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tv   Counting the Cost 2018 Ep 14  Al Jazeera  April 7, 2018 12:32pm-1:01pm +03

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brazil's former president will the silvas expected to hand himself over to police later on saturday to begin his twelve year prison sentence for corruption follows hours some negotiations after he missed a deadline to surrender. the latest parliament was officially dissolved on saturday paving the way for a general election within sixty days and it's said to be a contentious fight between the prime minister najib razak and his former mentor mattera mohammed and she has been plagued by corruption allegations russia's foreign ministry is promising a tough response to new u.s. sanctions targeting president vladimir putin's inner circle his son in law and a friend are among thirty eight people and businesses targeted the u.s. says the measures are in response to moscow's hostile actions former catalan leader carlos courage to manas calling for a dialogue with the spanish government after his release on bail in germany a huge demand has been detained on an international arrest warrant but a german court refused to extradite him back to spain to face
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a charge of rebellion because that is not a crime in germany urged on as wanted by madrid for his role in this a session referendum to split catalonia from spain. at least fourteen people have died when a truck collided with a bus carrying a canadian youth ice hockey team broncos were traveling between towns in saskatchewan for again twenty eight people were on that bus at the time. those are the headlines the news continues keep it here on al-jazeera counting the cost is next. and the different. and the similarities and cultures of the. al-jazeera.
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hello i'm sam is a dan this is counting the cost of al-jazeera your weekly look at the world of business and economics this week pay data from over ten thousand organizations show on average men are paid more than women at most u.k. firms. also this week cleaning up cobalt the first ever attempt to ensure cobalt mined in the d.l.c. is ethical. plus china tells the u.s. president it's prepared to fight the world's biggest economies play a high stakes game of poker on terrorist threats. a big reveal in the u.k. it's got people talking about whether gender matters when it comes to wages well that's because companies are now required to publicly state the difference between what it pays male and female employees the purpose to force employers to look at the barriers facing women in the workplace the gender pay gap isn't about equal pay
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for equal work discrimination in the workforce is already illegal the gender pay gap instead shows the average difference between how men and women are paid across organizations and eight in ten u.k. firms pay men more than women critics say it's a crude measure but the u.k. is one of the first countries in the world to do this the findings raise lots of questions and they've certainly got people talking leave barca has more. it is a long comfortable truth about the society we live in when it comes to pay men and women a far from equal this company employs mostly women it's hoped that by exposing the pay gap it will help empower women in the workplace it's created say notched debate and discussion about pay and about inequality in place it creates a sort of option for people to think again about whether that is discrimination that says perhaps and how that deceiving women and how the findings out of these.
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thousands of british companies employing more than two hundred fifty people have been forced to disclose pay details around eighty percent pay men more than women thirteen percent including the tech giant apple pay women more than just eight percent including big chains such as k.f.c. mcdonald's and starbucks say they have no gap at all. among the worst offenders is the low cost airline ryanair where women make up only three percent of top earners that's excluding most of the company's management to a based in ireland ryanair blames the figures on men mainly filling pilot roles. the construction industry and the financial sector also have large pay gaps the average woman employee at barclays or lloyds bank can expect to be paid more than forty percent less than the average man. there have been some high profile
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pay to speech too with actress claire four who plays queen elizabeth of the netflix series the crown earning less than her male counterpart. the british prime minister's vowed to tackle what she calls the burning injustice of gender inequality only thirty percent of m.p.'s are women we have to deal with those stereotypes about what kind of jobs men and women can do about what leadership looks like why it is that men and women ask for a pay rise just as often as each other but men are four times more likely to get it i know their gender pay gap denies this data is hopefully starting a conversation about how these people are out of touch with passion going on in our country the government says that this isn't simply about naming and shaming companies into paying men and women equal amounts of money it's about kick starting a public discussion to try and make the workplace as representative as the world around us there's no punishment for pay gaps although companies that fail to publish their figures face legal action some politicians argue that without
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a major societal shift hefty fines are the only way of forcing firms to close that gap. well joining us now from manchester is when the olson professor of socio economics and head of the department of social statistics at the university of manchester good to have you with us so what do you think h.r. managers should be telling their female employees today think will be a few of difficult conversations this should be a routine conversation anyway so in h.r. manager should have you know a process where people review their pay regularly at least every year and support people in their pay bargaining what do you say to those who criticize the dothan though and say it's not reliable because it doesn't take into account the differences in jobs between men and women yes it does take that into account because they've taken into they've broken the data into four core tiles so you've got the different sections of that labor market within the firm so they've cleverly found a way to make those managerial jobs in the top core tile comparable across for us
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and then you have the middle range pay jobs and then you have the low pay jobs so if you're a low paid worker it's a very interesting grid to look at i mean if i can just run down for your viewers what the actual regulations say you've got to give the mean pay in each of those core tiles and the then give the bonuses now a lot of these large firms have a very high percentage of men and women on bonuses and the bonuses have a much higher paid out than the pay so even if there was some invalidity in there and it hasn't been checked by government i think it's still going to reveal an awful lot and we have seen an oversupply of people offering their data there's not that high of when they were i'm sure some of that is going to say there's a lot about jobs a lot of jobs lumped together critics will say within those quarters hiles there's a lot of different types of managerial jobs. yeah well that's why it's surprising that there would be any pay gap you know if the jobs were all a jumble and there's all the ones that are let's say managerial and technical are
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in that top court tile then why would there be any gender difference in the pay you know each of those in theory should be having equal pay or pay according to their deserts and so when they shouldn't be any gender pay gap there's no reason for gender difference per se well the ins says this is one of the arguments of the critics of the o. and i start all how the o. and i start is being interpreted they go on to say even the ins itself says there's not one single measure the ad that clearly explains all deals with the complex issue of gender pay difference is all we reading too much into the data as critics would say when we assume it's down to gender discrimination it's not all down to gender discrimination there's also the fact of occupational segregation as you've pointed out so you might be well paid in the job that you're in but you might have left a better job for having a child and this is very gendered so if the if there are work stereotypes around caring for children then it's very likely we'll keep having this gender difference
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in pay so you wouldn't accept one of the critiques which i read today for example of this d'arthur that some of the gender pay gap might be explained as a result of women choosing to do more part time jobs which are generally not as well paid as full time jobs. the question you should be asking is why are part time jobs so badly paid now the pay gap regulations don't allow any modification of the average pay according to being part time but the critics would say that would apply to men and growly figure that would apply to men and women so men who've predominantly now gone into part time jobs when they're young perhaps while they're studying there are lot more men now in part time jobs and they are very low paid so if it's a particular sector that's low pay that may be justified but what we've seen over the past couple of years is actually equalization of pay in those jobs when the men joined in the jobs and that's very interesting fabulous good talking to you thanks so much for your thoughts thank you thanks bye. now my next guest julian jessop is
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the chief economist at the i.e. institute of economic affairs he's written a critic this week saying the gender pay gap reporting isn't fit for purpose i asked him why he isn't the supporter two problems first of all the data themselves are not accurately reported so we often read that men are paid differently from women as if it paid differently for doing different for doing the same job when in fact it's other differences for example where they're working full time or part time or or a type of occupation that they're doing so the data are misrepresented but they say is there here is a comeback that one's very own forgive me i was just going over just point with supporters of the dads who say well the data did put people into court files whether they're management or below management so there was some attempt to take into consideration the difference in jobs how do you respond to that well not enough i mean one of the biggest most important differences between full time and
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part time incomes which isn't reflected in these data at all but also even to the extent we do find out that men are overrepresented in some occupations rather than others it isn't necessary evidence of discrimination you know evidence that people are being paid differently for doing the same job than maybe a whole host of reasons why men and women choose or end up in different professions where nothing to do it discrimination certain nothing to do with the fault of the employers but many employers are being demonized those companies with large gender pay for gaps in favor of men being described as the worst performers or being named and shamed which i don't think is the right approach at all even if the dancer is not being interpreted accurately if it does show shall we say a scarcity of women in certain jobs and senior roles does not reveal some level of gender discrimination or bias in the workplace well it may well do but frankly we do that already we could look at the board of any large u.k.
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company we can observe straight away that there aren't that many women on. no sports bar large so we knew that already one study i found by professors from new york pennsylvania and high for universities found that when women moved into occupations in large numbers those jobs began paying less even after controlling for things like experience education skills geography and so on i mean can we really say that companies are innocent. well i don't think we can say whether a particular company is guilty or innocent based on the data is being provided to be absolutely clear i have no doubt at all there is discrimination in the workplace in the u.k. i do think there's a lot less discrimination than there used to be and in particular women have benefited from the fact is now illegal to pay a man differently from from a woman for doing work of equal value but to start from the assumption that any j.p. gender pay gap is due to discrimination i think it is unhelpful how should we then be looking at all measuring the gender pay gap and how should we be interpreted it
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then what's the right approach what we want companies to do that have a long term plan to improve these numbers over the next five or ten years and and chasing them every single year to monitor their performance gains for better it's i don't think it's going to help but the sorts of data i'd like to see collected are more things like the full time versus part time difference but but also a proper analysis of of why women aren't in the top jobs let's actually asked them if is it because they've chosen not to for example because they have family or caring responsibilities if that's the case is there actually a problem there or is it that they would like to take those jobs but simply can't afford the childcare or their partner for whatever reason is not willing to help out at home and i think we need to get into those or it could be because they don't know when an awesome opportunity to move into those positions is that not a third possible. in our certainly our i'm sure they're in there is there any evidence around some of those scenarios that you're saying was that they're
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actually making a choice not to go into these senior positions what is the evidence of of talking to women on a daily basis when there are plenty of women who are you know highly educated highly skilled who have decided to stay at home to look after their children and that there are a voice anecdotal that ignite things like. however there are no the spent plenty of studies that academics and economists more generally have been doing to show that a little of the gender pay gap can be explained by outright discrimination it can by large is due to due to choices that people have made or great to get your thoughts thanks so much thank you u.s. stocks are on track for their worst ever april since the great depression and a lot of that's got to do with trade fears well the leaders of the world's two largest economies embark on an all out trade war or reach a trade compromise on thursday the war of words between u.s. president donald trump and china escalated the fear now is damaging tariff threats
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will become reality then imports will become more expensive for companies and the economic outlook will sour adrian brown has more from beijing. well within hours of president trump effectively threatening a third round of tariffs against china the response from beijing was angry and swift president trump said he'd asked his trade representative to determine whether one hundred billion dollars worth of further tyrus were warranted and if so where those tariffs should be applied well a few hours later a statement appeared on the website of china's commerce ministry and it warned that china was ready to pay any cost in any trade war with the united states and its spokesman went even further google me far if the insist on unilateral reason and the trade protectionism against the wishes of china and the international community we will fight to the death at any cost we will resolutely fight back and take new
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measures and protect the interests of our country and the people well just a day ago of course the united states had sought to try to lower the temperature with china saying the threat of more tariffs was simply the next step in the negotiating process now we are back to the brinkmanship on friday china's state media which of course is controlled by the communist party sought to portray china as the victim saying trump was simply trying to stop china's rise and the media had another blunt message china doesn't do surrender. still to come on counting the cost who's been looking at your facebook data some very unhappy lawmakers will be asking facebook c.e.o. some tough questions about how he runs the world's biggest social media network. first the robots may not be coming from jobs after all is not as many of them see
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a new o.e.c.d. report says fewer jobs are at risk from advances in artificial intelligence and robotics than previously feared and the paris based think tank warns young people could find it harder to find work in the future as entry level posts have a higher risk of automation. well the world's largest music streaming company spotify is changing as of this week it's now a publicly owned company and there could be more transformation down the line to spotify knows what we listen to and when it wants to make money from that knowledge or though it's never turned a profit it's changing how the music industry works rob rails has more from los angeles. was spotify is debut on wall street came without the bell ringing and hullabaloo that normally accompany hot initial public offerings the company says its focus isn't on making a splash but on building a long term strategy we do think demand is going to be strong for spotify it's you
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know it's quite a sexy stock it's quite a sexy industry. the twelve year old swedish company jumped into a dominating position in music streaming convincing customers to pay a monthly subscription fee allowing them to choose from millions of songs online instead of paying to own individual tunes starting out with a handful of people working out of a back room stockholm office spotify now has seventy one million eight subscribers worldwide that's double the number of its closest competitor apple music the streaming model was initially resisted by the music industry but since streaming became widespread around twenty fifteen spotify has helped drag the music industry into profitability after a decade and a half in the doldrums streaming service revenue now accounts for sixty five percent of recorded music sales spotify also changed the way people listen to music
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play lists dominated by hit songs partly chosen by artificial intelligence and algorithms now influence what consumers here instead of individually developed tastes and preferences spotify has not yet turned a profit but the company expects to have ninety six million subscribers and more than six billion dollars in revenue by the end of this year robert oulds al-jazeera los angeles. a chinese company has been accused of mining sand illegally and almost destroying an entire village in mozambique amnesty international has launched an investigation into the high you mining company shell about us reports. to go in your is a small fishing village built upon sand dunes in northern mozambique it's an idyllic ceasing for a simple life but on their doorstep a global battle is building the people of new gunyah this is china's high you mining company the villages complaint high you sand mining blocks goods which they
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say cool severe flooding in twenty fifteen forty eight homes was swept out to sea and more than one hundred seventy damaged and berries and the city international spent two years investigating how it happened. ripon revere is because brit conduct of a chinese mining company that threatened to wipe out a small village of about one thousand people into the indian ocean hire mind to send to extract social minerals it boasts it can process twenty tons of sand a day and employs more than five hundred people china is the largest source of direct foreign investment in the country and holds the majority of its foreign dares. the investment should be welcome in the gun your lies and one of mozambique's poorest provinces the pint fortunately is that the company and the government are putting the profits first then the human that it's in the also the
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human rights of people who. almost three hundred people are now homeless but hi you says the flooding was a result of abnormally heavy rain the company received its mining concession in twenty eleven and denies it's also the junes and anyway ninety nine percent of the sand remains at its point of origin and is not extracted this contradicts the idea that there was a change in the channel for underground water which is not true. time is not on the side of these mozambicans satellite images showing mining activities getting ever closer to the village they want to safeguard what's left of their lives and want the government to investigate high you negotiate for compensation the going year was named after a crocodile that taunted locals from a nearby lagoon these days villages say the crocodile comes from china. i have heard about blood diamonds what about blood batteries cobalt is
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a key role material in electric batteries which allows me to drive the future of automation lithium ion batteries also power smartphones so prices have soared over two hundred percent in the past five years while most of the results is mined in dangerous conditions in the democratic republic of congo the d.l.c. is home to sixty percent of the world's cobalt and some mines were found to employ child labor is growing consumer awareness though of the high human cost of cobalt mining. now joining us from greenville in south carolina via skype is nicholas garrett nicholas is the executive director and co-founder of r.c.s. global a u.k. supply chain audit company which is in charge of implementing the first ever pilot scheme to produce ethical cobalt from congo sounds fascinating good to have you with us but how do you actually order the global coble supply chain. it's a good morning it's a pleasure to be here now are the actual audit in process of the supply chain is
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relatively complex because the the supply chain obviously spans the entire globe in the process you would have my inside assessments at the very beginning of the supply chain you would look at refiners and smelters and their feedstock equally there is an order process that happens in quite often in asia where much of the manufacturing of cobalt containing products occurs where there's factory orders involved and obviously then the chain eventually lands up at the at the large automotive brands that are trying brands etc that use cobalt in the better is that power the devices you like to use ok but when you're talking about the congo in particular sorry the democratic republic of congo it's a very different situation when it comes to dion's the mines isn't it you actually have people van on the ground monitoring what's going on making sure there's no
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child labor for example involved and so on and so forth. so the way it works is that we have we permanently permanently monitor mined sites and trading chains for resident students and environmental issues through our own want to train agents so these are trained agents that use a smartphone application to register any incidents that they observe or that that they get reported and i then joins us today sort of thing or as long as the mines are open is a monitor always present and watching yes so this is this is correct obviously with humans you obviously have to account for for you know six days etc but in principle the monitors are there twenty four seven this data is available to supply chain participants which means that if you are sitting in palo alto or if you're sitting and stuck in germany and you are in in your headquarters of your automotive brand you will be able to logon and log on and see the conditions of the production at the very bottom of supply chain wonderful thanks so much for explaining it to us
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welcome and finally unlucky number eighty seven facebook has revealed it compromised the privacy of millions more users than initially reported chief executive mark zuckerberg says he won't stand down because of the scandal and no one at the company has been fired an official reports. facebook has come in for heavy criticism after it was revealed the data of millions of users had been shared with outside parties initially it was thought by media sources the breach took in fifty million users now it's been revealed by facebook itself after an intent or review the figure is much higher eighty seven million facebook c.e.o. mark zuckerberg told reporters on a conference call he no plans to step down and the company would change the way it handled users' data in the future now we have to go through every part of our relationship with people and make sure that we're taking a broad enough you have our responsibility it's not enough to just connect people
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we have to make sure that those connections are positive and that they're bring people closer together and not enough to just give people a voice we have to make sure that people are not using our force to hurt people or to spread misinformation and it's not enough to give people tools decided. we have to ensure that all those developers protect people's information to our next this facebook didn't tell any of its users back in twenty fifteen that information had been accessed by the firm cambridge analytical which was contracted by the trump presidential campaign to help election ad targeting it no faces questions about the number of fake news stories posted during the election and the presence of russian operatives on the service the company also had links to another firm which provided analysis for the leave campaign in the british e.u. referendum. of the eighty seven million potentially affected users more than seventy million are in the u.s. mark zuckerberg will face a u.s. house committee next week to discuss the scandal and several states are
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investigating what happened and if any laws were broken. and that's our show over this way remember you can get in touch with us via twitter use the hash tag a.j.c. and see when you do or drop us an e-mail account to the cost of al jazeera dot net it's our address there's more for you on line without zero dot com slash c.t.c. that takes you straight to our page which has individual sports links and tarek masoud for you to catch up on. that for this edition of counting the cost time sam is a band from the whole team here now thanks for joining us the news and al-jazeera is next. ultimately this is the opportunity to understand the story in a very different way where there before something happens and we don't leave out that. we're heading to the place so deep in the true renewables on it's taking us two days on this boat just to get there from the search current dangerous macaws
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techno looks at what is being done to protect one of the region's most iconic creature those cars are disappearing because the legal pad trained with the main research just wanted to see if reintroduction of mikhail's was a viable option to save some of these population pretty good young techno on al-jazeera and. the nature of news as it breaks this was a great election about it was going to win but it was about by how much with detailed coverage of the syrian civil war most lucid to speak what is new or different is that each the some people will live until to morrow so many innocent people will die from around the world the bats and balls are several years old the really good player at the end upgrading a cricket academy and maybe one day playing for the national team.


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