critical to patients as current experiment she's africa's first graduate and doctor of bio photonics. we are using lasers to actually come up with ways of adding different diseases of disorders patients whose main focus is on developing noninvasive treatments for some of africa's most prevalent and life threatening diseases. i think about in the future when we have things like personalized medicine medicines where we can actually take some specimens from your body manipulate them and plant them back in your body that could be very exciting human bodies a made up of trillions of cells. when
a disease like tuberculosis or hiv takes hold the body's cells come under attack. the current treatments for these diseases have no way of distinguishing between infected and healthy cells. the side effects of the medications can often be devastating as both infected and healthy tissue is attacked. patients is working on a way of targeting only infected cells for treatment using laser light. so no need this is where we would cry or preserve us cell culture as we keep them in the good nitrogen this biological cell caution of our tree allows patients and her team to manufacture synthetic tissue models from human cells samples so you stop these cells but you can use them for the experiments with the lasers yes so these you can keep them for ever. these cells are been infected with the disease being studied.
in order to separate infected cells from the healthy ones patients and her team set up laser systems for optical tweezers. i.r. said yes so. i see we have to wear the godel's to keep our eyes safe it's quite nice that they make us look like rock stars as well here so physics this core that it's quite nice this is out of the coach happy and set up ok so what we want to do is eventually come up with that gnostic tools for hiv but that a photonics based and this is weighed all spots optical tweezing allows individual cells to be manipulated you want to be able to directly go to the hiv positive cells and i they get them manipulate them inject them to administer the a.r.v. drugs to them specifically so it's not as toxic for the entire body that's exactly it the c districts across this way or does it so it is possible. to write.
a laser beam is aimed at to sell the cell is drawn to the beams magnetic field and the cell can then be moved individually the scientists can then inject the cell with experimental treatments and watch his progress i'm also just thinking of the fact that what i'm manipulating is tiny and i can even see it with my naked eye but i'm able to control it using the. machine what i meant by science fiction is quite fascinating so we're trying to end the mini all sorts of problems that come with seeking advice there are already we want to make sure that you know we target in the body now no longer in the test tubes or in plates like this in the body and exactly where the virus is and i don't want to lodge a scale this application of laser technology could one day lead to whole body optical trapping devices that could separate the infected and healthy cells in each patient and make sure only the disease cells and tissue is targeted it would be a joy to have such a thing enough to go to make
a huge difference. is there any kind of goal all project or idea that you're looking to in the future that you really want to achieve that you're striving towards if i can have a medical device that has my name to it that would be awesome i have no doubt that it will happen this is. good for this series for go we've showcased creativity that's uniquely african but that's just the beginning for a continent that is brimming with confidence over the next few months will be seeking out more inventive thinkers here on a continent that is on the rise in innovate africa.
march on al-jazeera. with all potential challengers out of the way egypt's president abdel fattah el-sisi is poised for a second term in power. a series of short passes stories that highlight the human triumph against the odds as president putin dominates the russian political scene and his reelection becomes more apparent we assess what direction russia might take . with media trends constantly changing listening post analyzes how the news is being cut it. and as more people around the world struggle to find clean drinking water leaders and researchers gather in brazil to address a critical issue march on al-jazeera true confessions might never be cleaned up
or many but not or a cynical example of communist propaganda and i wanted to put a bad girl on a walk barely out of our enough to do it. in twenty ten al-jazeera access to north korea to investigate the alleged use of biological warfare by the us during the korean war rewind revisits dirty little secrets at this time on al-jazeera. al-jazeera where every year. this is al-jazeera.