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tv   Counting the Cost 2018 Ep 25  Al Jazeera  June 25, 2018 7:32pm-8:01pm +03

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food or water denies the allegations which it says a part of a malicious campaign in syria government terror helicopters have dropped barrel bombs on the city of dera the raids are part of the government's assault on the syria's southwestern region which is one of the two major areas still held by rebels people have been killed since last tuesday. eight more people have been killed in ongoing violence in central nigeria bringing the number of dead over the past three days to ninety four the fighting in plateaus state is between farmers and semi nomadic herders president has called for calm. from asked to stay with us counting the cost.
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hello i'm sam is a than this is counting the cost and i'll just hear your weekly look at the world of business and economics this week why a stronger dollar is becoming a headache for developing market economies. also this week digital addicks we look at how the tech industry uses psychology to design products we can't put down. plus a major setback for libya's oil industry is finding of. future production risks. the prospect of a trade war slowing down the world's economy means investors have been reassessing where to put their money in recent weeks developing market currencies like the
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turkish lira and argentina's passo have fallen to their weakest levels in months against the us dollar for the first time the fed is the only major central bank raising interest rates that's lending support to the dollar but the central bank conference in portugal this week the us federal reserve chairman said the case remains strong for more u.s. rate hikes and that means. trouble ahead for those countries borrowing in dollars after the end of the global financial crisis rakoff low interest rates in the u.s. meant many developing nations borrowed in dollars now as the dollar rises it's costing those developing countries a lot more to repay their debts for economists it's raising alarm bells joining us from london is timothy timothy is a senior emerging markets sovereign strategist with london based blue bay asset management good to have you with us so whether it's because of a trade war or because of the interest rate hikes in the u.s.
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is the dollar now set to strengthen fervor was a big question and certainly has been hurting emerging markets against the backdrop of a fed tightening and tighter global liquidity i think the consensus is beginning to emerge that basically the trade wars the dollar probably will end up being a winner from that i mean that's been the view over the last couple of weeks i think helped also by this sumption of weakness in euro zone and obviously europe has been a bit of downward pressure not helped by politics in in italy and then obviously ongoing at the moment for all the immigration concerns or immigration battles in europe as well but it does look like the dollar is on an appreciating trend does that mean then that debt stress for developing economies which borrowed in dollars that's more of that is now inevitable. well it means more pressure ming you know we
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enter the year in a goldilocks scenario for emerging markets or appeared that way with d.m. central banks tightening but moderately but the assumption was that global growth would stay pretty robust and as long as global growth stayed fine then on the revenue side emerging market countries will be more than able to cope with higher d.m. and u.s. rates i think what's changed in terms of perceptions has been the dollar rally that's one thing that obviously increases debt service costs in hard currency dollars for many emerging markets and i think the other one there's been concern about trade wars and what it means for global growth and i think there is a sense that the global growth is just coming off the pace and the bias probably now is towards downside so you put all those together you put fed tightening dollars strength trade wars prospects for global growth we can embed and actually also fairly difficult bottom up stories in many big emerging market countries
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you've got elections looming this weekend in turkey but you've also got elections in in brazil mexico argentina also looming as well south africa next year possibly ukraine pakistan i mean many many countries the election india. and of those countries i mean there are some significant reform challenges brazil pension reform he's got a overheating story that needs addressing mexico obviously concerns around after you know and south africa you know we have a new administration the cyril ramaphosa but still lots of inherited problems from jake as they were to be resolved so you know very challenging environment i think at the moment for emerging markets and on that point i mean particularly some of the last points you mentioned the sort of domestic economic problems coupled with the global growth rate no longer generating the sort of revenue for developing economies that would help them to manage a higher dollar repaying. debt cost does that mean you know we think about the
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worst several countries that borrowed heavily when interest rates were low how global a problem could we see is this potentially going to become a domino effect unlike the mid ninety's all our own ninety seven ninety eight crises in asia you know we don't have that many countries are the less countries now with fixed exchange rates and less countries are trying to defend them that's positive the scary new environment thank you so much to misty ash my pleasure still to come on candy because electronic waste recycling the tile and it's a booming industry but if it isn't handled correctly it could be an environmental disaster in the making. but first more than one and a half million russians have signed an online petition against the government's pension reforms the proposal aims to raise the pension age from fifty five to sixty three for women and from sixty to sixty five for men the bill was submitted to
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parliament last thursday or in chalons reports from moscow while pension reform is something that brought him a putin's various governments been putting off for years and years and years in fact in two thousand and five putin said this pension ages would never be raised while he was president currently russia's retirement ages are below sixty for men and just fifty five women those are a legacy of the soviet years we come up with in one nine hundred thirty two when life expectancy in the country was just thirty five for men and forty for women it's still pretty low by european standards but it has doubled since those times so now there's unsustainable pressure on the state pension funds and the government obviously feels or think that now the time is right for some reform presidential elections in march are safely out of the way but they still chose the first day. of the world cup to sneak this this plan out they know that it's
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a very unpopular thing to do in fact in a recent poll ninety two percent of russians said they were against it the plan is for retirement ages to be raised to sixty five for men and sixty three for when for women that will be done over the next decade and a half the problem is why is he saying that vladimir putin is not actually involved in this pension reform it's a government thing they will be watching very very closely for public reaction and if there is any sign that this is going to bring big crowds out onto the streets then perhaps they might roll some of this back. fighting has erupted in libya's oil crescent it's damaged the country's main oil exporting terminals located in the northeast of the country oil exports are a vital source of revenue for the country the fighting has suspended those exports though the political situation in libya is fragmented but up until this month oil was being produced libyan oil is sold internationally through the national oil
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company which is under the control of the un backed government in tripoli libya also has a rival government in top iraq where the fighting is between two armed groups it's taking place in northeastern libya ras lanuf and the cigarette terminals libya has africa's largest proven crude oil reserves the ninth largest globally for opec member libya the worry is that a protracted battle will damage the old fields themselves and the impact even future production and national oil corporation is looking at options to divert some all exports to alternative terminals as output is impacted the world health organization has listed addiction to electronic and video games as a mental health disorder the controversial decision has left the gaming industry at odds with scientists poll china japan reports. in this virtual universe made up of zeros and ones dense purple storm clouds out the planet ninety eight
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percent of the world's population is disappeared and zombies rise to attack remaining humans. it's very fast paced to keep still. so much fun that the mass online phenomenon called fortnight is consuming hundreds of millions of players around the world while the goal of the game is to battle for the survival of humanity some people's fragile psyche may not survive this all consuming digital games. we have been reviewing evidence for the gaming behavior. several years. the world health organization's decision to label addiction to digital and video games as a mental health disorder puts it at odds with gaming industry organizations its reference guide of recognized and diagnosable diseases describes the addiction as a pattern of persistent or recurrent gaming behavior that becomes so extensive it
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takes precedence over other life interests the question whose is going over the gaming and ignore other things in activities like sleep like eating like. education or and and that harms the person and white of the heart wasn't continues. parents have been concerned about the endless hours their children have spent in front of their console's since the advent of atari and pong now they have science as their weapon to limit the time their children spend gaming the w.h.o. says only a small number of people who play digital and video games would develop a mental health disorder but early warning signs can help prevent it and while the makers of fortnight are expected to earn more than four billion dollars this year addiction to gaming the screening nice gaming addiction treatment programs which
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may even be more lucrative for insurance companies and health care providers now that gaming addiction is considered a mental health disorder. why does smartphones social media and computer games keep os hoax well designed to the tech industry uses human psychology and calls it behavior design all persuasive tech companies don't conceal this apple readily admits its products are addictive it's even designing an app to help you use your phone lest the average person checks their phone one hundred fifty times a day psychologists though are beginning to describe the deliberate engine. airing of addiction as an unethical practice and some within the tech industry want higher standards too but in the meantime for a tech company in the attention economy the more time a user spends online equals more money from address of a new that revenue hit
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a record eighty eight billion dollars in two thousand and seventeen well joining me now from london is dr jamie woodcock jamie is a researcher at the oxford internet institute good to have you with us so first of all how is human psychology used in digital design. well i think what we've seen is many attempts to introduce ways as you as you mentioned to capture people's attention and i think it's no surprise really that these kind of psychological aspects of being included but i think one of the ones we have to point to as being particularly problematic is the use of gambling or gambling like aspects in in video games for example to get users not only hooked but also it can cost a lot of money to give us some examples of how popular apps and social media platforms use psychology than other than the gambling games you've referred to i mean i think many of these are around feedback loops are introduced into into these
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platforms these build on well known affects about you know. communal loops and so on that you you know you get a rush with a particular kind of interaction and i think many many software platforms but many games as well try to mobilize this to keep users on the platform and ultimately this becomes not so that you share information or you communicate or you get time to play but to keep people hooked on a platform to make money from it you're in the university are our students if you are being taught how to use human psychology and some of these techniques that you're talking about. so i'm i'm a sociologist by training so i think one of the things that we try to teach students is a critical approach to these kinds of forms of media that perhaps we can look beyond these kind of psychological aspects but i'm the only time when i was a very lame you personally but i mean generally in institutions educational institutions and universe is that where it starts that people are taught these techniques i mean i think so and i think you know one of the aspects here that we
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really need to talk about is game if occasion and this is where psych you know psychological understandings of these feedback loops are being introduced into more and more aspects of our lives so it's no longer just on social media or just when you're playing video games we know these are used at work or they're used to keep you exercising and i think we need to ask questions about you know is it right that these things they used to to convince us to do things is it ethical so i think this is a this is the big question right now isn't it how i think illicit and i think you know in a way many of these kinds of platforms and kinds of games can be incredibly persuasive but in a sense for a company making these products of course they're going to do this you know has been a long history of trying to make buying products from a company persuasive i think what we have to do is have conversations about you
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know how manipulative these things can be and particularly when it involves money and i think part of this as an academic is teaching people to think critically about the way they use these kind of platform or other than teaching people how to think critically i mean now that the w.h.o. is talk about mental health issues should there be regulation so i mean i think you know there were already is regulation of various kinds in a particular or does there need to be veneering aims and perhaps in a domino way a different level in that in many ways. yeah i think in many ways this is kind of it's a new story but it's also an old story so when we have you know new forms of media that are being used by children that perhaps their parents don't understand or didn't use themselves we often get these kind of moral panics you know today it's fortnight you know in previous years it was you know staying up watching t.v. or ny or you know watching online videos or reading books with you know trashy content or whatever it is and i think one of the biggest biggest things we could do
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to move this debate forward is you know rethink the relationship that technology plays between between families so if parents are worried about for time perhaps they should you know play it with their children to get an experience of it because it's not that the media itself is inherently problematic it's that there are problematic uses of it so this should be a sort of family level regulation you don't see a role for the industry itself i don't know psychologists getting involved in sort of the programming design stage and that sort of thing i mean i think there's one aspect that does need regulation and that's the use of gambling in video games and the use of loot boxes or other techniques that. involving gambling being targeted at people who are under age you might not understand the risks of gambling but that's something where you know we have the regulation for this it's just a matter of the regulation being applied properly or we're talking about some of
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these terms like blue boxes feedback loops and what sort of negative side effects are they producing in human behavior let's explain them and demystify some of these terms of this whole bit. so i think you know with with feedback loops this is something that's not necessarily a problem this is something where somebody's gain some kind of enjoyment and they're able to go through that process so it's you know it's going on twitter and finding that you will your tweet has been light and retreated a whole number of times or it's you know winning in a in a video game so these things are not that's not necessarily problematic but i think when these things are tied into gambling aspects for luke boxes essentially reward in a video game where the contents of it is randomized and some people don't know what they're going to get when they open it up and often this can become problematic because people can then buy additional attempts to win what they want and that is a way of mobilizing that feeling of winning something of some positive feedback and
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tying it into small purchases or keeping people on the game which is what it is that do it what is it doing to people or is it simply that it's keeping people glued to their phones or is it doing something deeper to human psychology so i think you know their argument you know the use of these new kinds of media are changing the way we think or attention span or so on but you know the way technology has always had this kind of effect it changes how we think and it changes what we do and what i worry about is you know that we think that the entire media form is a problem you know it's true there are cases where people are becoming addicted to these these games and so on but the vast majority of the use is not like that so i think we have to be careful in kind of you know over kind of. generalizing the right use of these forms of media and i find a lot about you know the shift towards artificial intelligence is something that
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you know we're all talking about and i'm wondering whether technology will be even more able to manipulate human psychology in the future because of artificial intelligence for a profit of course. so so then this is a really interesting question you know present artificial intelligence has been used in a whole number of new domains you know looking over legal documents in medical uses and so on psychology remains quite a difficult thing to program because people are contradictory and have conflicting emotions and all these manner of things i think really the question we need to be asking is if it's likely that i could be used to manipulate people why are we not having a larger conversation about what i could be used for that could benefit people because i think it's quite a dystopian future way i is used to trick us and convince us to spend more money and so on when we could be using technology for for much better things interesting
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thanks so much for your thoughts on that. apple's been fined six and a half million dollars for misinforming a strain in customers about their faulty i phones the tech giant refuses to fix phones and i pads that have been serviced by third parties but it failed to tell a stranger and customers about the policy apple admitted misleading hundreds of them after thomas is in sydney with more. this was an issue that affected five thousand people in australia in twenty fifteen or twenty six days they had. downloaded the likes of software only to find that that immediately generated an era fifty three message which stopped their device from what when those people took their products into an apple shop like this one they were told that they got the error of fifty three messages because it revealed that they had taken their device at some point so an unauthorized repair of an apple said that as a result of that they had no obligation to repair it or replacing the australians
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can see regular said no just because somebody. on the rise a parrot is not in the right it's because you never text me just like an apple as a result has to apply all the broken bones and nine million australian dollars and that's about six million us dollars well this was an issue that affected people all over the world so australia is unlikely to be the last place by such a point. and finally recycling firms in thailand are importing more electronic waste than they're allowed to and processing it in illegal factories scott high blood reports from bangkok. police officers gather at a factory gate just outside bangkok they send up a drone to take a peek. before scaling the wall and going yes this is the latest in a series of raids on electronic waste factory for the past month the authorities
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have been cracking down on illegal operations and investigating imported ways. some companies are bringing in more than they're authorized to import and using illegal factories like this one. it's the largest raid of its kind yet police estimate that there are six thousand tons of illegal waste in the sprawling compound all these seven company can you but now we found out that. not that. factory but to another in the gun factory five importers have now had their license is suspended for a year intelligence gained on previous raids led police here to this plastic facility it's not even registered to do this kind of work now this is a stack of old router fronts now there are thousands of stacks like this on this facility and it's clear that this particular one came from overseas on the back of them there's a sticker with an american customer service number on it customs officials say that
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the import of plastic material for recycling including waste totals two hundred thousand tons for just the first five months of this year that's double the amount for all of last year i believe that it resolves the ban from china in the in part as country so. tend to fly. countries into and thailand. those countries. environmental group greenpeace also thinks the chinese ban has led to an increase they're concerned with the contamination electronic waste causes heavy metal in water and soil and airborne toxins but the more immediate concern there's no specific law that deals directly with the waste management. dumping up.
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and we don't have to do that he says there's a domestic to keep the current businesses open so there's no economic reason for thailand to take in other countries. show for this remember you can. twitter use the hash tag a j c t c when you do drop us an email. address is more for you online. that'll take you straight to our page which has individual reports links and the entire episode for you to catch up on. for this edition of counting the cost. for the whole team here thanks for joining us.
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well waiting well we'll see idea popped into it when they're on line it's undoubtedly chief goal. of again inequality in society today or if you join a sunset criminal justice system is dysfunctional right now this is a dialogue what does it feel like bringing you to go back for the first time everyone has a voice and allow refugees to flee the speakers for change join the conversation on our african heads of state and government will gather in mauritania with thirty post assembly of the african union ongoing conflicts in the fight against corruption will take center stage al-jazeera will bring you extensive coverage of the summit and its outcomes the african union summit on al jazeera. it was
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a war that united egypt and syria had against israel but in the heat of the battle that different agendas soon became apparent as of told me that his dream was to avenge to see tonight a sixty seven when president said that came to a poet he told us just give me ten centimeters of land in the east the second of a three part series israeli population but told that their troops were on the west bank of the so is going to explore the second week of the war in october on al-jazeera.
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every. president is reelected with sweeping new powers as the opposition concedes defeat while urging him to be a president for all. out of there good to have you with us on jonah this is al jazeera coming to you live from london italy and libya look for common ground to resolve europe and north africa as migration crisis. algeria denies allegations that left more than thirteen thousand migrants in the sahara desert without food or water. environmentalist's accuse australia's government of failing to protect.


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