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tv   Sykes- Picot Lines In The Sand 2016 Ep 1  Al Jazeera  November 25, 2018 4:00am-5:01am +03

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bloody retreat on outages zero. on counting the cost breaking the rules italy wants to spend its way out of an economic slump but it's up to its eyes in debt the big cryptocurrency sell off and a rock star c.e.o. finds himself. counting the cost on al-jazeera. i missed. the top stories on al-jazeera french president emanuel macron has condemned a violent protest as has been demonstrating against rising fuel prices police fired tear gas and water cannons to disperse crowds who are building barricades and setting cars alight the so-called yellow vest protests began last weekend and have since spread across the country catherine stansell reports. a wave of yellow in the
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french capital the anger fueled by a proposed tax rise. for the second successive weekend the so-called yellow vests created roadblocks and organized protests demanding president emmanuel macross scrapped the fuel tax. riot police stopped thousands of demonstrators on the main avenue de shawn tully say from breaking through a cordon protecting the elysee palace the president's official residence. and the protests continued into the night with demonstrators setting barricades and cars on fire. the price of diesel has risen by twenty three percent over the past year to about a dollar seventy one per liter. across decision to impose a further increase of six point five cents starting on the first of january is the final straw for many here. the government takes everything from us they steal from
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us we have to pay for everything we are overtaxed and we hope that the protests will change things. the rising cost of fuel is going to trigger a civil war and i like most of the citizens we are already. we are for that with but you so much all the time it's become the new normal but it is so much it's just not possible anymore. yet. the president blames rising oil prices worldwide and says the tax is necessary for more investment in green and renewable energy social media has primarily been used to mobilize the yellow vests they say they have no leader or political affiliation police are concerned that far right extremists make infiltrate the demonstrations and provoke violence three thousand officers have been mobilized in paris. nearly three hundred thousand people took
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part in similar nationwide protests last saturday she people were killed and hundreds of others injured france already has some of the highest road fuel taxes in europe across vowing to face down any protests and press ahead with his policy no matter how unpopular cutting stansell al-jazeera. key republican and democrat lawmakers are demanding answers about the u.s. president's reluctance to punish saudi arabia for the killing of journalist jamal khashoggi democrat adam schiff is set to become the house intelligence committee chairman early next year and is promising a thorough investigation into the affair. the final of south american football's biggest club competition the copa limited dora's has been pushed back by a day after one of the team bosses was attacked several players were hurt after fans of the river plate club threw projectiles at the rival baka junior's boss. taiwan's president sighing when has resigned as the chairman of the pro of the
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ruling pro independence party following a major defeat in local mid-term elections voters have said no to becoming the first asian country to legalize same sex marriage. yemen saudi backed government has rejected a u.n. offer to manage the running of a crucial port special envoy martin griffiths met senior who is the rebels who agreed to talks on the un's role in managing the head to head data port is control it and saudi immorality coalition forces have been battling to retake it for months griffiths is expected to meet members of yemen's exiled government in riyadh on monday another ten bodies have been found after flash flooding in iraq meaning at least seventeen people have been killed heavy rains forced thousands of people to flee the northern town of chicago they've returned to a massive clean up homes and businesses are swamped inland. those are the headlines the news continues here on al-jazeera after psych speaker.
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in late one thousand nine hundred fifteen one world war one was being fought in the trenches of mainland europe. britain france and russia were allied against the central powers of germany austria-hungary and the ottomans. the war in europe west tag meeting but britain urgently needed a strategy as to how to divide the ottoman empire with france should the allies be victorious. the prime minister turned to a young british politician called sir mark sykes who had cast himself as the government's advisor on the middle east. the ottoman empire is assailed by
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misfortune crippled by mary advices and the prey of alien greed ambition and timidity. englishman may have ideas but they are unable to take any steps to overturn the regime and free the people's interests power. by the third of january nineteenth sixteen he and the french lawyer turned diplomat . would have negotiated the terms of a secret agreement. in two words i foresee a protectorate taj which uses a local traditions and customs to establish different cuisines in the four provinces of super. lebanon a lebanon enlarged by the an extension of beirut pully to becca and serving as
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a model of what is necessary to achieve using indigenous and. and. these two men devised a plan that would not only divide the spoils of the declining autumn an empire between the two european powers but would draw lines in the sand that would ultimately influence the shape of the middle east for the next century. istanbul capital of an ottoman empire that had stood for six centuries.
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expanding the confluence of asia africa and europe. its peak had been in the sixteenth century. than the other says russia left. the dock most court there was the how well. the barrack from. iraq could be of. any fee. but that. they've been.
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no there are many year learn to call a double or a sin i can that there were a year to job. and. he. hasn't done a proper war othella sadat has to hear from his own poor who are living but there. are. a builder of many year we've got for those with money if you're a little off of one food. from about a very. base of american have fathers monique america. has a delusion and i can convey your could be a few. dots i'm an empire began receding in the nineteenth century. in eighteen thirty it lost algeria to france. while egypt gradually came under british rule which then
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expanded into the arabian peninsula. the arabs of mesopotamia greater syria and the. remains part of the ottoman empire which was undergoing its own changes. kind of person i shall bear that address or. that. year or democrates year or you measure least. at the very near future. a while michalis well but as erlich fee. measures a third me when i'm a silly. morgan i live a lot of b. i lucked out a lot of the year mostly million. in one thousand or eight the committee of union and progress the young turks overthrew didn't have me
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just act. and restored to the eight hundred seventy six constitution. this reduced tension at the top of ottoman politics but also created in fighting among arab groups in the empire and let her hear much more of a new dictatorial. more. likely. to be home. and who knows i'll call me to get. them is. there really is that what i did a few short. and. a. recent carefully and remember the. so far i think there will. be more and that your but it does because it would have. been the lead.
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toward the three key and. more american below what i would be you. know what i do work for the who. by one thousand and fourteen you could really say that for those arabs who are engaged in identity politics what they aspired to was a better deal for the arabs within the art of the. this brand of politics is known as arab ism and arab ist were really thinking in terms of imitating the austria-hungary empire with a kind of arab turkish dual monarchy and the ottoman empire but were very concerned not to exit the audubon umbrella for fear that where the arabs edited make a bid for independence they would be immediately at risk of european. the ottomans suffered a major defeat in nineteen i dance a little here priests serbia and montenegro in the first balkan born.
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to be in territory but the defeat did initially ease the relationship between the arabs of the ottoman empire and the young turks governments. even a focus of the bill. on well many years and a speech. i would get nothing in with went to faff i'm also at the end of that is how it was at the what they really thought jacques lecoq thought food for thought for the i mean what do you mean. i the thought that we should be. the first world war started at the end of july nineteenth fourteen. britain france and russia the central scholars of
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germany austria-hungary and bulgaria. shortly after the ottomans opted to supports germany. the pillar of the fleet. and homework. it is a funny. what was it when i came. home and it was set for them by about an f. on how to see their own lot of good with money without a show you. are liberal did the. national heart of. political. who are you starlet i look at remove.
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my knee i mean. to be a highly. mean mean. very considered politically really thought that i will a good or i must be really really really brilliant or so you're going to talk doggy into luckily my mother took. me in the circular buffer to libya that i'm a poet at the overall point. ruth doleman head of a says he cannot afford it and we had definite well. well. behind the that let's get going and method a low ball get it to read woman who wore in ghana auburn then you know for
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a while with jeff moved back to holland we had death. in february one thousand nine hundred fifteen frustrated by the stagnating war in europe the british open to an eastern front against the ottomans on the dardanelles strait they imagined the ottoman army as weak and easier to defeat as the way of taking on germany and ending the war. russia however was more concerned about its use of ottoman waterways so the russians asked britain and france to sign an agreement to guarantee their own share of the spoils after the war. the russians were keen to seize more as cultural capital as a sort of restoration of orthodox christianity after. five centuries of all of the rule and so with the outbreak of the first world war on the eve of the complete invasion. the russians wanted to secure their allies commitment to granting
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istanbul and the straits to the russian empire and this becomes an exchange of documents known as the constantinople agreement concluded between march and april one thousand nine hundred eighteen. britain france and russia entered into the constantinople agreement which granted the russians certain ottoman territories and waterways. however this agreement peeved the way for another secret deal as london and paris started to plot exactly what they wanted from a region that's was gaining strategic significance in the coming age of only room. you could really see the britain and to the war without any clear territorial ambitions in their territory they could not at the stage of the constantinople agreement identify the one place that they wished to add to their empire but they
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reserve the right to do so as soon as they worked out what their priorities were and so in a sense the constantinople agreement really is the first of the wartime partition agreements that will begin to shape the way in which the arab provinces will be carved up primarily between britain and france since russia's interest lay mostly in turkish territories so very british fashion the british created a committee called the debunks and committee and its remit was to look in. the sort of the options for britain so that when the time for negotiations with the french came up the british would be well prepared and know what they wanted and this is actually something that the british did throughout the war and right to the end of the war. so in april one thousand nine hundred fifteen the british set up a committee headed by the diplomats morris' the bunsen to define their interests in the ottoman territories it's made certain assumptions about what its ally france
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would expect from any potential deal. russian army left field. but there are others said feel very good walk and if it is you you really do there and live front live on the run a sort of cobra in the phone so you can have call on it now i will suddenly be in the muscle i look at your mom and the daughter thirty five a month with you probably have your mom what have you had month britain's interests are most likely to be in completing its a period in the persian gulf by securing the territories of the province the bus strike in baghdad linked as they were two persian oil fields and island in the shot that are up. nicely completing dominion that stretched right around the earth coastline of the persian gulf which it would take since an eight hundred twenty s. . good morning gentlemen are really only so you get on some twenty to set up.
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and it's youngest maced. and most carefree man was mark sykes who was kitchen as military assistant kitchen i was the secretary of state for war and he delegated the job of sitting on the committee sykes mark sykes had been born into a wealthy family in yorkshire in the north of england in eight hundred seventy nine . he studied at cambridge university and was elected as a conservative member of parliament in one thousand eleven. he liked to give the impression of being an expert on the middle east based on his travels in the region but he was not quite the authority as it was sometimes assumed. he presented the debunks in committee with his vision of a new near east region his riches and this would be our allies yes i come up himself with a different plan which was something completely different
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a much more old fashioned. was to create a cotton across the middle east so he was planning to divide the middle east between france and. can. create a belt of english controlled country that stretched across from the mediterranean coast to the mountains of the iranian from and back to the centuries a affront to britain could control and keep other people away from the red sea and the persian gulf. that was rejected by the bunch i wish the older wiser said you know that why work your. way into line one nine hundred fifteen the debunks in committee recommended dividing the ottoman empire into several provinces over which britain would seek influence rather than exercise direct control. but when sykes was sent to the middle east and india he began to revert to his original idea of
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a british cordon from the mediterranean to iraq. so mark from your knowledge of the other question. where would you say that a legion slot is between us and the french i mean. practically all arabs approach. not exactly empty french but frightened of financial exploitation and they are frightened of french colonial methods. but there are many christians in syria in the limit and in particular how do they fit the christians or is afraid at the bottom of their hearts as the muslims and only in syria at training center is present everywhere because they know what the french do that feeling pretty well runs all through. there is the french nationalist party which is sentimental still harking back to the crusades. so science returned and as the
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currents of the started to come together he was called into downing street at the end of the year on the sixteenth of december nine hundred fifty and then. he must've gone with a map as well because he got into the the meeting with the cabinet the prime minister and his chief ministers sitting around the cabinet table in downing street i believe they fear an arab kind of that. which is an independent state the common language the arabs of tunis algeria and morocco huge of course they control entirely the french nationalists believe that if the allies when they want syria and palestine i'm not a massive attainable likes appeared to be someone who was very knowledgeable and in fact in that cabinet meeting that he went to in december one nine hundred fifty in . order that the result of a cabinet meeting was that one of the cabinet ministers he was there believed he could speak arabic and turkish but in fact he could speak neither language so he he
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dotted his speech with arabic phrases that sort of thing to give himself the appearance of being an ex when in fact he was more of a gifted amateur what do you think we should do some are. i think to counteract the french war aims. we require diplomacy. do you think diplomacy will achieve with the fridge i don't want to make any suggestions except on very general lines. but i feel we ought to settle with france as soon as possible and get a definite understanding about syria what sort of arrangement would you like to have with the french what would you say to them i would like to see for ourselves. south of haifa apart from the active tourist. if you have it is just to be very. good and the who are.
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for you. know. the men would not. with chemical it's most important we should have. english controlled country between the sharif of mecca and the french in syria but would you do. i should like to draw a line. e n a. to the last character cook and this must all be settled before we can take military action against the turks in syria. we must find out what the french actually in system having they demolish syria they can both be merely a military purposes we must make terms with problems. which made us we must make
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tough times. diplomatic. right to. britain has identified the territories of the ottoman empire its wanted in order to protect its interests in the suez canal and the arab provinces. but this clan was dependent on puts and france winning the war which at the start of one thousand and fifteen was almost at a standstill on the western front in europe. the allies decided to open an eastern front against the ottomans. the ill fated gillet police campaign ran between april one nine hundred fifteen and january one thousand nine hundred sixty. when it's finally fields the allies including australians and new zealanders suffered
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a major step. this monument commemorates the ottoman victory in which around eighty thousand allied troops were killed. this defeat at the police and later includes mr the team caused the british to enter into more secret deals over the middle east. coming up how the british conspired with to be first thing of mecca to strike back at the ottomans through an arab revolt. the british the dot the sharifs of mecca the partners that were essential in the propaganda war with the ottomans to demonstrate that the muslim world was better off on the allied side that fight the audience let me explain why we must have and sikes. negotiate peace to feasts to get what they both want from the middle east well if we cannot have palestinian my government was suddenly not allowed britain to control my government would take the
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same view french polish term would be now. but then we need to find another solution. will we come. and so. now we can go on. in a world where journalism as an industry is changing we had al jazeera fortunate to be able to continue to expand to continue to have that passenger drive and present the stories in a way that is important to our viewers. everyone has a story worth hearing. and cover those that are often ignored we don't weigh our
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coverage towards one particular region or continent that's why i joined al-jazeera . in palestine under british rule. educated in america. a controversial professor in new york. he realized that he was the voice. of the people out. explores what made him an influential writer. and champion of the palestinian pools in the west and what's out of place. once welcome now fear. and dividing a nation. al-jazeera explores germany's long term economic strategy of pursuing
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immigrants from the arab world i feel more gentle and syrian. all much money does a richer get those people who don't think it's going to do it and german and i'm rocking the new germans on al-jazeera. i missed and i ha the top stories on al-jazeera french president emanuel macron has condemned a violent protest as have been demonstrating against rising fuel prices police fired tear gas and water cannon to disperse crowds who are building barricades and setting cars alight the so-called yellow vest protests began last weekend and have since spread across the country. university researcher in paris he says anger has
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been brewing over the president's failure to deliver on his promises. french people can see that and many people can see that they have too many times when at the same time the public. expenditure goes don't of people don't want to read one great piece of hysterics when they're no one's if you see through their lenses that we can expand it europe's it's a very very big words if you can of course in so many. key republican and democrat lawmakers are demanding answers about the u.s. president's reluctance to punish saudi arabia for the killing of journalist jamal khashoggi democrat adam schiff is set to become the house intelligence committee chairman early next year and is promising a thorough investigation into the affair the final of south american football's biggest club competition the copilot of dora's has been pushed back by a day after one of the team buses was attacked several players were hurt after fans
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of the river plate club food projectiles at the rival baka juniors bus. taiwan's president sighing when has resigned as the chairwoman of the ruling pro independence party following a major defeat in local mid-term elections voters have also said no to becoming the first asian country to legalize same sex marriage yemen saudi backed government has rejected a u.n. offer to manage the running of a crucial port special envoy martin griffiths met senior who's the rebels who agreed to talks on the un's role in managing the port of her data the who he is control of and saudi m a r t coalition forces have been battling to retake it for months another ten bodies have been found after flash flooding in iraq meaning at least seventeen people have been killed heavy rains forced thousands of people to flee the northern town of shock at homes and businesses have been swamped with mud those are the headlines join me here for the news after sykes pekoe lines in the
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sand. we must retain full control. in the late one nine hundred fifteen early one nine hundred sixty metres both britain and france were exercised by how they might divide up the ailing ottoman empire between them so the allies ultimately win the first world war . but when they suffered a serious defeat at belittling britain looked at alternative ways of attacking the ottomans and undermining their support for germany. that now the ottomans on a victory might be able to provoke uprisings in the india and egyptian was the populations that so far they've not been able to effect it's at that point different begins to really consider how it might turn the tables on the audience and force them to
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fight in their own territory against an internal uprising so to address that challenge they turned to that sharif of mecca who had already made overtures to the british about concluding an alliance to secure their position now all of a sudden the british the doll the sharifs of mecca the partners that were essential . in the propaganda war with the ottomans to demonstrate that the muslim world was better off on the allied side than fighting the ottoman. in one thousand or eats the ottomans had appointed should you trust in been highly as the wily the governor of his does the area towards the red sea. he was from the hashemite in a city in mecca of which he was the emir. his sons faisal and i were representatives and ottoman parliament what is with the ship with istanbul had deteriorated in recent years but that africa was going to show you that soon out of either me. and no. fly the few
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feet istanbul of time you to many and some you just are here to have a tree or to have the thought of going on. with many heavy for. your army you know the home of the kid be your peer got a pretty. show you might be your i mean. i believe that all if you could. as you well know who or what he saw a show off. home i saw him out of the jazz. and then. out of me that there were as many. li. hokum as many yakkers to do more of the year and it was many a how come yet this was what a crowd was good on about how they are the other in their out how to lead the spirit and then her does are referred to as many if it will be.
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sweetly. her. dizzy. lee. at the ottoman ruler of great. her syria jamal pasha executed a group of arabs in damascus and beirut in one nine hundred fifteen and nineteen sixteen they were accused of being separatists and of supporting the british and french this hard determination of the arab nationalists to separate from ottoman rule and to create an independent arab states hussein didn't have any modern ideas of nationalism but he wanted more autonomy under the ottoman. empire but it's only gradually that he was drawn into what became an arab national movement
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a full scale revolt against the ottomans and this wasn't an easy decision for the sharif maker to make because the ottomans were fellow muslims. and he was siding with an infidel. against fellow sunni muslims. there had been conversations between the british and the hash more it's before the war but in july one thousand nine hundred fifteen sharif christine wrote to the british high commissioner in cairo sir henry mcmahon. he offered his support to against the ottomans in return for british support for an independent kingdom that would include the provinces in the arab peninsula and be ruled by the hashemites. so if seven out of a. third of the. muscle over here did that there would
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a lot of could be up early may how about you see a fella. there with a limp as it ought to be. to clean it off and the blood would run through the whole upper limit as a seal mccoll with an associated double of the labia coming that it was a. good is that there were a lot to be absolutely. ill most earth early the other three what a source of his ability to team a lot of cloth and most but the man bit adia what the limits of all the other of the saudi you were a scary few. months of. the correspondence continued and mcmahon wrote to sharif listing on the twenty fourth of october one thousand nine hundred fifteen he said that britain would not guarantee support for an independent arab kingdom with all the provinces demanded by the hashemites
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nevertheless the hashemites went ahead with their revolt against the ottomans in july one nine hundred sixteen. bytes many still consider mcmahon's lesser controversial today because of the air. as the british wanted to exclude from any future arab kingdom. and that you. should see. it doesn't mean it is a good occasion to go to middle feet literally no time will it would you meant when it ended residency in britain. while barack and a suit walk to be demolished homes will have no house. and you call on her to be wrapped up in that. doesn't mean it isn't then getting money in d.c. became a few uneasy in districts very moment it clear and the fear doesn't or hasn't
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you can believe this was an evil mccarran carrier to belittle and documents. like that was careful not to promise anything the contravened preexisting treaty arrangements they wished to exclude territories to the west of hong damascus and aleppo and certain areas around the gulf of alexandretta and into the sea and that britain was already an occupation of the province a bus ride much of the province of baghdad at this time and so britain was very keen to declare its interest and retaining some degree of control over those territories for the mutual benefit of the arabs of the british gathers boundaries that britain would be willing to accept the hash likely to arab kingdom with british support hussein thought that the british promised to include palestine in his kingdom. and the british later denied that their promised team
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palestine they denied outright but. all the every does is that they have probably seen palestine double if that one had. with only a certain image maria let's show you for saying i love doing my last. minute of all the thing these miles and so we. filmed a little more how to belittle the men in the world living this way or that i did feel that means. yeah you can leave that also they're going to require a libyan number of. significantly in the same month that the british promised parts of greater syria to sharif distain they told the french that any agreement relating to the borders of an arab kingdom would not be finalized without their consent. they knew how
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strong the french interest in syria was. on the first of october nine hundred fifteen the french ambassador to britain paul campbell wrote to his prime minister . to tell him that london had requested a french representative to draw the borders of an arab kingdom with syria. in this document the french ambassador suggested hans want george be called would manage the general consulate in beirut for over a year and knew the syrian issue better than anyone else. aloft also just because diplomat sit down diplomat here diplomat kamel is a. hundred years in the game circular debate events. so. there are a lot some of the stuff i mean. i don't know them. the diplomatic. eat
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. the kid don't so much they couldn't as yet it is something that's kind. of the diplomat less it's at the depths of the plus the bus stop bus even circles good. luck at all. this year because i was almost sure your the night you were going to place your feet in the dorm the french representative pico had his first meeting with the british in london on the twenty third of november one thousand nine hundred fifteen . tonight fool to see you again and i know everybody you know they started their negotiations about their respective shares of the ottoman empire once the war was over. british come along with an array of people from all the different ministries that take an interest the war ministry the foreign office the colonial office. they
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all sitting on one side of the table and peter was on the other side of the table have. i would define for the first round raise your government just as we must of course have the whole of syria and palestinian know all of it of course down to the egyptian border but if you're pinko you must remember is there are other claims in this area. to pass up perhaps the best to him and you could form a kind of enclave but certainly nowhere. despite the numerical advantage p.k. just sits there with his arms crossed and says i'm not interested in you or your plan it doesn't we we call possibly accept something along the lines that you're talking about moving further east we must have the learn and not of this line and across here including most a motion. the town not of the villa it the whole area around twenty years ago the
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belayer took most of included the baghdad ambassador district or you should just think they should be separated now is impossible to consider the situation of twenty years ago affecting the situation now so much you have pico if you have palestine and syria and half iraq and most of all we will be satisfied i think i can persuade my government then we have reached an impasse. the uncompromising positions of both sides adult first meeting caused the british army intelligence officer in cairo to write it is obviously hopeless to attempt to arrive at any reasonable agreement with the french so long as pico is their representative. course the reek of it. says mean of some to settle commuter policy really since he is
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a key basque something has so populations are really cute aw you know if divine the goose he. said he had left. a place on. the nikkei it deserve a third of what. this one that penned the big. news like your face because typically also on the bendy bit do get it idea of the victoire so markedly twelve were larkham also potentially thirty two are in this you know caster that is he talking existed part it's about that mono kid arm around him all these ethics has gone their bellies into our nano. this in the off at least we drilled the paedos holding. so mark your government has been adopting extreme positions over a territory which you must recognize france has special claims to but in the meetings
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i attended no one seemed to give a centimeter and yet concessions i feel the censure decisions have to be made so that we both know where we stand when turkey is conquered as inevitably it will be. to speak up i feel sure that within these walls we can find a way through the issues and my government has given me the power to make the necessary decisions i too have been given the freedom by my government to make the necessary decisions and you must realize that we have very definite needs in the territory which some of my countrymen consider to be french by rights ever since the crusades do you remember who won the crusades yes but today the ira observes you said i didn't although these talks were secret the russians had already made their demands what we must do now that we have agreed the russians can have the northern areas of turkey including the straits is to discuss the southern and eastern areas so that
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the interests of both great nations can be established for the decades that will follow the end of them or the start then with the provinces of syria that center on damascus and they live in. their own. a desert should they. do food. then or are the authorities say you couldn't before you corner a foster home where you know roofs. with money you have. no food. for. your review and. you see it's indispensable for the arabs of in syria to have some direct access to the mediterranean somewhere along the syrian lebanon on the way to
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total french control that will be impossible but that would mean french positions would be split into between an often a self of syria that simply cannot be allowed to happen the political and military a bit strange would be impossible in such a divided territory. i'm not convinced but. it is nevertheless try to meet that object. and my dividing line is here. from. a little funny you should be. in either party a big deal. or no one had. no from stuff you have no hasa could have made. but you know. a. little funny it's also a miniature should be sent. to was your story configured for a walk. or funny. enough.
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well in a wilma you spend all your enough to start the battle you put on it it will not be possible to persuade my colleagues to accept a line as far north as that that would exclude coats of all regions like the whole run from a sphere i see but for france to control territory that far south make it very difficult for our plans for a railway line from the coast to baghdad i must insist on this point smoke. and co cook. we could not possibly let you have cook from my own travels in the air i know that this province contains the only elements of the population which will make it possible for the caller migration of iraq my idea sykes this is hardly in a spirit of conciliation let me explain why we must have the territory we requested in northern misfitting. but only on playing mock signs just people don't believe i suppose this president and his team don't know something he esteemed because it
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though do continue it twenty politically. because the continually double up and i must feel shivers and then it don't come so awesome that at that instant lesson hoopla he still he can go to his own let alone do much of a descriptive pull his own little problem see the point is you have thrown the ball you cannot destroy this well if we cannot have palestina my government was suddenly not allowed britain to control my government would take the same view french press time would be an outrage but then we need to find another solution before we come to blows. and so. now we can draw him out.
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so when sikes left the cabinet meeting. on sixteenth of december nine hundred fifteen to go and meet pico he had a problem because he had to reconcile two conflicting sets of demands the set of demands that pico was making for syria and lebanon and the other set of demands that sheriff was saying had already made and which the british had already effectively accepted for both covering the same territory so he in pico came up with a map that made a distinction between two types of land in the middle east land that britain and france would absolutely control which was colored blue for france and red for britain and a hinterland the in a region which was called area a an area b. where the arabs would have. somewhat ptolemy but in which each of the big
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powers the great powers would have the right to advise or influence with the further complication that the territory of what was to become palestine was designated for an international zone where basically russia britain and france are able to agree who could lay greater claim to the holy lands just to further that decision down the road by painting it all proud. in january one thousand nine hundred sixteen the french and british agreed to ignore the borders of any future arab kingdom. their new borders were enshrined in the deal we now know as the psychs pekoe agreements. sikes to his line from acre to could cook so the south of anatolia eastern turkey the syrian coast and the roots were put under direct french control.
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basra and baghdad were put under direct british control. and damascus were put under french protection and were called area a. the rest of mr petain mia and the south of greater syria were put under british protection and called area b. . but palestine including jerusalem was designated as an international zone in brown. all those like speaker was never implemented it formed the basis of future negotiations and the post autumn in middle east resembled the areas of influence it created so the map has different colors different letters but ultimately what really matters is the line in the sand that runs from the coast to the persian from here. in this yes. the national.
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fates x. people. while they're not quite as mean. don't really need to know the arab men. called for most of the. mining is. done is. a shabby larby from the who let it. be funny in a funny way the british felt that the system that the arabs so viewed as a betrayal. was in keeping with the terms of what they've agreed with the hashemites because they were still considering the territories if there is informal british and french influence as kingdoms to be ruled by arabs and there was even one mention of the sharif of mecca and their sites because agreement to route things out but ultimately for the arabs six fico was double dealing
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and it seemed to be giving territory that had just been conceded to the hashemites by the same man correspondence to the french. here in st petersburg and the russian foreign ministry the secret psychs pekoe agreements between britain and france was approved by russia. that deal was finalized in correspondence dated the sixteenth of may nineteenth. influencing diffused church of millions of people in the middle east's.
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over one hundred years ago britain and france made a secret deal to divide the middle east between them now we can draw a map in the second episode we explore the lasting effects of this agreement that there is a regional set to six because it's at those borders were drawn without consulting the people who have to live with the. sykes people lines in the sand on elm disease.
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hello again welcome back to your international weather forecast where we are ending the holiday weekend with some rain showers and some snow here for parts of chicago now it's mostly going to be snow as we begin the day and that means we could be seeing some travel delays here across one of the major hubs down towards the south it's going to be cold cooler and cloudy first atlanta as well as dallas down towards miami though a very nice twenty eight degree day for you up toward seattle though we do expect to see more rain and winds coming into play by the time we get to monday and by the time we get to tuesday it is going to be mostly rainy conditions there were here across central america really not looking too bad up towards mexico as well as the central part the down here towards the south we are still seeing some clouds in the forecast those are going to continue to bring some rain showers maybe for parts of panama maybe for managua as well but as we go towards monday still not looking to too much rain up here towards parts of anna where the temperature of you of about thirty degrees sentiment go looking quite nice with a temperature of about thirty one and then very quickly as we make our way down
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here toward south america we are seeing one funnel boundary that's making its way towards rio de janeiro that system is going to bring some thunderstorms over the next few days but for cincy and it is going to be a hot day for you at thirty two degrees and partly cloudy day with a temperature of about twenty four degrees in your forecast. on counting the cost breaking the rules italy wants to spend its way out of an economic slump but it's up to its eyes in a big cryptocurrency selloff and a rock star c.e.o. finds himself. counting the cost on. it's a climb to one of the holiest sites in due time. the street seems to defy gravity every few cities is expected to complete the pilgrimage to ensure peace and happiness when it became a democracy in two thousand and eight the time put happiness at the center of all
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political policy inspiring the un to pass a resolution urging other nations to follow pitot example but how do you measure it . it's a nice happiness is what we ensure it's if it is quantifiable but by simply turning its pursuit into policy bhutan has done what no other country has. this is al jazeera. hello and welcome to this new. headquarters in doha coming up. anger over fuel prices ignites a violent scenes in the hearts of arabs. read political unity builds in washington to.


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