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tv   Inside Story 2019 Ep 36  Al Jazeera  February 6, 2019 2:32pm-3:02pm +03

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off its troops from afghanistan by april that's according to russian media as apparently happened during talks between taliban representatives and u.s. officials in cata last month venezuela's opposition is accusing the military of blocking a bridge on the border with colombia a shipment of aid is meant to be delivered after the self declared president one goh i do call for help as the country faces severe food and medicine shortages. is being wanted faces six months longer in a prison in bangkok while he fights extradition to bahrain. requested his arrest whilst on honeymoon in thailand with a five year old says he'll be tortured to be sent back to serve a ten year prison sentence for vandalism. says he fled bahrain to become a refugee in australia because of political repression ok you are right up to speed with all the top stories up next it's inside story a season. the
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wells highest lasers are melting scientists warn at least a third of them will be gone by the end of the century even if climate change is stopped now how badly will that disappearance hurt billions of asians who depend on them to survive this is the inside story. hello and welcome to the program. the highest mountains in the world other source
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of life for more than a billion people spread across asia the himalayan hindu kush be except contain vast amounts of ice locked in glaciers but scientists are warning that precious resource is disappearing at an alarming rate the hindu kush himalayas assessment report says a third of all glaciers could melt by the end of the century even if we meet most of the ambitious climate change targets that could threaten water supplies for two hundred fifty million people in eight countries the glaciers feed ten major river systems home to more than one and a half billion people they may soon struggle to meet their fresh water food and hydroelectric needs in more immediate fallouts could be catastrophic flooding as melting glaciers caused rivers to rise. the brunt of this looming environmental disaster is likely to be felt in the himalayan foothills in nepal
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from the capital kathmandu sabina schwester has more. i'm here in government to where scientists have come up with a deeply distressing report they are national center for integrative mountain development easy mode based here recently recent release a report where it wouldn't two hundred scientists came to the same conclusion at best one third of all glaciers of the hindu kush mountain region melted by the year twenty one hundred this is if the paris accord is kept and global temperatures increase just by one point five degrees celsius and carbon emissions are drastically reduced it's still missing means that in the mountains the temperature will increase by two point one degree centigrade if temperatures keep increasing more at the current rate goes up to two degrees half of the glaciers were melted by the year two of one hundred and if it goes up to four or five degree centigrade then two thirds now they the customer region ranges from afghanistan to myanmar is
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a thirty five hundred kilometer area and major rivers systems are fed by these glaciers from the ganges to the macall two hundred fifty million people live in those mountains and one point six billion people live downstream. if these people are going to be impacted by closer look out there. and droughts this region is also home to some of the poorest people in the world who live under two dollars a day their lives i'm going to be impacted the most severe stress or al-jazeera handed. over to our panel in kathmandu nepal by skype columbia sharma deputy director general of the international center for integrated bounty and development in new delhi india
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chandra bush and his deputy director for the center of science and environment india and in london. the former head of international climate at friends of the earth welcome to you or mr calabria are we talking here about the damage that is already done and an irreversible trend as far as the glaciers of the himalaya are concerned yes. already glaciers are retreating people are getting. dead we had only more floods but the danger is that we are not evil to address these issues there and the situation is going to be worse so that does that mean problem and this particular obligation which has come easy a comprehensive access meant who is gives us a very good idea of what is happening in this region. mr bush and how significant
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are the findings of the report. first of all extremely important report and i must congratulate mort for coming out with this important report us simply because there was always this controversy over the mollen glaciers whether they're shrinking or not whether they're gaining mass or not i think this report has conclusively proved that the glaciers have receded in the last thirty to forty years and that if we do not reduce global warming if we do not reduce emissions it's going to be drastic for our part of the world when steam really important report fills an important gap in knowledge and we have to take this report very seriously mr rahman i mean for for many years is time or talking about climate change was basically about glaciers in article antarctica talking about the political debate the climate dia's the
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particularly the learned about two thousand and fifteen deal but suddenly we have this impressive comprehensive foreign reports coming from above the himalaya taking people by surprise i mean what is the most important element you would retain from this particular report. well i think there are a number of very important aspects i mean first of all and you mentioned it does an important job because it shifts the debate for too long european policymakers have framed climate change primarily around either the ice melt in the arctic or around the small island when the reality of climate change and it impacts has that it will devastate the people of asia and africa and latin america much much more and we're already seeing that when we look around the world and what the impacts of killer floods and droughts are just one degree warming and the experience of people on the front line there so i think it brings home that reality also brings home the reality of the huge impacts of climate change and the reality of its impact now and
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the urgency of us to act i mean when we're talking about two billion people impacted by the melt of the globe. it begins to contextualize that when we talk about climate change it's not something that's in the abstract or in the future and it's having an impact now and of course the reality of climate change is it's great to see an equality the majority of the people that are going to be affected are the ones least responsible and the ones on living on less than two dollars a day so policymakers you know yes this is another alarm call and climate scientists have been making more and more alarm calls the key question is what is the political will to ireland when we think about the half the global emissions that are in the atmosphere at the moment have come in the last twenty five years when when governments already knew climate change was happening when they knew that they needed to act and now we're climate scientists of teller's we have less than a decade before the worst impacts and we get into into the tipping point of climate change the reality is of course very little action is actually on the table mr
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sharma a deputy director of the journal of the international center for integrated mountain development the organization which requests to report if you look at it you have different highlights glaciers which are receding potential for population displacement a new political and environmental reality that the world has to deal with which was your pick of the top priority for you. i think turkey the label that people give quite tricky but you know not only mountain but are also african yet large number of people downstream so does one of the locals irrigated in the word and the who bought it and all will create billion people are partially dependent on three hundred years from day basing that are actually originated in reverse artist from the amounted to
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a little context i think the first immediate action he needs to really see how it would be take care of people who live in the mountains and when i was in london then alternately he could help them and then. the relation between to people up in the mountains then downstream i mean as most did mr bush and i'm stickin here with a very technical aspect of the whole report before going into the potential solution to this whole problem so it basically says the following that even with all the measures the humanity of to think about the damage is already that what happens is that the glaciers receding because of the flow massive lakes are forming they will one day best their banks we would see massive flooding but at the latest stage of this whole climate change saga what happens is draft people with serve will with
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suffer and the people will have to leave their own areas i mean how serious is this whole thing are we talking about wages i was talking about billions affected that we're talking about something that could have a knock on effect or the globe. let me contextualize the kind of ecosystem we are talking about. of this is a semicircle extending from pakistan to afghanistan india china to outrun hill reasoning man month or so and about two billion people live in the say they are dependent on and they are dependent on either in terms of water or data staying in the sequel system this is also one of the most highly densely populated region of the world and has sustained civilizations for centuries now in the last forty years we have lost about ten to fifteen percent of the glaciers and there are already looking at impacts if you if you move into sadia you will see look at a stream drying up in the hilly reason also apart from the fact that the glaciers
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are deceiving the also extreme rainfall events in twenty thirteen for example in condit india this is so for divorced eating flood which killed thousands of people now those kind of things are also going to increase so on one hand we are going to see the duction in water over a long period of time but in the shutdown we could also have extreme rainfall event which is going to devolve straight to syria so this is a very serious implications because of climate change but there's other part because this report has talked about that is that is the kind of ecological destruction that is happening because of poor development policies the biodiversity is getting affected because of deforestation as well as you know in sensitive land use changes that is happening in malia's of this area is also highly polluted in terms of air pollution and as well as you know the kind of infrastructure project we are setting it up is also affecting the environment so we actually have
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a double whammy in this region i so we have global warming but we also have poor development policies which is affecting the environment i guess your points mr rahman when i first saw the report i said to myself oh god i think these countries need an immediate marshall plan what is it that would they should be doing in the short term to contain this huge crisis. i think you're absolutely right we do need a global marshall plan we need to recognize we're in a climate emergency and at the center of it we have to put people and we have to put their right to a dignified life so that means guaranteeing people the right to food to right to energy right to the bitter communities that give people the right to live a dignified life that we all want we also means that means transforming the way we produce and consume our energy so it means moving away from the fossil fuel extraction towards community owned renewable energy systems and it means fundamentally also protecting our food systems because at the moment we have
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a strange food system globally where we have an agribusiness model which heats the planet which means nearly a billion people don't have enough food to eat and yet we plow a third of all of that we grow into the ground again so we can fix that we can protect the kind of food systems that originate and that exist in that region in india and pakistan it's cetera which feed so many people in the world and of course absolutely agree with my colleague one of the things we can do is we can give local people lund right to protect them against these acts or this development and infrastructure development at the end of the heart of it we can't solve the climate crisis on till we also solve the economic crisis organ comic right is is we've got an economic model which is built on extracting wealth and extracting resources and so it's impossible to say or less solve the climate crisis without also recognizing this is an economic model that is failing people and climate. you know this is this
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is a political issue of the same time and a scientific issue but how can you how can these countries set aside some of their differences and reverting to the political tension between the pakistanis and the indians to be able to team up move forward and tackle the problem. i think that i'm very optimistic. and meeting all these meetings are countries and the operation that's been on topic i think we have today distinct from technical to the idea all of the level of discussion and be in the book is not going to be the end it's where you can walk behind somebody far in makers and not on the day it or do actually being developed strong that you bought and we are going to the country first and we plan back to make it twenty we would like to have a summit off the mountain mysterious and relevant minister in got man who can really see how we can make things awkward but meanwhile the order to start some of
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the action some of the solutions. can be the countries so our role is very much bringing the countries together look at a more reasonable if you will still most of the things which we are discussing is not going to name just one country although. i think this mountain region needs to work in the hindu kush you can gather the same work mr bush as some of the predictions of the report. a cataclysmic cataclysms of biblical proportions like the drought the bombing and the potential for some rivers to dry up like the gun geez how can countries that are poor having its own problems cope with something that requires as we know billions and billions of investments. so let me i want to answer the first question in
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a sense that i think this report also raises some important issue on national security of you know it talks about bad relations between india and pakistan but it also talks about the data information gap and data sharing that is absent between all these eight countries so i believe that one of the outcome of this report has to be that all these eight countries will have to sit together and develop a called a nation framework to share information shared data and develop a comprehensive plan no one country can individually tackle this issue so i have very strong i think one of the major policy outcome of this report is that countries who are in educate india and just good reason vill have to sit together and develop an intergovernmental you know coordination because they seem to tackle this this problem now coming back to the issue of how do we tackle this issue.
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one of the pandas very clearly said that we need an economic uncertified in modern mentor destruction. the people are not just cavies on are poorer than the rest of the area of we need to come out of it and development and economic development model which will make sure that these people are not dependent on environment in a way that destroys the environment ok we need to promote suster noble development practices including suster noble buddhism odd for instance getting ecosystem services out of this area they even have to develop an economic model that protects the ecosystem and a still brings people out of poverty in these areas we have a proper economic system and the evil it will be very difficult for us frankly with the kind of population that this reason to solve this crisis. mr rahman i mean if you look at the report he basically says that even if we try to meet some of the targets of the climate change a quarter of paris
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a thousand and fifteen when it comes to limiting the temperature to one point five degrees celsius and bring in the greenhouse gas emission to zero by two hundred two thousand and fifty the damage will still be done isn't this something that could lead many people to become very pursued mystic about any outcome that might come in the future. no i don't think it's a question of being pessimistic i think it's a question about being realistic thing for too long we talked about climate change in a very abstract where if it didn't really have these kind of impacts in a norm any climate scientists and policymakers have said well we don't want to scare people but i think the reality is we need to first tell the truth and then we need to have real policies that give people hope and i think the the irony of course is within climate change it is both it is one of the greatest injustices and in greatest inequality is that the people who are the least responsible for this crisis of the one that be most impacted but also within it is the possibility of
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having a vision of an economy and of a society and of regions which have better integrated fairer more equal safer and that's what my colleague just said it actually brings countries together to actually have to address this global problem but you have to be able to identify what the issues are and unfortunately the reality is as last year we heard from the international panel on climate scientists who said you know we we must stop a breach of the one point five degree guardrail we how we're in decades era but the reality is that our temperatures in terms of what governments are willing to make emissions reductions ahead into at least three point four degrees and even higher which are devastating impacts or we must be sore but we must be realistic but we must also give people the vision but the ultimate answer of course is do our do our politicians have the political will to act on the information in the evidence first place because what i want to speak of the portal at this moment they're not acting in our interests to speak of their particular political will does the sharma the
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whole report brings back the whole notion of whether climate change is only through . the genic which is manmade and as you know many politicians particularly the wise with the properties say that this is an idea there has been fermented by the left in the past to try to bring about a political agenda how do you think this could. is this something which is definitely going to create more problems for the pentecost himalaya countries to bring international awareness back to the issue of climate change i think it will. remain the solution for this speech in the classroom i mean you come in in my opinion i think it will have the countries to understand. it and contribute much but that the general development but also will there's a lot that's it and began to undergo globally in the corner next are the challenges we have to see so i strongly feel like the national origin is very much about their
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investment has to come this industry mind and region has been left along for a bit a long period of dying in spite of. you know what it is so investment is a big big case you i'm in this city didn't. need it best met mr so. go ahead go ahead griffin please. yeah so what it is strongly is that it is streams of. investment one is countries like china and you have would also have smaller countries in this region but also globally because i think this region is undergoing significant. business i mean that in my own head is my problem with this particular approach and ask you a question about one of the challenges which is the climate skeptics and this is going to be my question to mr bush and the second problem is that when you talk
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about benchmarks to meet particular when it comes to limiting the the temperature to one point five above pre-industrial era you're asking the well to abandon what it took for granted which is the fossil fuel dynamics the have been going on for quite some time and you're asking health from some of the most polluters on the globe like china so mr bush on what do you think should be the best formula to try to mend in ten sustainable economic development but at the same time tackle the issue of climate change. see all their suspect very clearly shows that vivid have to say fossil fuel good bye bye if not twenty fifty then by twenty sixty twenty seventy we will have to reduce fossil fuel consumption by eighty to ninety percent now i have not come across any assessment with say is that we can continue using fossil fuel and solve climate change that's not going to happen so i think the world has to start preparing for to avoid without fossil fuel and the the good
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part is that to renewable energy is now becoming very cost complicated in india today in india is solar power plant is competing with called base power plant in fact if you're building a new solar power plant in india it is cheaper than building a new coal fired plant i'm expecting in next twenty to thirty years if government policies are so. supportive you will find that fossil fuels will not be able to compete with new forms of energy who are going to solar wind geothermal odd any other renewable source of energy so if we are serious about one point five degrees and i believe we should be serious about one point five degrees otherwise lot of people are going to die ecosystems are going to get devoured stated then we have to see a slick think about a world where fossil fuel has minimal role and more so the energy supply is coming from non-fossil fuel the source mr raman elastomer thirty seconds do you think that
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with the response and in the reports one billion and a half people will be affected by this we might see the sentiment building up in favor for drastic actions to be taken immediately but i think the voice of people all around the world is increasingly being heard and demanding action on climate change demanding we move away from our fossil fuels we need to keep that in the ground and as i said the solutions are actually also solutions not only to the climate crisis but inequality by moving to renewable energy we cannot only solve the climate crisis but we can also bring energy to the one and a half billion people in the world who don't have access to energy so not only do we need to be saying no but we need to be saying yes a vision of a world that is better and increasingly people all around the world are demanding that and they're demanding that their patients act accordingly and don't act in the interest of these fossil fuel companies who we as taxpayers around the world giving ten million dollars and many to subsidize their pollution climate pollution there
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is it's madness and the reality of climate change of course is worse than we have a can imagine thank you thank. bush the columbia mo in on inside so he was definitely continue to shed light on this interesting issue. thank you for watching you can see the program again and it's time by visiting what site. dot com for further discussion go to our facebook page that's facebook dot call for what slash. you can also join the conversation on twitter. the whole team here liven up.
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february on al-jazeera we investigate the toxic legacy of south africa's mining industry and examine exactly what is hiding beneath it is toxic waste africa's modest democracy heads to the polls join us from live coverage nigeria books al-jazeera world showcase is the best of the networks documentaries with powerful untold stories from the middle east and north africa as cubans are set to vote on the possible changes to the constitution what impact will be outcome have on the country the world sunny day witness visits ghana and sweden where community polarized by mining towns questions the heritage february on al-jazeera. as venezuela is on the brink. with two men facing off for power.
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one of them self-proclaimed interim venezuelan leader one goh i don't. stew al jazeera. i'm richelle carey and for the top stories on al-jazeera u.s. president donald trump call for political unity in a state of the union address to congress and a wide ranging speech he told of public and some democrats they must try and force us to confront what he's telling a security crisis on the border with mexico also confirmed he will hold a second sam up with north korean leader kim jong un at the end of this month south korea and japan are welcoming the news but they want the meeting in vietnam to be and their words more meaningful specific and practical pride has more from the
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south korean capital. after their first historic meeting in singapore last june all now looks set for round two in vietnam it's a neutral choice acceptable to both sides it's also symbolically important as a former enemy of the us that now enjoys normalized relations and economic prosperity a possible path for north korea to follow since single pole negotiations have stalled but both leaders seem determined to meet again. much work remains to be done but my relationship with kim jong un is a good one german kim and i will meet again on february twenty seventh and twenty eighth in vietnam. negotiators from both sides have been meeting knowing the next summit will have to produce something of substance following criticism that single.

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