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tv   Investigating E- Cigarettes  Al Jazeera  August 3, 2019 10:33pm-11:00pm +03

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following 2 fatal crashes and the palms to bowen decided to ground a brand new 7 through 7 max but this wasn't the 1st time that grounded a new crop back in 2013 when the 77 dreamliner ran into trouble when a basketball court file but is out of the u.s. investigative unit to scalability more to the problem than just smoking batteries. rewind broken during the boeing 787 on al-jazeera. this is techno a show about innovations that could change lives the science of fight fire we're going to explore the intersection of hardware and humanity and we're doing it the unique way. this is a show about science no not lies scientists tonight techno
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investigates. who ever bought this got way more than they bargained for yes they did it's everywhere in clubs street corners in cars they say it's safe and can help break the cigarette happen if i had to say what is more dangerous honestly it very well but what's really inside those pieces you never know what you're getting dr chrystal dilworth is a neuroscientist who specializes in nicotine studies she'll bring us the latest research what happens to your lungs when those metal particles go and see them read to davison is an environmental biologist and they're going to be around the corner they went through there really quickly we got them she's off the coast of california where drones are taking some incredible images of migrating whales as this technology becomes available to more people and we're going to see more research is using that until tor is an entomologist that's on. team know it's do
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some science. pages welcome to techno on phil tours joined by marie to day mission and dr crystal still worse no bigger and potentially more dangerous that's the bus we describe what's happening with the smoking alternatives known as the cigarette or vapor that's an industry that seems to really be exploding i mean you're seeing it everywhere and a part of me wonders if this might be because of some misinformation about maybe that's that's my sense in our daughter krystle dorothy you have your ph d. in the study so we've asked you to keep a tab on this there's a lot of academic research is being done on the safety of the use of these devices but it can't really keep up with a growing industry. i enjoyed the taste of it and the harmful effects of what smoking does call them
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vapors or foggers or competitive cloud chasers all are welcome at crystal vapor one of thousands of 8 shops across the country since techno 1st reported on the baking phenomenon in 2013 the industry has taken off like wildfire revenue is estimated to reach 3500000000 dollars this year doubling since 2013 according to a recent poll 10 percent of all american adults are baiting that's an estimated $20000000.00 people when it comes to kids well conventional tobacco smoking among them is dropping to record lows east cigarettes are a growing concern at the centers for disease control between 20132014 alone we saw a tripling in use among us high school students to the point where it was about 13.5 percent of u.s. high school students had used these products within the past 30 days from the early generation of cigarette lookalikes techno 1st reported on personal vaporizing devices known as mogs have gone high tech. things come
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a long way baby we've seen the shift move from pens and tanks at least culturally to what we call cloud devices from mechanical mobs to basically box mobs is what's going on right now it may sound confusing but the basic mechanics are pretty simple there's a battery powered out of my zip that heats up a liquid mixture known as juice entered into vapor which the user inhales. when we 1st met researcher i'm an equal humans should wrapped up a study that found harmful metal particulate in the vapor from earlier models of east cigarettes following the evolution of the industry she's updating her study so the original study we had looked at a card a miser style cigarette and we had detected high amounts of 10 present in the car demise are parts do you still finding heavy metal particulate in the paper we're still finding yes it's really scary because it's going into people's lungs what happens to your lungs when those metal particles go in and lation of metal especially things like 10 can cause stenosis and that could constrict the
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bronchioles and you know the airways in the lungs across the hall at u.c. riverside they're studying one of those compounds researcher a lot of it is focused on nicotine concentrations and refillable. in this case the solution tested is tennessee cured by red oak a fluid made by johnson creek enterprises and online seller of the liquids and accessories we order a bunch of them and just run most of them just at the accuracy of the label and in this case this is 18 micrograms per milliliter so this may be considered a high nicotine concentration so the test here is we'll see how much it's measuring from the speak and then we'll compare that to what's on the label and as you can see from our control it was a lot higher so we know for sure that it is nicotine and recent paper that we published we found out that this specific sample was 59 percent higher nicotine than it's advertise able to ever bought this way more than they bargained for and yes they did. tecno asked johnson creek enterprises about its nicotine labeling
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discrepancy they offer this statement between 20112012 there was a noticeable improvement in our manufacturing processes including in process controls and analytical methods for testing nicotine concentration with greater accuracy while the company's stated claims point to a step in the right direction the red oak sample that they manufactured with the 59 percent higher nicotine discrepancy was purchased for the u.c. riverside study online in february 2012 well within the range of johnson creek stated internal improvements in controls and accuracy but they're not alone currently u.c. riverside is evaluating a new batch of liquids from a variety of vendors and polyphony results continue to suggest large discrepancies in nicotine labeling throughout the industry just based on all the research that we've done you never know what you're getting it could be higher nicotine contribution it could be lower and although lower my sound better that's going to mean they need smoke more interesting what your buy is normally used to researchers
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are also concerned about the content of the hundreds of flavored liquids that fuel the number one seller is from animal this is a cereal fruit loops flavored with a little bit of milk. a lot of the flavors that are regarded as grass is generally regarded as safe that is a term that's given to flavor in products that can be ingested what's happening to these flavoring products when they're being aerosolized at these high temperatures and inhaled into the long you have chemical reactions that can break them down into a lot more toxic chemicals known as carbon compounds prime example being formaldehyde that's a very common when everyone's heard of formaldehyde and everyone should know the heart is good so in head to head comparison versus conventional cigarette which one do you think is healthier my opinion i think they're both dangerous i think the narrative that most people are missing is that the public health opponents to vapor have lumped invade. with the evil tobacco folks that they fought you know back in
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the eighty's in the ninety's and so they've decided that this is the exact same thing cynthia is the executive director for the smoke free alternative trade association called safira of aping lobby group we need to dispel the idea that these products paper products are the same as combusted tobacco products because they're not so we need to look at any time that anyone is using a vapor product they're not smoking and that's a win for everybody the z. cigarettes they don't contain the $7000.00 plus chemicals that conventional cigarettes have and that's always a plus but on the flip side i they do have their own set of compounds that you're being exposed to unfortunately we're going to have to wait for the long gemini studies but if i had to say what is more dangerous honestly i there to me they're equal the food and drug administration which regulates tobacco is still reviewing babying regulations travis padgett has been smoking since high school today to cut
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down on tobacco use it was it was just kind of sort of like a different you when you get to microbiology major at u.c. riverside travis is babying for science participating in a study that measures his intake puff duration volume and frequency when you get out of here you're going to have a science degree why not wait for science why now before we know if it's safe i mean it's either a vapor a smoke cigarettes and we already know cigarettes are about to roll the dice exactly it's a roll of the dice some. of the people that are choosing a thing over conventional cigarettes are choosing the unknown over the know and they know that conventional cigarettes and give them cancer there's a chance that it's better and so they're rolling the dice with that but they're still gambling with their own house and sometimes adults are making more informed decisions with and you know. well absolutely i mean adolescents there's still in a stage of brain development they're not as. capable as adults of making good
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decisions and their uniquely 5th up to bullet to addiction and usually we've got regulations in place that help protect for specifically those kind of cases but here it's so new you know you know the regulations aren't they haven't kept up obviously that's a major concern all of the regulations of protections that we have developed for tobacco products conventional cigarettes are not there when it comes to the things will go as fascinating topic and i'm sure crystal you'll keep us up to date on this but coming up next marie to understand you when we're watching i did i got to go whale watching using drones in the sky so a little bit like spying but it's a great way to observe whales that we normally would be able to see and we don't really disturb them at all. most times when you see images from a drone something is exploding usually devastation from the air these are the military drones in service around the world. closer to home in california they're also used for important peacetime missions like assisting firefighters by mapping out hot
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spots during raging wildfires. much has been reported about the use of drones especially when it comes to military applications drones may even become the delivery system for consumer goods but today off the coast of san simeon california researchers using drones like this one here behind me 1st spectacular use all in the name of science this is the peters walk of life station this is a very unique piece of property because it sticks out into the migratory corridor or of the northbound gray whale cows and calves a picture perfect location for researchers to fly a science drone to get an unprecedented bird's eye view of what swims below it but in the distance all right our. wall or the other for 22 years wayne perry man and a team from noah have been here from march until may counting and collecting data on gray whales micro. adding north from the breeding grounds of mexico to the
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arctic a trip of 6800 miles this point is kind of a focal point for them and we were able to see them very very well they passed often within 100 meters of the beach so it's a great place to count animals great whales swim close to land as protection against their main predator killer whales even so it takes a sharp eye and strong binoculars to spot the northern migration once they do it's go time for a one of a kind unmanned aircraft named mobley. to the rights to the right now move there and then i let the frame there at the keep on going out on hold of the service animal the frame good come down a little that i'm getting to the right as i'm underwater know a scientist and pilot john durban is tracking a mother and her calf from a distance of about 3 quarters of a mile out from where he stands john's wife and co researcher holly fernbach is
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under the towel that shades a control panel giving her a real time video feed that aids in guiding the flight so when they come up next i'm going to move out of them at taking out markel but the very right adds to be perfect so now it's split 2nd timing for john to remotely trigger the camera to take high definition photographs of the whales i'm going to be around the corner they went through there really quickly we got there we did well the yeah. this is really it so we have a flying a camera and we're trying to make inference about size and shape of whales by taking photographs of school photogrammetry so this is a camera and we want to get above the whales. mobley was built by dawn the boy at a cost of $25.00. $5000.00 it may look like
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a hobbyist stream project but in fact it's packed with many high tech systems to do science so it's called a house of cards or because it has 6 motors and 6 rotors if it's not being told what to do wants to see how we're going to be stable when we air. behind a finished in photos taken from the eye in the sky give scientists a better look at the overall health of the whales a female who has been eating a lot and she's fat her whip relative to her length will be different than a female who hasn't eaten very much so we can take just those 2 measurements and with those 2 we can get an index of condition index of fat miss for that female peri min says this season many of the northbound lactating female gray whales observed appeared more robust than in previous years data that is important for many reasons will health give scientists a snapshot of the balancing act between food sources natural predators even climate change we're getting to the point now where we really can talk about how climate
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change in the arctic is impacting this population now there's less ice and it's thinner there's more photosynthesis going on in the wintertime because like can penetrate and what we want to do is kind of understand that dynamic what's going on . recently john durban and the know it's team took mobley to canada to study killer whales taken from 100 feet above this video the 1st of its kind give scientists a clearer picture of the health of northern resident killer whales in these images the whale on the right appears robust and in good condition while the whale on the left is then and in poor health scientists believe this will later died because it was no longer spotted with its pod. killer whales are important because the competing with this fish would try to understand all the getting enough food as this technology. becomes available to more people
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we're going to see more research is using it safer researchers say for the animals i think it's a win win. from an emotional perspective just being able to see these incredibly beautiful species out in their natural environment we'd never be able to do that and we don't have to disturb them to see it in terms of the overarching story i mean a scientist you can collect data on 2 things what is and what's changing and it seems like this method allows them to collect data that's sort of speaking to both of those objectives they're studying what is now and when things change we'll know yeah and i mean that also speaks to the importance of having these long term datasets right because you have to be able to establish a baseline which i think they're doing very well you know with 22 years worth of data and now with the changes of climate change you know that that's a really powerful set a date it to to give us a sense of what's what's on the horizon.
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you are going to tell us about a unique to where you took a little unusual lab and to train your you know it's basically a lab full of trash and for invited us to check out the ways that they're making the auto industry a little bit greener so clearly a lot of environmental incentives here a player there you know obviously when you use recycled materials over new ones are going to be saving a little bit of money but they also found some new ways to solve some old problems using some very cool methods so saying look. it's taken over a century but today car manufacturers are getting into high gear when it comes to going green from hydrogen fuel cell cars to electric plug ins and hybrids mileage is going up and with the least 10 percent vehicles environmental impact the assembly process manufacturing is going green to. companies like toyota g.m. volkswagen ford and honda are all stepping up eco friendly methods with 0 where.
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factories diverting millions of pounds from landfills reusing water recycling sludge and going solar powered and it's not just assembly take forward 85 percent of its cars are renewable recyclable or compostable everything from recyclable aluminum bodies and engine parts to slowly foam seats in fabrics made from $5000000.00 was cycled plastic bottles and this is where the ideas percolate the materials research lab at ford headquarters in dearborn michigan what would you say is the craziest thing that you guys work with do you think those are the hook ups yeah so these are cigarette filters it's a cellulose yes a tape fiber and so we're looking at that fiber as a reinforcement for plastics debbie moleski start of the lab back in 2001 was soil foam oil was about $40.00 a barrel and so nobody saw a reason to use plant based materials even though there was an environmental
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improvement when we launched our soil base foams oil was about $150.00 a barrel and so suddenly what was a very poorly received idea was very well received instead of the petroleum base the foam and every seat in north america is made of michigan soil and now the lab is testing algae oil with its more global reach plastics researcher ellen lead gave techno the 1st public look at this newest experimental phone rang and how do you add in the search back then this one. and that's an x. like the egg and so plan everything together and then i'm going to have you had the following agent which in our case is water i'm going to mix this up. and then we'll see the phone start to react. oh. there it go it's bacon into a cake so you can see all the gas bubbles. already we use this to kind of evaluate
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our formulation how fast it comes out why is it important that this reacts fast how fast you can be made each part is really important for manufacturing because we want to be able to make things in a timely manner are we talking a matter of minutes per phone seat or seconds or less than that ford is aiming to make their plastics at least 20 percent bio based does actually making the plastic stronger yes it does. these parts are later in which they can show you one that is made from camp 1st class and it's about a 30 percent wheat reduction so if we continue to do this we will improve fuel economy as well ford says it's already diverted more than $30000000.00 pounds of plastic from north american landfills with materials as diverse as we grass coconut hair shredded jeans and millions of dollars of greenbacks a lot of people don't know as money isn't actually paper it's a blend of cotton and linen try to grind it down into a smaller fine and right research engineer just simply look curious showed me how
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would stun bullets crime some wanting to use a crime there's a shuttle that goes inside and using magnets it turns the magnets on and off and it will move the shuttle back and forth between the 2 metal ends smashed the money using liquid nitrogen around liquid nitrogen the liquid nitrogen all just cool the money down to a brittle so it's easy to smash turn on the machine. is on getting that. powder morning then it's melted in with plastic in formed into pellets you melt them down and then you form them into things like this right and this is a coin trick that is a coin to your money money back into your vehicle what is this tomato fibers these are actual skin leaves and stems from the tomato plants from hines's production they process millions of pounds of tomatoes every year. and they have
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a lot of left over why is this a good product for you guys to use we can use this to reinforce our plastics to make them stiffer but then at the same time reduce our impact the lab is in the very early stages of testing the tomato responsibilities you can samples bun melting and mixing plastic extruding it into pellets and molds for testing you would mention part of the test is actually the smell you know if they're driving a lot and they may not want to smell tomatoes because they might get angry. so what's your big end goal for all of us we all have kids and we want to make sure that there's a green nice planet for them with materials that they can continually replenish i don't want them to depend on petroleum as their only source of materials. sitting between you guys is of course $10000.00 worth of cash but unfortunately it is old cash shredded would normally go to the trash but in this case they're
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reusing it making trees and this idea of closing the materials you know going as much as we possibly can to words 0 waste and manufacturing it's not just lip service anymore it's happening and it makes total business sense i think it's so interesting that you make that trek across industry collaboration like high end catch up and ford motors that these aren't really 2 companies that i would think would work together in this way i mean i as a chemist i think a lot about it is a green chemistry in the queue want all of the by products of your chemical reactions to be used for their reactions and that's kind of like how i think about it but this is really created when your doctor crystal. that has been in the past not only catch up on car interactions when i spilled ketchup and my car been there from the california coast all the way over to detroit we've covered a lot of ground today guys and some pretty interesting topics so thanks for that level up more for you next time on techno see that dive deep into these stories and go behind the scenes with al-jazeera dot com slash techno follow our expert
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contributors on twitter facebook instagram google plus and more. hello they're fairly quiet picture across much of the middle east the winds are a little bit brisk it's pushing its way across the areas of jordan down across iraq and on down tools q $845.00 celsius the high few kuwait city on sunday 43 in baghdad we could see some showers just. but they could actually push into
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little bit cooler on monday they call it a $28.00 degrees but pretty feeling it fresh in the wake of those showers and 30 celsius and be rouged on monday then we had it. also make his presence felt in 2. and it will be fairly breezy still very hot and humid as well what you'll see here on sunday is really no sign of any cloud along these coastal areas of yemen but we could have more cloud in the 4 calls as we head into monday. but certainly a mix of cloud and sunshine but a very nice 32 in muscat than we had down into southern africa some good and welcome rain is on its way not just a case. by the. into a warm day on sunday with 23 degrees 16 in cape and we could also see some showers into the north 22 in.
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countering the cost this week we're on patrol off the coast of west africa as nations deployed naval forces to account for the scourge of piracy. off the 6 years of treading water gold prices are on the rise plus power cuts it's. counting the cost. al-jazeera where ever you. through a shared passion for elephant conservation colleagues have become friends but with civil war descending they must now protect themselves escaping deep into the rain forest back to the west and. for the elephants surviving the poachers is
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a lifelong challenge to last a rebel militia and a from a witness documentary on al-jazeera. and in london the top stories on al-jazeera we begin with breaking news reports that multiple people have been killed during a shooting inside a shopping center it happened in the mall and el paso in texas police say at the moment one suspect is in custody if you can be clear this thing is fluid and dynamic as of right now we don't think there's multiple but that could change the reports were there was at this time we have one person in custody we were.


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