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tv   newsgrid  Al Jazeera  January 2, 2019 6:00pm-7:01pm +03

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primary sources told us that the hit squad had discussed the plan one hour before her show she was killed first they'd offered to take him to riyadh and if he doesn't accept they'd kill him they knew he wouldn't accept the plan to wrap his body parts in plastic bags then carried out in luggage this new video was released by the team behind the book on monday it shows senior saudi agent's name does a tiger team sent to kill has to come so late unloading luggage and bags from when and taking them inside the consul generals residence just a few hundred meters from the crime scene the others have concluded remains are likely still there inside a well saudi arabia had allowed turkish officials to take a sample from the well but consistent that night request to empty it and conduct the search the book reveals more interesting details for instance on saudi foreign sick experts solid how to basically who is set to have dismembered touchup his body after his killing in how often our using an autopsy saw to breach a douche or credible sources are claiming that begun his family enjoy the villa and
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pool in jeddah now far from riyadh i don't think the saudis would punish such committed servants because i don't think they have many our sources also confirm that one of the hit men saddam stanny died in a suspicious car accident in saudi arabia maybe he was leaning toward talking but the author sources say the crime was committed in istanbul because the saudis wanted to show turkey is no longer safe for opponents of corrupt governments in order to finish the investigation and file possible indictments it is necessary to know the location of question remains many people here in turkey strongly believe this diplomatic residence in istanbul that long society consul general is aware that journalists remains were brought turkish authorities now how the right to ask for another search of the company ever quest that is likely to be denied by saudi arabia so now because so little al-jazeera stumble. no netflix is censoring a comedy series in saudi arabia at the request of the kingdom of to the host to
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criticize the saudi crown prince over the jamal khashoggi murder now boys my mind but it's not the killing of the washington post journalist for everyone to go imo i guess he's really not a reformer. the second episode of patriot act with house has reigned released just weeks after the murder of the saudi journalist it also highly critical of the war in yemen calling on the u.s. to reassess its relationship with riyadh netflix has defended its decision to take down the episode saying it complied with a valid legal request from saudi authorities. still ahead here on al-jazeera brazil's new president promises to crack down on crime and improve the economy but many question his lack of experience. but in sudan opposition parties join calls for president obama to share to step aside.
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hello again and welcome back well here across south asia we are watching one storm system that we have been watching over the last couple of days you can see it right here on the satellite image that is public now book is making its way towards the west has already brought some very very heavy rain across parts of southern vietnam we've seen some flooding there but the thing about this storm is we have never seen a storm make its way into thailand and make landfall in thailand in the month of january and we do think that is what is going to be happening as we go towards the weekend so there we go on friday making a turn towards the northwest into the gulf of thailand bringing very heavy rain and winds across much of that area where here across australia over the next few days it is going to be the temperatures we are watching now we had seen the storm appear that made its way across queensland that is now in the coral sea was certainly seeing some very heavy rain across much of the coastal areas but down here towards
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the south it is going to be the heat take a look at the terms here from melbourne not looking too bad on thursday with attempted there of about twenty eight degrees but then as we go towards friday we are going to be seeing a big jump in those temperatures into the low forty's for you over towards adelaide it is going to be about thirty five degrees there sydney we do expect to see a partly cloudy day at thirty one and more clouds for britain with a temperature of thirty one. in the next episode of science in a golden age i'll be exploring the contributions made by scholars during the medieval islamic period in the field of astronomy. copernicus is this debt to these medieval the stormers from the golden age. that streams in many ways will be the computers of the day you can use it to find the time you could navigate science in a golden age with german. you're
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watching al-jazeera needs a whole row with a reminder of all top stories president xi jinping says no one can change the fact that taiwan is part of china it's part of his first major speech addressing what beijing considers a breakaway province on choose day taiwan's president insisted the island wants to maintain self rule two women have entered a hindu temple india's southern state of carola defying hardline protesters the temple was closed to women in the ages of ten and fifty but the supreme court overturned the ban in september leading to protest by those supporting the ban. and
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a group of british politicians and international lawyers have asked to visit detained activists in saudi arabia to investigate allegations they're being tortured and denied legal representation many have campaigned for the right of women to drive. pressure is mounting on sudan's president omar al bashir to resolve the growing political crisis opposition parties of joint calls him to step down for weeks of antigovernment protests the situation has also prompted two parties to withdraw from cabinet in the past week ever morgan has more from khartoum. thousands have been demonstrating in sudan demanding president armadale bashir step down now twenty two different opposition parties are also calling on the president to resign. the government needs to end its rule and step dime's we need to form a provisional council and a transitional government that will run this new steers to prepare us for the new elections. the opposition groups say they will submit a memo with their demands to the president on wednesday in
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a further set back for the government another opposition party has announced its withdrawing from the cabinet will. we realize the consequences of the current events and we are proud of our historic stand being in the thick of it therefore we decided within our political bureau to draw any representation we have in any official post. thank the crisis started two weeks ago with protest in the city of overbred shortages and rising prices that's quickly spread to other parts of the country and turned into demonstrations calling on president and bashir to end his twenty nine year old amnesty international says at least thirty seven people have been killed as police responded with tear gas and live ammunition the president has promised to cut costs and improve the economy but that has not stopped the protests despite the growing calls for mary bashir and his ruling party to step down the president seems determined to continue his term until elections scheduled for twenty twenty elections that he's not eligible to stand in unless the
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dance constitution is amended. more demonstrations are planned in the coming days but some analysts think that likely won't change the president's position. on the continuation of protests in cities including khartoum doesn't mean it's a people's revolution yet there are many factors that are needed to make this a popular revolution and the sudanese president knows that this time there are factors missing to make demands that he step down effective though things can change down the road. and memo may not force the president to resign make the opposition ones but with more protests planned and a defined president to dancer ahead may not be easy people morgan are does iran have to. special envoy to somalia has been ordered to leave accused of interfering in the country's internal affairs the government issued a statement saying nicholas hasan would no longer be allowed to work in somalia on monday hasan urged the government to safeguard human rights written
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a letter demanding answers regarding civilian deaths during a protest last month. government have killed at least thirty seven herders in central the government's call of villages in the region was carried out by men believed to be hunters is the latest in a spate of violent incidents between hunters and farmers barely over access to moment and water the death toll following floods and landslides in the philippines is now eighty five with at least twenty people still missing heavy rains hampered rescue operations in areas devastated but the search for survivors continues storm hit just days after christmas displacing as many as twenty five thousand people. brazil's new president. has been sworn injuring a ceremony in the capital brasilia the former army captain represents a major shift to the right in latin america's largest country and his first speech as president he calls for unity a promise to free brazil of corruption and crime and improve the economy hold the
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reports from brasilia. standing in the shadow of her hero christina new year's day is the start of change help but. it's the opportunity for the country to grow it's an opportunity to stop being the country known for corruption and this opportunity is named. to puerto rico. joe you've been to model for years he was a low profile congressman now he's been catapulted into power as the leader of south america's biggest economy but the far right populist has polarized brazil supporters love his plain speaking style and hard stance from crime opponents fear his intolerance of activists minorities and ambivalence to the environment but both are noddles main promise beating corruption appeals to brazil's political class has been engulfed by scandal. it is full it is that those charges of political
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favors force trading that needs to be left in the past we want the whole nation to benefit everything that we do henceforth has an undeniable purpose that is to put first and foremost the interests of brazilians. he's also promised to crack down on crime and revive a sluggish economy many believe that he can and not just his supporters leaving his inauguration in a poll just out sixty five percent of people said that they think he will do a great or a good job but this is a man who's admitted he knows little about the economy and who security plan has revolved around giving people greater access to guns and poor. lease license to kill uk basketball synonymous opponents worry about the lack of substance and his affinity to the military dictatorships of brazil's recent past in his speech to congress he committed to democracy but the effect was slightly spoiled by his final
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remarks directed against the leftist workers' party which governed here for years. this is our flag it will never be red even if we need to shed our blood to keep it green and yellow. what. a warning perhaps for those who hope there will be a more moderate president then candidate joe you bought some murdo may see no reason to change john heilemann disease or. brazil shift to the political right comes on the day cuba mark sixty years of the communist revolution led by fidel castro the ceremony included a speech by fidel's brother raul who stepped down as president last year and it's only six decades rule. inspired and guided left wing movements throughout the region since the one nine hundred fifty s. but now the left is out of power in most of latin america see no matter what a lot of. the revolution has not grown old it is still young and that's not just
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rhetoric it's a historical reality. as imperialist ambition is restored in our region the united states must understand that latin america and the caribbean have changed and so has the world for our part we will continue to actively push the process of consensus and integration in the region based on the concept of unity in diversity. u.s. border agents of fired teargas to stop people crossing the mexican border or women and children were among those trying to breach the fence the border agency says it was responding to rocks being thrown at them now there's been renewed debate about america's immigration policy after the deaths of two guatemalan children in u.s. custody and the u.s. president says he's ready to negotiate an end to the partial government shutdown which has been placed there for nearly two weeks old trump person voted congressional leaders from both parties to the white house on wednesday just a day before democrats take over as the majority party in the house or trump's been
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refusing to sign off on a spending deal unless it included funding has border wall sheer brutality has more from washington. the white house says congressional leaders are being invited to a briefing on border security by senior members of the department of homeland security clearly donald trump is trying to continue to frame the shutdown inter in the terms that he prefers which is it's because the democrats don't want secure borders that the government is shut down and this hasn't gone down terribly well with democrats and there's no guarantee that anyone will actually turn up to this meeting nancy pelosi who will be taking power in the house of representatives on thursday didn't even reference this meeting in the her tweet and her response to the invitation she simply said that she will be pursuing legislation on thursday to reopen the government but then there's still that question as to whether any legislation passed in the house will have
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a vote in the senate because the senate republican leadership says they won't have any vote unless they have a guarantee that donald trump will sign the distillation of passes in the senate so we haven't really moved on about far. johnson fronts to pay more tax these so-called death a tax named after google apple facebook and it was all is to ensure global digital to pay their fair share of the measure is expected to raise around science and seventy million dollars for frauds and twenty nine teams the french government to be pushing for an e.u. wide levy but fail to get the required support. south africa's government is introducing a minimum wage ahead of this year's general elections presence of a poser is promising millions of workers better pay as a six string creases voter base in rural areas critics say it could lead to increased unemployment as some business owners won't be able to afford to pay the minimum wage of one dollar forty cents an hour. economists are warning
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bad debt and low savings are threatening the survival of many commercial banks in nigeria millions of people do not deposit their savings in banks and the wealthy choose to invest it elsewhere but it just explains. they yearn to give them bongo farms and sells onions to some nigeria's neighbors at the peak of the season he makes about thirty thousand dollars a week despite this income he stopped taking his money to the bank at a bank he was not satisfied with the services they received a used to have an account but i was disappointed several times so i put my earnings back into the business and invest in real estate. and millions of other nigerians either not putting their money into savings account or have never even set foot in a bank. economist blame a number of factors including law income and poverty but even some of the reach i'm looking elsewhere to get their money if you look at the investment of fortune it is
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that i will open especially our save nigeria and the relatively high associated was in this to me and such ventures it because less is for their interests here in the country or led to this to our side but importantly. the sabin's culture must be institutionalized by the government itself with many banks going out of business during the last decade economy see better supervision and enforcement is needed to attract the ceilings and investment the banking system and lives. for any pay mentioned is to push us to war in to destress empowerment of the higher proportion of obvious tortola at least are said been taken we have been combative in long it indicates that the surveillance system provided by some tangata nigeria and as you'll end up with insurance cooperation is adequate for law all that is good. and whatever on the level of great truth authorities banks are
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becoming leaner with fewer branches and staff and acquisitions and mergers are also becoming the norm. a bank used to be here someone else is renting the building now after decades of doing business the bank shut down because it didn't have enough customers many people up for it and don't have enough. is the distrust of the banking system. small business men like as a young one to move from the banks access not only to loans but better returns on their savings too if that's not provided the banks may find the number of customers contributing to savings accounts when dealing father. reese. nigeria. they're watching or does their arms a whole room with a reminder of our top stories president xi jinping says no one can change the fact
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that taiwan is part of china it's part of his first major speech addressing what beijing considers a breakaway province on choose a taiwan's president saying when insisted the island wants to maintain self rule. or are you we are firmly against any plot to create two china or one china one taiwan or taiwan independence we've achieved a major victory in the fight against taiwan independence or separatist activities nobody and no party can change the historical and legal fact that taiwan is part of china and both sides of the strait belong to china. too we will become the first to enter a hindu temple in india's southern state of carola defying hardline protesters they will in the end of the seventy miller temple early on the morning in voiding demonstrators from conservative hindu groups the temple was historically close to when the age between ten and fifty but india supreme court overturned that ban in september since then protesters have harassed and attacked women who've tried to
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enter. this comes after millions of informed a human chain in support of gender equality following the row over access to the temple the event look to current efforts of right wing groups that support the ban the issue has become contentious in the run up to india's general election which is for april and may this year and a group of british politicians and international lawyers of us to visit detained activists inside the arabia to investigate allegations they've been tortured and denied legal representation many have campaigned for the right for women to drive. also the death toll following floods and landslides in the philippines is now eighty five with the least twenty people still missing heavy rains hampered rescue operations in areas devastated but the search for survivors continues storm in the hit just days after christmas displacing as many as twenty five thousand people. and several people are being killed in a train crash in denmark the accident happened on the great belt road which links
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the central danish islands of zealand inhumane the bridge has been closed while authorities investigate those there is here next its science in the golden age in half an hour is the news hour with marty do stay with us. it was one of the biggest bank robberies of modern times with over eighty million dollars stolen from bangladesh's central bank one used investigates how cyber hackers infiltrated the global banking system and on al-jazeera. understanding the universe and the vastness of space is at the forefront of physics and astronomy research today everything from white dwarfs and bread giants to neutron stars and black holes but imagine trying to make sense of the cosmos before telescopes for even invented. well between the ninth and fourteen centuries
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scholars from you fly mc world consolidated and refined the astronomy of earliest civilizations and came up with ideas that have deeply influenced the stormy right through to the present day and to markedly be a british professor of physics but born in baghdad and i'll be taking a look at modern day astronomy and navigation and exploring the contribution made to these fields by the scientists of the golden age.
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why would the scholars of the stomach world so interested in astronomy. one reason is for navigation. people have been using the sun on the stars to fall on their way around for thousands of years. i'm heading into the desert outside of doha. and i'm using the sat nav to help me. so in a sense i'm still looking to the sky to navigate. well now it's getting late and i think i'm really lost going to call someone to help me. is an utterly businessman in bed with with a deep knowledge of the desert in the bed with way of life. has always been a crucial skill for the bedouin. so as a bedouin how do you find your way around the desert so accurately.
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during the day. we know by the sun. this side or the side if it's in the middle sometime we get lost during the night we'll go by stuffs. you're familiar with oh yeah which is in the north yes it's always there and we have. names like. george. names they all arabic name. and we know their direction by a by that by the. bed when by by the way they have a very unusual sense of direction it's in their d.n.a. when i'm driving. i know if you just. said ali was not it was this not immediately.
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thank you. this one is navigation astronomy was also important for the measurements of time. for example the islamic calendar is a lunar calendar where the months are determined by the phases of the moon. during the golden age astronomers study the movements of the moon to predict the calendar more accurately the twelve months making up the islamic year shorter than the earth's orbit of the sun. months and religious observances like move from year to year. calendar as a short cut by eleven days and every thirty three years about. that will cycle for example. yes for example if i start for starts now in general which is in the middle of their winter after thirty three years it will come back again in general i. think these days even someone like me
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can pretend to be as knowledgeable about the night sky because i want to show you this i have in my tablet see it shows why. the night sky. and let me see if i can say that you have the. you know that's north . i thought they call it the north the thought well that's another name for it but it's it's. i don't need to know that i can hold that if i know the north star is there then we know you know the direction that i don't i should know my directions. this. allows me to scan the night sky and identify the stars and planets is the
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modern day equivalent of the ancient star known in arabic as is each now in the early ninth century the bastard kailash. the ruler of the powerful islamic empire was a man obsessed with scholarship and learning and he commissioned a group of astronomers to produce a museum now they already had the astronomical tables of the ancient greeks but they were tossed with improving on them correcting errors and making more accurate measurements they produced a new star chart they became known as. the verified table.
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i'm standing on the very edge. but i can look across asia on the other thought of the bosphorus. from the seventh century tireless people spread out of arabia to asia released all the way to spain in new york. but the caucus so much land they had to be great navigators. throughout antiquity maps were drawn by hand and relied on travelers accounts for example before the golden age the greek astronomer ptolemy had compiled lists of over eight thousand coordinates detailing the positions of oceans landmarks and cities in the ninth century the ruling khelifa of baghdad. commission to group of his scholars to make a new map of the world and to improve on ptolemy's data. at istanbul's museum of
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the history of science and technology in islam doctor didn't live quintillion is a scholar of ancient geography together we're looking at moon's map this map dates back to the reign of mahmoud and the first third of the ninth century the flora period of a replica islamic science and bugger that i guess what was different about is that they wanted to improve on on the greeks maps absolutely they measured the. after and of course the but that didn't even exist in the time. they had to i guess i had all these new cities medicare as well as well absolutely so there were a lot of more precise courtin. was from the very early years of the golden age here we have an example of a map several centuries later the culmination of of geography and empire it's
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a map of the world but it's not one that i recognise i don't see any countries that look perfect they should all it. warts oriented every cuz always on the top the top. so in fact so this is upside down it is upside down we're going to turn it recognize it yes that's better. ok so now i see arabia and the mediterranean so what was new or different about this man you can see the shape of the mediterranean shore and became more precise even north of the shape of the sea and it was this map then of course led on to advances in europe absolutely mental that was only a sort of an idea is. so how did the map makers of the golden age determine such detailed measurement used diverse tiles scientific instruments record an astral
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a. i've come to the museum of islamic art in our town where among their many artifacts they have a wonderful collection of astrally standing back almost a thousand years and i'm hoping that one of their curators dr nor can is going to tell me what's special about a couple of them. the lovely thing about astral legs nor is that before the invention of the telescope these devices were incredibly important how far back the astral apes go when were they first well adapted the story in say they go back to three hundred b.c. in greece and the word comes from the arabic a lot of love exactly originally from the greek to grasp the stars because actually what you have here is a handheld model of the sky. offered only a few functions but during the golden age astronomers developed more sophisticated astral apes this one is very very elaborate and it's multi-functional that's true
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it's in many ways will be the computers of the day and they basically served a number of purposes you can use it to find the time of day. day or night you could decide prayer times you could navigate you could measure the heights of buildings or distances there are all sorts you can see all of that with this disc because of course these are all moving parts is it possible to to take it apart yes and when we can a single map of the stars would only be correct for one location on the earth but these sophisticated astrally were designed to work in many places a later asteroid such as the seventeenth century astrid had a number of different plates engraved on both sides and each one could be used for a different city to tell the time to plot the motions of the stars or whatever it is that you needed your astraweb to do so wherever you were in the world you'd use
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the would have of the sky. with all its intricate markings and measurements to use an astral leg but you already needed a good working knowledge of astronomy so here we have five plates inside you then adjust this. so you put the right plates in position yes you take a measurement of a particular star. and then you and then you adjust the reach over the correct plate and that gives you a map of the sky where you are. asked . for astronomers in the golden age of modern astronomers have access to a vast array of instruments such as this the level radio telescope bank in the u.k. . during the golden age astronomers would come together from across the world to
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cooperate and that way of working is still imbedded in astronomy today stoneham is working with this telescope often collaborate with other telescopes and astronomers . internationally unlike a conventional telescope it doesn't capture light through a lens but rather uses a method that collects very weak radio signals from deep in space allowing us to map the universe in ever greater detail. now tim because the level telescope is a radio telescope theming the sky in a way that we can't see every day sees the invisible universe i've got a picture here of what the little telescope sees if we could see radio waves this is the way the sky would appear that's our milky way galaxy what we see in the picture is not the stars that we see with our eyes it's the stuff between the stars
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one of the really interesting things i think is look at planets around of the stars there's a picture here of young star in our galaxy. the stars at the center and then around it there is a disk of gas and dust but the interesting thing here of the dark circles we think that they're formed by planets that of that have formed inside the disk and as those planets circle around they sweep the gas of the dust and they leave behind these empty gaps it's amazing isn't it that we're not talking about planets going around our own sun system these are planets going around distant stars hundreds of light years away and many many thousands of these parts maybe billions in fact in our own milky way galaxy and you mentioned that image was taken by another telescope this is part of a larger collaboration to get these sort of sharp views we have to combine signals from many telescopes spread across the country and even across the planet itself so this shows us all the locations of the various radio telescopes across europe out
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into china down into south africa and we even with these telescopes with a russian spacecraft that's all but in the earth so weak so we end up making telescopes the size of the planet or even larger than the plot is there all contributing their own data so a single task will give you a poor. view by working together with these telescopes you know in these other countries we all joined forces to make this planet sized shows the detail this idea of scientists working collaboratively together particularly in astronomy is something that goes back a thousand years to the golden age it was in baghdad around the ninth century when we first start to see astronomers working in groups to solve big problems in astronomy something that the greeks didn't do something that only really emerged in the golden age and has survived so successfully to this day. one of the most important observatories of the golden age was called the
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observatory built in twelve fifty nine in persia for the greatest. when the mongols invaded they captured the mountain forth of a low mood well to see worked not only did he convince the mongol general hoar larkhall or helluva car to spare his life he convinced him to build him a new observatory in return promise to provide the general with his astrological chart so that he'd know what day to go to battle the rather observatory became the most important of its day and a great hub for international find to fit collaboration. of course what's great about the morale in the storm is that work there isn't the observations they made they didn't have telescopes but it's the mathematical tricks they developed that will be influential in astronomy for centuries to come and i want to show you something here so this is a diagram from two c's work people like to see when they're looking at trying to
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explain how the stars and planets moved they were trying to develop the math to make it sensible you know they were using the greek model which had got incredibly complicated of course. greeks believe the earth with centers or system in order to make the mathematical model fit the observations of the way in which the planets appear to move on the sky for all these ridiculously complicated features and into the model it got very very messy thurgood's within circles going around other circles and that's what that's where his genius comes in because this diagram that to see couple simplified a lot of that show you what's supposed to happen you see this small circle going around the big one if you trace a point on the perimeter it's moving up and down in a straight line and that's turned out to be a very useful trick that simplified a lot of that complicated math. but what's really fascinating compare this
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text written in arabic. with this one is an identical one but written in latin and what's fascinating is the letters labeling the points followed the arabic alphabet not the latin alphabet so. a b g d clearly whoever through this knew about two cs word and the truth a couple where the man who drew this was copernicus so this is copernicus who came up with the idea that rather than the earth being the center of the whole system it was the sun senator and all the planets including the earth revolved around revolved around it and that's the picture that we have today copernicus was and is regarded as the father of modern science because of this great revolution and yet what's so fascinating is that this was built on to she's idea this yes so it shows the continuity of science copernicus is this debt to these medieval astronomers from the golden eye most incredible.
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islam itself was a significant reason behind many of the early explorations in discoveries in astronomy during the golden age there was a need to know the accurate time for prayer the direction to face towards mecca and the depths of religious festivals according to the moon a calendar astronomical instruments like yesterday played a very important role in this. were in the early the load. was. one of the requirements of islam was to know which direction mecca was in order to face towards it during prayer now during the early days of the empire it wasn't so large
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and this wasn't a problem the scholars of the golden age were very. proficiency mapmaking but as the empire grew and stretched from india in the east all the way to spain and in the sea in the west it was much more of an issue because the scholars also knew that the earth wasn't flat now why does this matter well if you were a muslim in cordoba then facing towards mecca if you just looked at a flat map would involve pointing roughly southeast or on the globe it's different if i attach this string one end to cordoba and the other to mecca then you see the line actually takes you east to begin with and then curves down to the southeast so it's not at all obvious without understanding that the earth is a sphere this meant that these stores had to develop an area of mathematics called spherical geometry which was exceptionally advanced four thousand years ago. but to use the spherical geometry first needed to know the size of the year the
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ancient greeks had provided several estimates of this. their method was clever but crude it involved measuring the angle of the sun at a particular time of day and then walking in a straight line in a particular direction until that angle changed by one degree all they then needed to do was calculate how far they've need to walk for the angle to change by three hundred sixty degrees that would give them the circumference of the earth be early night century. moon wanted to improve on this estimate so he commanded a group of astronomers to repeat it however the method involved them trudging through the desert for over one hundred kilometers a method that was prone to error. two hundred years later in the eleventh century the persian astronomer rooney came up with a much easier and more accurate method of estimating the size of the earth but it
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did involve climbing a mountain that looked out. over the horizon. i'll be really was a prolific scholar who even debated about whether the earth was moving he explained how to work out the size of the earth in his book on the determination of the coordinates of cities first he measured the mountains heights elbow room he then had to climb to the top of the mountain and armed with an astral eight and a plumb line he then measured the angle of dip from the horizontal down to the distant horizon now this was just half a degree so he had to be incredibly precise but armed with this information he could then use a more clever geometry to calculate the circumference of the earth let me show you . imagine this circle. is the earth. and this
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is very rooney's mountain now looking across horizontally he measured the angle of the. horizon. this angle here now if you draw two lines one through the center of the earth from the mountain and the other from where the line touches the horizon you end up with a right angled triangle now knew the angle he measured is the same as this angle inside the armed with these two pieces of information the size of this angle and the height of the mountain he was able to use geometry to work out. the radius of the. multiplying this number. gives him the complete succumb friends he got to within one percent of the value we know today about forty thousand kilometers which is pretty remarkable.
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it's easy to think that astronomy went to sleep after the ancient greeks didn't wake up again until copernicus in the fifteenth century but developments in the stormy continued in spain the middle east and central asia throughout medieval times there were a nascent scientists of europe who created modern the strong army were building on the work of people like rooney and to see who in turn were building on the knowledge passed over to them from the earliest civilizations today in the twenty first century international teams of scientists are still looking to the stars and mapping the cosmos using ever larger telescopes but we must remember that they owe a huge debt of gratitude to those astronomers of the morongo observatory. the. next time we are cover how the scholars of the samak world mathematics science.
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we delve into the equations of flights and discover how the mathematicians of the golden age laid the foundations of algebra it's extraordinary that i made that step to the cubic equation. we see the role they played in the evolution of numbers themselves everywhere today we use this decimal system and we forget how difficult it was before it existed. and we reveal how their legacy has led to the mathematics behind the fastest car in the world. is the longest standing recorded history and up till this point nobody has proclaimed that's about to change we're going to go a lot faster. in the next episode of golden age i'll be exploring the contributions made by scholars
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during the medieval period in the field of mathematics. the term algebra can be traced back to the arabic word. we're going to zoom into the modern technology forty percent fall to the speed of sound they gave us the final building block find they discovered it medieval taunts. with. business updates brought to you by qatar airways going places together.
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business updates brought to you by qatar airways going places together i mean this is different not say whether someone is going for someone's favorite. trick i think it's how you approach an individual and if it is a certain way of doing it you can just buy story and find out. al jazeera.
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hello and welcome to this al-jazeera news hour live from doha i'm martine dennis coming up the next sixty minutes two women take an historic step inside one of hindu isn't holiest shrines after india's supremum court lifted a contentious back. we hope that the saudi arabian authorities will cooperate with us british politicians and lawyers all still visit detained saudi activists to investigate allegations they've been tortured. a message of peace with the threat of force xi jinping says the unification of china and taiwan must happen sooner rather than later. brazil's new president takes office with a fiery speech promising to rescue a country he says has been ruined by crime and corruption i'm joining with the sports world number one novak djokovic makes a winning start to the two thousand and nineteen tennis season at qatar right.
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but first defying religious hardliners but backed by india supreme court two women have entered one of hinduism is holiest shrines the pat in their forces went inside the sub ramallah temple in the early hours of the morning in the southern states of carola the women had police protection amid a backlash from conservative hindus the temple has long been closed to women of mensuration age that steam to be between ten and fifteen. that that was overturned by the supreme court in september. and on tuesday neal eons of women informed a six hundred twenty kilometer long human chain to demand equal rights for women and the women's wall was organized by carolers communists governments. and the raja who was one of the women who took part in the women's wall in kerala she's joining
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us live now from new delhi thank you very much indeed what exactly was the specific objective then as so many women turning out in a show of force in character. to be heir you know essentially the supreme court of india has given never heard big. in favor of the men and they're rejecting you need discrimination off the world peace based on sex and age gender and age and after that verdict in maggette or maggie be endowed as says sandy at that point to get back to the congress. after today's of this verdict and this dad dad dad besting against this very big actually against the government to get him out and that this was going on and based on baghdad to be many of you have decided to come together and assert
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that of course you should write me to end every day air gives us equal rights so i really am d.v. men of a more than five million v. men in getting a house come out this year dan davies said that there revive and. gender equality if it is there to know what a constitution right ok but the b j p or the in five prime minister modi himself says this is a this issue of spirituality of religion of religious beliefs of faith not of a the issue of a political or social rights. now. a bad happened. later to their type two and get. shy and bad day yes but dad but dave because of this being an end soon be out assess and be dead beat their prevent guard at out these three men and
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. morning they've had sex as fully. worshipping the buy in the temple and out that b.b. dippy how to start their day off from. dublin get and they are now protesting at every advantage and naming. names all five day different instead and that thanking their ministers separate but that they at preventing the same woman said of the ministers even in getting and i would also make mention one thing here is that yesterday our prime minister mrs matt ended i'm already way giving an interview to a. denny's he said that dab being. a noted diverted should be. being. martyred that studies needed. a name may actually even as
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a rejecting them joined it didn't word it just does of being god and i am i'm sure that that indeed be get beyond the r.s.s. people get into. a song and get as different this statement of the prime minister and dead they are now becoming more and more violent and then danny and dad both bus in still get fuel warts and some seats in getting that incoming general election in bottom and election i can i can i just seem to be the just really like to pin you down if possible do you believe that this is an issue of face of religion or is this an issue of politics and social rights. know i eat pizza clearly an issue all for politics and you look good in politics by am saying days after these two women ended being shy and dad in dad
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being a baby atmosphere didn't that get them pretty pretty minuses showpiece for the vote peter van dam n.b.c. men better ending bad beat not object dead not paris is better maybe peacefully silently allowing gays to be meant to go and watch it be fought about border are yet by so dead that dating stumbly keep peace for being sad but best is happening out take that down other parts of this state and that he said sadly that isn't by i am saying that this is politically motivated i didn't doubt of the date beyond doubt it says that coming election day want to have feel warts and a couple of seats down and get him out so far out there they are not that successful in that in short they are trying dead and this is that you will sing the lead in and lead disbelief and faint in the name of fate they didn't that did they can divide up people dead and been
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a few seeds dead chinese preeti and an elected and political agenda right. on the road thank you very much indeed for joining us live from new delhi thank you. though a train crash in denmark has killed at least six people it happened on the great belt bridge which links the central danish islands and zealand and friend the passenger train was heading towards the capital copenhagen when it was hit by the roof of a cargo train blown off by strong winds the bridges being close whilst authorities investigates. british politicians and international law is of also visit detained that to this in saudi arabia to investigate allegations that they're being tortured and denied legal representation rights groups say at least ten women were arrested in may including some who campaigned for the right to drive the group says seven men are also being held in connection with their human rights work crispin blunt
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who's a member of parliament says the murder of germans jamal khashoggi has added urgency to their dumond's the the tragedy it was obviously a total disaster for saudi arabia and it would seem that the responsible people who are responsible for the operation were also responsible for the detention of these saudi arabian women's rights activists at exactly the same time that saudi arabian women were getting the right to drive a major step for their own personal freedom and freedom from the so-called guardian lords in a way that was a was a huge step internationally and rightly paraded to such and then in parallel these people being locked up well we've been speaking also to drury dyke is a human rights campaign and he says recent events including the murder of khashoggi is putting pressure on saudi arabia's human rights position. the friends and allies
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of saudi arabia are taking the humorous situation in the country increasingly seriously and they're starting to take action and it would be in saudi arabia's interest to really to work with them and to engage with them to to advance the human rights situation in the country we have to work with the facts that are given to us that are that are evidence that the research shows in the research shows that the indeed the evidence indicates that that there are very serious human rights. i'm a geisha ins. in the country the the murder of samantha shoji in a stumble was a was a was a marker for white or white or catastrophes really to put a no no greater word on it in a spec to the detention of the of the women activists and indeed the women the men who support their cause there are credible allegations that these people have been
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have been tortured the people as crispin blunt said the evidence suggests that people involved in the murder of jim official g. are involved in the in the torture and ill treatment of the of the women and men's men men as well in the in the in in their situation somebody has to be done in this initiative is is a very clever clever one and one which we certainly welcome and netflix has pulled an episode of a comedy shame from it's changing seventeen saudi arabia after complaints from the kingdom's government. now blows my mind that it's not the killing of the washington post journalist for everyone to go oh no i guess he's really not a reformer or saudi arabia took issue with a program called patriot act because the host satirize the country and crown prince mohammed bin solomon over the killing of jamal khashoggi is also highly critical of the war in yemen calling on the u.s. to reassess its relationship with riyadh netflix has defended its decision saying
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it complied with a valid legal request chinese president xi jinping is not ruling out using military force against supporters of independence in taiwan and his first major speech addressing the cell frood island president she said taiwan's reunification with china is inevitable taiwan's leader rejected that statement and said beijing let's face the reality is dorset jabari with the latest. and you your speech with a familiar message. chinese president xi jinping has urged the people of taiwan to accept that it must and will be reunited with china in a speech on the fortieth anniversary of a key policy statement he reiterated beijing's call for peaceful unification. we are firmly against any plans to create two china or one china one taiwan or
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taiwan independence we've achieved a major victory in the fight against.

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