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tv   Inside Story 2019 Ep 165  Al Jazeera  June 14, 2019 8:32pm-9:01pm +03

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the maid is away so often the carbon sucked in the fans it's piped underground of the going house and turns into vegies. plants absorb carbon so the greenhouse but is the gas this fertilizer. since it started spraying crop production has increased by 10 percent. the quicker the process can turn a profit the more likely it is to spread round the world. even in frosty switzerland there's a real sense of urgency about limiting global warming. i came here for the mountains to climb to ski and in the alps you could see very early signs of climate change and of course closures are disappearing like we won't stop that if with and without climate change but the speed of disappearance is shocking .
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patrick hofstetter from the world wildlife fund took us out to see the disappearing place in. the alps a bore me more than twice as fast as the rest of europe over some of it was unprecedented drought. yeah that's really special for us to farmers don't know dissertation yet. the grass growing soon there is a shortage. they actually started to slaughter their cows much earlier. after this really dry summer i can feel a renewed sense of urgency especially also because to farmers now and to really accept that they are directly affected by it. 3 hours
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from superrich we come to what used to be the start of the giant mortar rochdale ac . to be thought to track at 100 think 3 years place that came. all the way to. all the way to the station area. since then it's retreated by 3 kilometers the other with factories and 600 metres of that in just the past decade. they're building this ancient place here is expected to disappear entirely within over time. so are all the places in switzerland recently protections shared by end of the century most of them build disappear completely on the few will remain in the very top of mountains . the changing climate is already pushing the economy. many ski fields are now bare until after christmas.
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this is a new situation we face in the last 10 years another couple a translator they have to do a lot of establishing to prepare or drive down here or slopes. even at higher altitudes ski resorts are laying giant insulation sheets over places to preserve snow. from may to october more or less they cover it like that and they remove it in october and start to ski again. covering glaciers with blankets trying to stop the building while it's actually just slowing down the process so it's not a solution it's just to fight the symptoms of climate change. mean. we have been doing to engineering now for many many decades in actually burning so much fossil fuel and altering. the climate by humankind that we have to look now in
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a similar scaling to solutions to the problem. as high as we are here some believe the real added to climate change is 20 kilometers up there and our next stop will be scientists who don't want to put blankets on places they want to blanket the atmosphere. in the hallowed halls of harvard university researches i'm looking at just how practical and dangerous geo engineering they say here we have one of the big pieces of test equipment that we use. in preparation for putting instruments into the stratosphere engineering professor frank is preparing for the 1st test mission later this year. ok and so when put instruments into the vacuum turn
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and then we can simulate the stratospheric pressure so you have a 20 kilometers. belt use a high altitude balloon to scatter the sun reflecting aerosols across the upper atmosphere. right now they're fine tuning equipment to measure the effect. without the spice race in a way it does on a much smaller scale. they fly up into the stratosphere high above us the white board theory is that tons of tiny sulfur particles delivered by specially modified planes would lower the earth's temperature would result in cooling the planet. it's what happened naturally in $991.00 after the philippines mount pinatubo volcano erupted. and this gas then reacts in the stratosphere with oxidants and turns into a soft your acid for the. a few years after mount pinatubo the temperature was
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noticeably lower and it cooled down the planet that was one effect but it got from what degree it was you know it was probably the range of about half a degree celsius. trouble is a quick fix like that could have dusty side effects and what was also apparent after mount pinatubo and other volcanic eruption is that these particles in the end reduce the amount of ozone in the stratosphere so you know we've been trying to do a lot to actually fix the boat on land and here you now have the idea of introducing something that could destroy it again. and it's not just those risks the bank this project controversial it's the fear held by many of the scientists themselves but just the suggestion of a magic bullet gives governments an excuse to keep pumping up a missions. so good you've been running the numbers on this i mean is it
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economically feasible part of the problem is just how much cheaper this geo engineering would be than switching to renewable see if anything it is too cheap economist durnovo there is the project's executive director it's so cheap that to be talking about single digit billions of dollars to potentially influence entire planet's climate now if i was running a fossil fuel corporation everything great this can solve the problem and we can keep digging up coal and frankly that's the problem right so i guess you might consider that to the vested interest mode in fact be very interested in something like this as you know yet another excuse not to cut c 2 emissions. very often compare stratospheric drink to pain killers this does not fix the problem right it does nothing about c o 2 1st of all. we're just reducing symptoms and then human nature can kick in and say well you know it's. hard to deal with
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changing the energy infrastructure which is very true it's a huge problem so in the end any decision will always have to be based on imperfect knowledge do you ever feel like this is playing god. it is there's a huge amount of hubris in this idea of saying wow oh we've caused a problem let's fix the problem and i know how to do this we're going to do this and we know exactly what's going to happen to the whole planet yes it has a lot of that is actually quite unsettling and quite frankly makes me quite anxious . these can provide us possibilities whatever geo engineering can achieve the i.p.c.c. says the most carbon intensive fuel should still be phased out by 2050 at our next stop we'll see how the industry is fighting back to the tools it's a mission to 40 percent. who said is a city built on carbon. last mining fossil fuels is as much
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a part of texan culture as raising cattle or boots good. but these days big energy is trying to sidestep demands to cut production. its response is a much touted technology to cut the carbon footprint. for today we're heading out to texas is the biggest pal plant it's a pioneer of what the industry likes to call clean call. this is paid for no. it's a coal fired generation with a $1000000000.00 absorption to our unit that last after the coal is burned be a missions of pumps through it and solvent collects much of the c o 2 before it hits the atmosphere. it's early days to get excited. the tower
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captures carbon from just one of the complexes 10 generating units. what's more it doesn't actually reduce emissions over all. the captured carbon is pumped in liquid form enjoy the oil field. they put c o 2 in an oil field and you get more oil right as company spokesman david knox explains it breaks up stubborn deposits so they can extract more oil fields. too has a tendency it bonds with oil and when it launched it makes it slippery or and when it's slippery or it comes off of the rock that last bit of oil in there but if you capturing c o 2 but to get more oil to actually increase the amount of c o 2 overall it was if we were increasing the amount of oil that's being used but we don't actually have any impact on the amount of oil it's being used the oil is the same amount being used we're just increasing the domestic production and we don't
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have to import as much oil from foreign countries. the industry is looking at other options like superheating. that still produces and they shouldn't without will still say it's. this unit said the small one in canada are the only ones that coal fired plants using carbon capture the personally. there is such a thing as clean coal but it is only that these 2 years. the economics are very challenging when will there be another one built i'm not good at predicting the future but we now know that we can build one on time on budget. the uncertainty hasn't stopped politicians insisting the industry is saying. we have ended the war on beautiful lean coal. even. some time consultant to begin a g.e.
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is skeptical clean coal has been a rush for very many years it would be wonderful if you could actually have all the benefits of the cheapest fossil fuel and cut the carbon emissions but it turns out it's fairly expensive to do on the on the coal fired power plant that is actually takes out some of the energy that you would otherwise produce so it has real cost and of course you also have to store it securely and there's been a lots of conversations about that we've not really seen it raw. and we certainly haven't seen it running cheaply so again it's one of the things that we should investigate but we're not ready to do it any time soon. back in copenhagen ordinary citizens continue to do their bit for the virus. dr lobel doubts his compadre it's whatever except the real cost of a bad thing fossil fuels. most people are not content to only be able to charge
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their phones or have have their t.v.'s running or indeed their operating theatres and in hospitals running when the sun is shining and when the sun is not shining the cost from solar panels is infinite and likewise with with wind turbines when the wind is not blowing. it's not true this idea that when the sun's not shining the wind's not blowing we're not getting that energy because when the sun is shining in the wind is blowing you can charge batteries and so the frontier is battery technology. no matter how fast the world switches to renewable energy the untested high risk of geo engineering could soon be a bonus. we don't get there by go you're trolling for better or for worse geo engineering is part of the mix going forward because we cannot get to where we need to be by conservation alone. it could be the last throw the dice
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to save the planet. after decades of governments ignoring dial warnings simply going green may not be cowed by. we're making no news per month offshore account thing taxes i was losing. more than
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10 years after the global financial crisis millions of dollars ago it's like the greatest job that you could ever imagine getting without putting any of your own capital with this who was in the eye of the storm and drove millions of workers into unemployment i said. we need to immediately find the interest in the men who stole the world coming soon in morocco unregistered and under-age marriages have cause problems especially for women and children i've been trying for years to get my daughter legally recognized by her father pressure from lobby groups has led to changes to the modelling of the family code giving women greater rights in marriage while keeping the family at heart now the divorce rate has increased a lot mainly with occupations made by wives. al-jazeera world. this is up to nikki to understand the very different way we're there if you don't
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leave. bottles in cameroons rivers. on. plastic everywhere. but if bottles can be fishing doubts. and bubble gum wellington boots what more can be done with this plague of polymers. earthrise reimagining plastic. on al-jazeera. i don't know how the top stories here on the united states is using a low resolution video as evidence of iranian involvement in an oil tanker attack but iran has dismissed it to sabotage diplomacy the japanese owner of one of the ships says his crew saw objects flying towards the back before an explosion
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stephanie teka has latest. what happened to the 2 tankers in the gulf of oman. depends on who you ask. in iranian t.v. video shows the norwegian own tanker altair on fire. and u.s. central command released this footage early on friday came in it shows iranian revolutionary guards removing an unexploded limpet mine from the japanese own cuckoo clock courageous the time stamp according to the americans shows it happened after the vessel's crew had been rescued nothing is clear but the message from the us administration is iran was behind it it is the assessment of the united states government that the islamic republic of iran is responsible for the attacks that occurred in the gulf of oman today. there's a sense of this based on intelligence the weapons used the level of expertise needed to execute the operation recent similar raining attacks on shipping and the
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fact that no proxy group operating in the area has the resources and proficiency to act with such a high degree of sophistication. in tokyo the breakdown from the japanese who owned the kuka courageous seems to shed some doubt on the american version of events the company official shows where what he calls a shot hit the tanker in 2 areas the head of the company gave more detail the holes and. the crew is saying that it was hit by flying object they're saying that something came to put a bomb on the side of the boat is something we are not considering iran has dismissed the u.s. accusations that it was behind the alleged attacks calling the incidence especially as its foreign minister accusing the americans of trying to sabotage diplomacy as the incident happened when the japanese prime minister shinzo abbott was into han on an official visit the japanese being far more cautious in refusing to jump to any conclusions. committing to it is true that we are closely cooperated with the
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united states and exchanging information but we're still collecting information so i would like to refrain from commenting carelessly. both tankers were hit early on thursday morning after passing through the strait of hormuz all crew members were safely evacuated both tankers suffered damage around the waterline but beyond that there are far more questions than answers a provocative and dangerous development in an already tense geo political environment stephanie decker al-jazeera. well iranian president hassan rouhani says u.s. is pushing an aggressive stance that cannot be tolerated as the government of the united states over the last 2 years is using economic and military capacity and is creating an aggressive approach the united states has stepped over all the norms and regulations of the international community and has created new threats for the region and the world a military spokesman for yemen's who theory group is warning civilians to stay away
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from airports in saudi arabia and the u.a.e. mohammed says radar systems have been targeted at saudi arabia's a port near the border with lebanon he added that he theo operations on airports military sites will continue as long as war in the evident go zone the hong kong and governments may be wavering in its support for a new global to allow extraditions to mainland china another mass demonstration on sunday his plan to stop the bill becoming law and advise a government leader kerry says legislates is should abandon discussions of the bill because of the level of opposition to it a london court has ruled that julian assange will face a 5 day hearing in february 2020 a whether he will be extradited to the united states or not we hear leaks founder appeared via video link from the london prison where he's serving a 50 week sentence for skipping. military join to meet his ensued on the admits they ordered the dispersal of the sits in protests in cult tune which led to the
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killing of dozens of demonstrators agenda spokesman expressed regret for the deaths of the protests. there today with headlines got more news here on out there right after the big picture. the world is slowly waking up to the growing impact of ai. this exhibition in london is all about our relationship to computer technology but ai remains in its infancy still struggling through glitches in the system yet we're handing more and more decisionmaking over to the algorithm. i'm corey kreider i'm a human rights lawyer i investigated a drone strike in yemen that killed my client faisal banally jobbers family what i
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found was a semi-automated targeting system used to describe who was and wasn't a threat but as the big picture showed previously on the world according to ai artificial intelligence isn't just used in military targeting but in everyday policing as well and this episode will delve deeper into the power potential and prejudice of ai as people seek to use it to shape our world. we're. one of the best established blind spots where the police have been seeking to use algorithmic material to accelerate and inform their practice is predictive policing so the way that it works is this let's
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say that you've got a historically over police community a community who are poor community of color the algorithm takes that data and basically turns around and says you went there before you probably want to go there again and so what everybody found and study after study has shown this is that it amplifies the next celebrate the process of over policing communities who are already over policed. in the united states the history of law enforcement has an unfortunate link to racism going right back to the era of slavery. in the 18th century groups of white men on horseback paddy rollers as they were would go out on patrol looking for in slave people who'd fled to freedom. if caught those who'd run away would be horrifically beaten mutilated or killed. the paddy rollers would be assigned an area to patrol. it was known as their beat. there is no
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question that policing in the us contacts certainly has grown out of slave catching so let's go back to their original origin's people who tried to escape and being enslaved were often hunted down and brought back into some type of system of control. when slavery was abolished the patty rollers would evolve into what became formalized police units and they didn't just abandon the road beats. just as before african-americans continue to bear the brunt of repressive police attention. with every crime recorded every stop and search every arrest every sentence a criminal history has been recorded data has been generated data that in the 21st
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century has been used to make predictions about the future of crime. we're now in the era of predictive policing. the got its start in los angeles with the l.a.p.d. around 201-2011 was actually the brainchild of an anthropologist and a mathematician brantingham and george miller were 2. sort of social scientists who are studying crime patterns and they realize that certain kinds of crimes are sort of viral they're most contagious in their way so if there's one burglary in an area it's actually statistically more likely that they'll be other burglaries in that area as they came up with an algorithm and they pitched this the l.a.p.d. and the l.a.p.d. would went with their 1st experiments to see if it worked and for them it worked enough that it began and it suddenly took off. the research that went into geoffrey browning and algorithm was for the most part funded by the pentagon. his
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initial work used military data to forecast insurgent attacks in places the u.s. had invaded such as iraq and afghanistan. but his focus shifted from battlefields abroad to supposedly enemies at home. he created a company called credible that uses data from us police departments to tell us police departments where to look for criminality. what happens is that when the vendors show these tools to the police the police say that's exactly what we were going to do. and sometimes we describe this as selection bias meets confirmation bias and they live happily ever after the idea that we use historical data to train machines and algorithm to predict into the future is very important so for example if you live in a community that has historically been over policed you are more likely to have
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your algorithms point right back to those communities that have been over policed if you have people who have been over arrested like african-americans and latinos and degenerates people then your ai is going to point to those people once you feed that data and say ok i see there's more crime here let me go find some more. well guess what you're going to find if you go look for more crime you are going to find more crime where you look for it and not where you don't look for it. but then they added in this extra element that every time there is a police contact you get an extra point. so in some ways they've created an almost self-fulfilling prophecy for the people because police are directed to go find the people with the most points then they go find the person who has most points and then the person gets extra points so tomorrow where they're going to go this guy's
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last report the consequence of that is that the database starts accumulating a lot higher fraction of all the crimes committed by black people than committed by white people so you turn algorithm loose on that it'll say wow black people are really dangerous but we can ignore white people. so what happens is that. the algorithm. calcifies or embodies the bias in the policing. i'm in i there for a really good summation and really going to be here. yeah let's go. on is one of the lead organizers of the stop l.a.p.d. spying coalition a collective that campaigns against what it believes to be growing police surveillance and criminalization of the local community in 2018 the coalition took
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the los angeles police department to court forcing it to release the details of its predictive policing program there's 2 layers to put it to police and.


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