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tv   Foundation  Al Jazeera  April 12, 2018 9:00am-10:01am +03

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ok but because no one cares or if you join us on sat there are people that choosing between buying medication and eating this is a dialogue i want to get in one more comment because this is someone who's an activist and has posted a story join the global conversation at this time on al-jazeera in a country with high youth unemployment one organization helps turn school children into entrepreneurs gonna tell us what i mean by their wide fundraising empowering them to reclaim their futures we teach them how to operate this story in my shoes how to make it back and build new prosperous communities some of them invest the money into other business school for life uganda part of the rebel education series at this time on al-jazeera.
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and there are caught in doha these the top stories on al-jazeera we're getting reports that syrian government forces have pushed the last rebel fighters out of the town of duma now that's according to the reuters news agency and they're quoting a russian military official it's the last rebel stronghold in the east and clave outside the capital damascus russian military police have been deployed to the area to take over security. the u.n. chief antonio terrace says the security council must prevent syria spiraling out of control the softer present donald trump said the u.s. will respond to saturday's suspected chemical attack and duma which is not far from the capital damascus. a white house correspondent kimberly halakhah is. this is how the united states responded to last year's nerve agent gas attack in qana by
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attacking a syrian air base with tomahawk missiles and it's how the u.s. may act again. trump has blamed the syrian government for a recent suspected chemical attack outside damascus with their troops on the ground in syria he's also accusing russia of complicity for supporting president bashar al assad in a series of tweets on wednesday morning president donald trump warned missiles will be coming and taunted get ready russia because they will be coming nice and new and smart russia has proven themselves to be responsible in part for this they guaranteed that the use of chemical weapons by syria would not happen again they failed at that russia shot back in the war of words with trump it says there's no proof a chemical attack occurred on facebook the russian foreign ministry spokeswoman posted smart missile should fly towards terrorists and not towards the lawful
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government which has been fighting international terrorism for years it will be met . and it will be met forcefully for days trump has been meeting with top military leaders and advisors. clued in on wednesday with defense secretary general james mattis we're still assessing the intelligence ourselves and our allies we're still working on this. there are also reports a u.s. navy carrier task force led by the u.s.s. harry truman is sailing towards the region tribes also been conferring with world leaders like french president jacques rogge and british prime minister theresa may . it's an astonishing and confusing ramping up of rhetoric for a president who said just a week ago that he wants to get out of syria what is clear is it appears the united states is determined to hold those responsible for the suspected attack accountable
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can really help get al-jazeera at the white house algeria has announced three days of mourning after a plane crash killed two hundred and fifty seven people the military plane went down shortly after taking off from before a military port there the cops does the government says most of the dead were soldiers and their families as thoughts of algeria's west of a disaster. but those of the former russian spy who was poisoned along with her father last month has made her first public statement since leaving hospital. also she wants no help from the russian embassy u.k. government accuses moscow of being behind suspected nerve agent attack on yulia and her father. a former senior chinese official who was once a major candidate for a leadership position is on trial for corruption. as one of the highest level politicians to be charged under president xi jinping anti corruption crackdown he's accused of taking bribes and abuse of power between two thousand and two and twenty
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seventeen. facebook c.e.o. mark zuckerberg faced more tough questions on his second day of testimony about the massive breach of uses private data the thirty three year old billionaire apologized several times and promised to make meaningful reforms to protect data privacy and immoral service has been held in south africa for the woman many called the mother of the nation thousands attended the ceremony for winnie. mandela in so wet. there's other headlines on the back with more news after the caliphate. the caliph are. a form of rule in a slam. that lasted for almost thirteen centuries.
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from the death of the prophet muhammad. to the overthrow of the last ottoman caliph in one thousand nine hundred twenty four. the arabic ten for twenty eighth twenty five which actually in essence simply means a successor all or a identity. the ruler of the islamic world would call himself clifford resort in law for success so ultimately. through the centuries. the title of caliph is a term that has been used. at the times abuse. in june two thousand and fourteen. a militant group calling itself the islam ecstacy and iraq in the levant isis. declared the establishment of a caliphate. they call rejected by most muslims around the world.
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by so proclaimed its leader of the balkans but the. account of. the man no love with the. appropriate thing a title imbued with a religious and political significance. and causing a dark shadow. over a rich history. of this kind of baghdad in the since destroying attempting to destroy. much of the legacy the scaly ifs i want to preserve and to to foster. in a second with us and he said let's have the most steady let's unlock the top and the to. the cooling house not the kind of mental disease i'm inside out and. this is the story of a type two of the originated one thousand four hundred years ago. that spawn
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one of the greatest empires the world has ever known. this is the story of the count of. medina saudi arabia. last resting place of muhammad. the prophet of islam.
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it was here in june of the year six hundred thirty two. that he died after a brief illness. the prophet left behind a young and fiber to stomach state uniting most of the tribes of a arabian peninsula. with medina as its capital. amman plan while the assessment. in the safe on the net be to design and something with one soul does the many sobs of that in the us yet that is a mob and has to fight them. but. look at the hondas the middle and reset it and who would lessen. the. ten years earlier muhammad and a group of his early followers would come to be known as
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a more headroom or the emigrants had fled mecca and persecution by the pagan leaders of their own try for a huge. war will. the prophet and the emigrants were given shelter by the citizens of medina. with their off to be cold alone song. meaning the supporters. together these two groups formed. the close companions of the prophet the successor would come from one of them. and i would be in the home and he had been led to and i that well he then he can have him and yet i would rule that bad none of us would. be in
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a humble building but used to stand on the sights of this public gone. but the supporters gathered to decide which of them would be the prophet successor. but two of the leading emigrants. and almost interrupting their deliberations. had util an idol international in the unit that it cannot be learned in our high german on the land in islam and i was in the navy that it. gannett in mohajer many are less as. after hours of heated debate. the claim of the emigrants was judged to have precedence. of. a done while a. yak in that it. had
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the historic. land no bad there and barry are all my buddy mckee by. the way out. in a humble building in medina a new age had begun. a new title written into history. a title that would ring down the ages. the first caliph of islam the successor of mohammed was to be a book a city. the following day a box position was confirmed when the most i'm communicating gave. an oath of
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allegiance to the new caliph. o.-p. put a pick task has been assigned to me. now it is beyond doubt that i have been elected european. or though i'm not better than you. as long as i obey our laws and his prophet. when i disobeyed him and his. profit. than obey me not. above was the first of four would be known as the russia doing. the right to guided caliphs. they were zero people who had been very close to the prophet muhammad during his lifetime as his companion as those who had converted. to islam and had
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dedicated themselves to the formation of the community the spreading of the message here that for in eighty campaigns and internet of the prophet mohammed in a way it's. almost done even by i didn't create out well the out. what the have. the call the body of rome out of the cup thought laws how about how you. have. to. look better have all your time even muslim in. gave up their mariani. not to come and buy a two month. was a profoundly spiritual and modest man. but when some of the arabian tribes rose up in rebellion refusing to submit to the new caliphate he was quick to act. as
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a much to someone who knows a hell of a rate that he knows all the tribal details the genealogies the clowns the weaknesses the strengths who could be employed against whom and he transformed himself into this extraordinary powerful man. a buckra declared war on the rebel tribes and after a year of heavy fighting. he emerged victorious. his attention was now turns to the territory of the two superpowers of the era the sussan it's in persia. and the by sun times of the east and the roman empire. in an old movie taking on both empires at once he launched the most written
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conquests. but crucially he gave his men orders to preserve not destroy. many of the. usual. ballet i thought a little in the set. of alluding with a day guinea and every man i bid him. a box commander in the east. made good ground in iraq fighting the sas and. the four army sent to a talk by garrisons in the levant meeting heavy resistance. on the other credit which he moved his men across the desert to the west of the.
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oldest six thirty four on the fields of here in palestine. the most i'm on he's gathered to take on the might of done to you. the most. wicked and. even one that. could have. been a human didn't. so how some of the model . but in the wake of victory it as that the. enough to just to use this kind. of
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a book. and the age of sixty one. there's no moment where there's an election or a council and we just have this placement as it were like a vice president coming on to the throne of the kind of one of the comes that. over the next ten years almost. the second right he got it kind of. would show himself to be a great strategist and state bill. a few days after he became calif. almost on this once more underfunded conquered damascus.
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but. was soon to be stripped of his come on. obama i mean who are you seeing been one to say that. what obama said that you know might have bought a lot of the of the law and the how did file add the new. there and then had run out of the tub in them until suddenly well in the lab your own mother went out. after two years the calif would recall this brilliant commander to the battlefront once again. this time here in northern jordan in the tranquil valley of the yarmouk river. in august six thirty six this was where the by sun times army clashed with muslim forces underfed. one
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small victory to the muslims. of good will by the. infancy. of the hook and i didn't miss with the any i'm reducing your all. about. the muslim conquests moved on wards in all directions capturing the rest of the live on. great cities. finally they laid siege to jerusalem it's so. often making this kind of. a woman like you know. yeah. well you. see lists of this.
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jerusalem significance lay as it still does today and its position as a holy place for the three great monotheistic religions judaism christianity. and islam. only for jerusalem was almost prepared to make his first and last journey a scholar if. not . all more often to small who says that. she had a malice allah. in medina again a dollar on. the whole does well what islam oh a levy yet about life and death and. down. the line i'll us all well i'll tell ya.
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sophrony is the peach and welcome to mon given the keys of the city and then told them to come and pray in the holy supple curve the holiest church of christe and. said no i will not pray here and when the patriarch asked why not just because if i play here then after me muslims will come and want to pray here take this church from you and i want you to have this church. a instead almost prayed just outside the church. in later years on the exact spot. this mosque was a red. herring the caliph's name. to this day
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a copy of the pledge that almost gave to the christians of jerusalem can be seen hanging on the walls of the smalls. this is an assurance of peace and protection given by the sentiment of a lot of much commendable to believe this to the people of jerusalem. he gave them an assurance of protection for their lives property cherish and crosses as well as the sick and the healthy only st peter's clinic. it's a wonderful journey and same news stories about omar about the puritanical commando but his journey jerusalem he's at his best he is sorting out the faith traditions honoring them in a city that can be shared by all faith communities. with
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the muslims now in full control of the levant they moved west and conquered egypt. in the east the caliph's ami's triumphed over the south and it's a call to say. an advanced on the capital. test before. yes. at the time the largest city in the world. all that remains today. is the arch of course. once the throne home of persia and grooms. you have to remember the two greats. had screwed the world for the last
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four hundred years they were. putting it in a modern parlance it's a bit like the eskimos taking on the united states of america and russia. in october six forty four at the height of his powers and while leading the feds don't prayers. almost was assassinated by disaffected persian slaves. that it is them who has a lot to visit many. who are. black and you know i did it. yeah i need to stop the and. if you have your arm out of the cut up
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was a saturday idea. that did see how. i feel. that the minute i let go when. they don't. the leadership of the muslims now to a man with a markedly different character. became the third day of the russia doing the rocky guided caliphs. shrine in quite a one two zero. resting place of one of the sahal. the prophet muhammad's close companion.
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was killed in the early attempts to conquer the area during the reign of the. off men. the what i can change how any and. what has a. bizarre. at first successful the campaign soon run into problems over the division of the spoils of war. effort for four months i don't have a thread i'm not a fan but the shia and away at last could heat your home with some home us. that
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can be. off man that i've about can at them and i want to go ahead and ship but how many c.f.c.'s the of honey. how will the seven look at. the ruling elite of this empire where rules are rife from home it's tribe to tribe of carraige these people have become the rule is a very very wealthy empire and they also have laws that have been drawn from across the peninsula and now we're being settled in garrisons in egypt and iran and so i think the politics and the economics of the situation who are almost inevitably going to drive conflict. in six fifty five mutinies broke out against the kind of uncalled for and bustle. and in the garrison that's a stall in egypt. a year later on
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gravels marched in medina and took up positions around off months house calling on him to step down. he broke a disease has tended to see each things get ugly but she's broken into and he's assassinated killed and it's said that so. full symbolic moment he was meditating reading the koran the company of one of his wives and the blood of the third kid of the spilt on the cross to the court the emblematic moment when the word of god is splattered with blood and it's as if the islamic community will never know peace again. once again a caliph had been assassinated. but this time the killers were muslims. less than a quarter of a century after the death of the prophet. ever
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simpleness every game we will find in a climate of fear rhetoric is easily abused. clients' investigative new initiatives to come back gangs simply being used to target the undocumented and found we started hearing kids report that had been picked up and his parents the kids were just literally being disappeared trumps war on gangs on al-jazeera. al jazeera. and for you.
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and i again i'm recalling doha these the top stories on al-jazeera getting reports that syrian government forces have pushed the last rebel fighters out of the town of duma that's according to the russian news agencies as the last rebel stronghold in the east and play of outside the capital damascus russian military police have been deployed to take over security meanwhile the white house says all options are on the table for a u.s. response to saturday's suspected chemical attack in the syrian town of duma it follows an earlier tweet by president donald trump one in the syrian government's main ally russia to get ready for missiles to be fired power maintaining that we have a number of options and all of those options are still on the table final decisions haven't been made yet on that front i mean anything at all what is in me is certainly means i think there's a lot there that you can read from but at the same time the president has
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a number of options at his disposal and all of those options remain on the table and we're continuing to look at each one of them the daughter of the former russian spy who was poisoned along with her father last month has made her first public statement since leaving the hospital. says she wants no help a tool from the russian embassy u.k. government accuses moscow of being behind suspected nerve agent attack on you father. algeria has announced three days of mourning after a plane crash killed two hundred fifty seven people in a tree plane went down shortly after taking off and before rick military now the capsule algy is the government says most of the dead soldiers and their families. on the wild deadliest plane crash since two thousand and fourteen saudi arabia says it's intercepted a ballistic missile fired from yemen over the capital riyadh who has claimed responsibility for the attack through a twitter account but the rebels say they were targeting the saudi defense ministry
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and will never damage saudi arabia also shot down two unmanned drones that he forces say were aimed at riyadh's oil facilities. facebook c.e.o. mark zuckerberg has faced more tough tough questions on his second day of testimony about the massive breach of uses private data facebook has been in the spotlight off the personal information of eighty seven million users was harvested by the political consultants cambridge analysts account as i had lance's gets you back to the calendar. the year six fifty six. just a quarter of
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a century has passed since the death of the prophet muhammad. and the foundation of . the third caliph. has been. in the capital. baghdad. a living. that's the way can you help when i mean i mean. what in the hell you i could million my duty and one stop. ali cousin and son in law of the prophet. to the pressure becoming the force of the russia doing the right he guided caliphs. he needed his plunge fall from being a spiritual sort of lost philosopher poet theologian he's plunged into having to
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cope with a very very much political waters. iraq . bedrock of support for the new caliph ali. abandoning medina he moved this capital here in the face of a growing threat coming from close to the prophet himself. calling for the punishment of off months killers. one of the prophet's wives and two of his closest companions. and his superiors gathered an army to do battle with the new caliph. it came to be known as the battle of the camp. they set the scene for violent conflicts between moments for my companions he was
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victorious and taught him so badly defeated are you sure withdrew from public life after this defeat. the islamic state had fallen into its first civil war. the first but not the last. damascus the syrian capital. and six thirty four and after almost seven centuries under roman rule. the city was
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conquered by muslims. an army commander was appointed governor of the mosques and later the entire province. i mean i mean look at that shanley wiley and there's an incentive and yes done and that's where you are i mean a home with the idea that the n.c.i.c. who are let you lay it i lay him. some high level b. i got my r. or b. there you show me your own shadow and then wow yeah well as the law in a in. came from the same family of the correct strike the oh my yes as the murdered calif. he refused to give the oath of allegiance to the new college. many of us mons relatives began to mom but only hand over those killers for justice and the center of
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a myatt resistance to ali was syria which was governed by a member of a finance family his second cousin michael olea. and six fifty seven ali marched northwards to quell malia's mutiny. they met a battle called prophecy fee which was inconclusive and they agreed to negotiate this proved to be a canny decision on the part of malawi because it's split elise support some of his supporters felt that he shouldn't be negotiate. same as the kale if he should just fight until he does stop missed his power. in january of six sixty one. the dissidents in ali's army decided to try to wrest power from the elite. they plan to assassinate. and is. the governor of
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egypt. but their conspiracy ended with only one victim ali the cut. off to three decades the first chapter. of the russian to the right to god. was. going to say that they never do and. that would mean. really any denia lay in the sense that he is c.s.e. while we have an answer yet when the and the c.s.l. now. i should sleep. at the.
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law we emerged triumphant establishing the almighty caliphate. a new dentist no longer primarily religious. the caliphate now begun to look more like a model. in the ruins of on the job in eastern eleven of. the. once thought to be by sun time roman the city was in fact my domain. they had adopted the architectural style of the boys on timers along with the structures of imperial rule. but on the wrong numbers is
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see a busy water one hundred can all at the last though and one of them and when bizarre and put out the reason for this is the other the one in the main the hut they have no desire to see death but there's a macphail. and the it is abandoned. before arnold good enough to where solid in cern. under maja the caliphate changed its form. and as a king would have done he named his son yes he has a successor. the only caliphate was not dynastic people were chosen by being designated by fact trade assessed by groups and he consulted amongst themselves so it was if you like elect even the least this possible sense of the way. and that's how the first full caniff which chosen by for
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a consensus of the only muslim community. became talib from his father's death and sixty eight. his rule was to plunge the states into another civil war. in medina the first couple to powerful figures in the muslim community were beginning to build strong opposition to his ear. particularly important examples are abdullah the son of the bear who were challenged ali in the first civil war also hussein the son of ali who had been kailash during the first civil war he also resisted the call for a pledge of allegiance to his ear. to signal his rejection of years it's kind of. a scene left medina for. from there he set off for coup for former
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stronghold of his father. but in october sixth eighty here in karbala iraq has its forces truck and killed the same and most of the members of his family. none the less opposition to a made rule was far from over. and done remains a pair refused to pledge allegiance to years and he described himself as the one who seek sanctuary in god's house and went to mecca sought refuge there easy decided to send an army against up to ribbons of bad but after a bit of the bear was saved by the premature death of years and at that moment in six eight three he proclaimed himself.
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meanwhile in damascus ma you know the second son of yours he was installed last the third kind of of the my thinnest. but within a few weeks he died leaving no son no successor a power vacuum seized on by the rival caliph and. co yet the model that. let the check up to love an exhibit such as that how the robot will cover a lot of the. iraq. welcome back i need. to see. a man the jordanian capital. city overlooked by the remains of
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a bison tynecastle. and the palace of the main government. the tribes of jordan were the last to stay loyal to the mites. in six eighty four a tribal gathering held here chose marwan as a new in my youth count. and it was his son malik would reunite the islamic state under the firm rule of the almighty it's. the dome of the rock. jerusalem's most recognizable lung. built on the olders of the in my youth caliphs demonic this is the third holiest
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sites in islam. but at that time the two most holy sites the mosques of mecca and medina lay in the hands of the almighty its rival calif it was obeyed. in six ninety one as a judge a ruthless a made general set off for islam's holiest place with a powerful army. sent him to seach to mecca and defeat even sabbat perhaps because i'm dumb i can self didn't want to be too closely associated with the damage to the shrine. of the sea. and a desperate miserable. shelter in the slums most sacred shrine. the kaaba.
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but the hijazi was not to be deterred and bombarded with a couple. after eight months of determined resistance. if mr baird was killed and last ditch fighting. was stopped by the management not one and your ego he did the lead media mother what then jenny that was a new age she has said he had been checking in a lot why barack attitude to how that woman just sat with iraqis and not the many been around since he had been at the un out of the. after two decades as callous. the legacy of stability to the sun. and that foundation. would build are still great and.
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the capital of modern morocco. it was here in seven zero eight that the armies of the all made calif a well he'd reached the atlantic coast. after more than fifty years of fierce resistance by local berber tribes the muslims had finally conquered the whole of north africa. however before i don't mean that far when and when his i met minus the crowd water avoid a shut up where the shade harder for. having been conquered the berbers discovered that this lamb had much to offer and began to convert and assimilate. one of
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them. thought of. was about to write his name in history. thought. the mountain of thought. gibraltar. southern tip of the iberian peninsula. it was here in the spring of seven hundred and eleven authorities on me of berbers land after crossing the mediterranean. inside three years he had toppled the visigoths rulers. and secured almost total control of the peninsula turning it into a colorful province known as under lucio. power about me when i can now mostly gone public with the army doesn't f a did india did. the
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other thing a dingy did not follow. along with the great conquests in europe there was more success in asia. muslim armies began advancing towards what is today pakistan afghanistan and the central asian republics. within ten years they had reached the borders of china. had built the biggest empire yet no. as you know has iemma entity commander general men in military i mean us. commander general. we necessary command to their fullest coverdell minister thirty. meanwhile as well you're outta here.
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unlike the traditions of earliest. the walls of course sight ombre in the jordanian desert are painted in a by sometimes style. here is depicted not as a religious figure but as an emperor. in just ten years he had made himself the most powerful man on earth. but the successes would struggle to retain that power.
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the pyrenees. the don't sing natural barrier between spain and france. in seven thirty two under the command of up the russian monitors off of the governor of under lucio. them forces across these mountains into french territory. seemingly unstoppable they advance north capturing one city after another. on the left of the unity and it's look it is a thing. to be odd. but take. a look at india and know. and solve a good outcome is to me here. to day of the canoe i mean how to
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look. on this field to the north of the front city of. the advancing troops were stopped by frankish army under shock monckton. the muslims were defeated and their commander up to rahmani kill. muslims remember this battle of the martyrs young. but european history knows it as the battle of tools. of victory but stop the northern spread of islam and save pristine europe. it then came to symbolize for later historians in particular for the great english historian edward gibbon he saw it as a decisive turning point in the battle between. europe and the muslim world and he
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famously said that if it hadn't been for charles martel and sure we would now be preaching the koran in oxford. this defeat in europe in the reign of the tenth of may it caliph a sham brought an end to a my youth invincibility. and just as his palace in jericho palestine lies in ruins today. is shams death in seven forty three through the whole state into chaos. after almost two years of all made family infighting over the caliphate one the second emerged as the fourteenth and last in my youth calendar. for my
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javelin few in my one bin mohammad my one been a. talk. and the arctic. absolved by his efforts to contain trouble at the heart of the state the new caliph was oblivious to grave events unfolding in the east. a rather mysterious leader who is remembered by the name of a muslim was calling for pledges of allegiance to the prophet's family and he managed to draw a substantial following from eastern iran into an army to oppose a minor role. the rebel army marched westward and captured coup for in iraq. in november seven forty nine here in the city's mosque by on the oath of allegiance was given to the first a bus in calif. they proclaimed
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a man as called abu allah. and he was a descendant of one of the prophet mohammed's uncles and he based his claim to the caliphate on that kinship with the prophet mohammed. in january and seven fifty. on the banks of the zab river in iraq the oh my it's led by their kind of i don't want their last battle against us at all. after a heavy defeat marwan escaped westwards. that summer of the year seven fifty he was killed by the a bus. after nineteen years in power you might caliph it had been brought to an end. why the mayans lost
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power and what exactly happened in the aussie revolution is a difficult question but it seems to be related to this ongoing sense that the prophets family had a right to rule the kayleigh fight and this was a problem of the a my it's never really successfully contained. some muslims believe that the caliphate should always have remained strictly within the prophet's bloodline. this belief would lead to the biggest splits in the history of islam. a split which is still exploited to this day. the centuries old divide. between sunni and shia.
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a story fourteen hundred years in the make. a story of succession and the leadership. tells the story of dispute. the caliph episode two. hello rain has been spotting all the way down through eastern iraq kuwait the gulf states of inhaled showers and sadie the mess of cloud is still there but it's just coagulates and shadows all right and that's still true on thursday possibly more
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into the rainy and high ground than anywhere else behind the sun comes out twenty three in baghdad a little less along the coast the mediterranean in beirut for example the sandals warmed up the following day this cloud there is persistent and the rain is still there but reaching pastas syria as well clearly eastern turkey azerbaijan seem to be cloudy and possibly wet at times the tail end of all that is very slow moving spotting these rain occasionally thunderstorms the side of the business significant showers or thunderstorms in yemen some of that was flooding as well that looks like not a repeat for the next day or so and the cat is fading away so a dry clearer spell or less sound in the air all this dust in the air as well we've also seen big showers in south africa for thursday for the middle south africa you could watch out for them they might be around that we should be seeing the dry season coming in here hasn't apparently occurred to south africa botswana looks like having a dry couple of days at least along with symbolic. the
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scene for us where on line what is a very nice time in yemen to peace is always possible but it never happens not because the situation is complicated but because no one cares or if you join us on set there are people that there are choosing between buying medication and eating base is a dialogue i want to get in one more comment because this is someone who's an activist has posted a story join the global conversation at this time on al-jazeera. we understand the differences and the similarities of cultures across the world. so no matter where you call home al-jazeera will bring you the news and current affairs that matter to you. al-jazeera.

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